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The San Francisco call. [volume] (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, June 02, 1895, Image 24

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24
ACROSS THE GLACIERS AND BENEATH THE PALMS
DOWN THE FROZEN YUKON.
A Dog=Sledge Journey of Nearly Four
Thousand Miles.
SEATTLE, May 29.— A dog-sledge trip of
4000 miles down the vast extent of the
frozen Yukon is the feat just accomplished
by Guy C. Merrian, a United States cus
toms inspector for Alaska. It surpasses
the undertaking of Lord Lonsdale a few
years ago, and fitly compares with the
famous journey of Lieutenant Fred
Schwatka in his search for the remains of
Sir John Franklin ana his men. Schwatka
was absent from .1878 to 1880, and made a
sledge journey of 3251 statute miles, while
Merrian has far passed that mark and
broken the midwinter record for travel in
the frigid re_'ion of the pole. In point of
hardship and demand for intrepidity his
trip parallels the explorations of Living
stone and Stanley in the heart of Africa.
Passengers from Sitka to Juneau on the
last voyage of the steamer City of Topeka
were insensibly attracted to a tall, athletic,
distinguished looking gentleman, who was
a fellow passenger to Juneau. From his
quiet and unassuming manners one would
little have suspected him of being the hero
of the journey as remarkable for its extent
as for the scope of the territory covered,
the modes of conveyance used, the season
of the year it was accomplished and the
fortunate absence of any accidents of con
sequence to either the hardy voyageur or
nis guides.
When Mr. Merrian reached Juneau, he
at first modestly declined to be inter
viewed, but finally told his story. At
Sitka about a year and a half ago he was
appointed Inspector of Customs at TJna
laska, and last summer was transferred to
the District of the Yukon. He immedi
ately set out for his territory, traveling by
schooner through Bering Sea to St.
Michaels, and thence up the river on the
P. B. Weare. upon which boat he re
mained the greater part of the season.
The account of his travels from Fort
Cudahv to Kodiak is best told in his own
words:
"I received instructions from the Govern
ment to make a report on the various sta
tions, villages and missions located on the
Yukon from Fort Cudahy to its mouth ;
thence following the coast line as close as
practicable from St. Michaels around the
Kodiak Island. The last boat to ascend
the river in the fall having made its trip
and returned to winter quarters, I left
Fort Cudahy on October 3, in an open boat
with the Indians as guides and interpreters.
At Circle City, the outfitting point for the
Birch Creek diggings, and 200 miles below
Fort Cudahy, the first stop was made. I
remained there several days replenishing
our larder and taking some much-needed
rest. There are fully 200 miners wintering
at this point, and all have claims on Birch
Creek or its tributaries.
"It is remarkable the erroneous idea the
great majority of the outside world has
of the tremendous extent of the valleys of
the Yukon and its tributaries. While
traveling up and down the river on the P.
B. Weare I have frequently passed hun
dreds of nameless streams flowing into the
river. They are not down upon any chart,
have never had a place upon a map, and
their size and extent neither the captain
nor even the natives knew anything about,
and upon the gravel of their "shores a pick
had never been struck. Hundreds of
thousands of men could be located in the
Yukon country and yet be lost to each
other.
"Setting forth in our canoe at Circle City
no other stop was made until the mouth of
the Tanana was reached, excepting the
Minuka Creek, at which point we spent a
day. Nearing the Tanana the weather be
came much colder, and by the time we
reached there the river had'closed and we
had to abandon the canoe. After a few
days' rest I secured two dog teams of six
animals each, and with mv two guides set
out for St. Michaels, 1000 miles distant down
the river. The traveling on the ice near
the shore was splendid, the ice being
smooth, almost glare, and we sped along
at a great rate, making fifty and sixty
miles a day several times during the jour
ney. The ice gorged and the river closed
up completely October 20. Frequent stops
were made while en route down the river,
and it wasjnoticed particularly that the na
tives were all in good health and had plenty
of food. St. Michaels was reached Novem
ber 28, thirty-eight days from the Tanana.
Neither myself nor my guides suffered
from the cold, being warmly clad from
head to foot in fur clothing. "The weather
was clear and dry, not a breath of air stir
ring during the entire trip, the thermome
ter averaging about fifteen degrees below
zero.
"I remained at St. Michaels two months,
during which time frequent trips were
made to the interior, and at one time I got
as far north as the head of Norton Bay.
On January 27, the latter half of my jour
ney from St. Michaels to Kodiak was be
gun. The trip down the Yukon was de
void of anything but merely a passing in
terest, and was attended with little or no
danger whatever, but the journey overland
to Kodiak, a distance of nearly 2000 miles
was quite different, and it was with some
apprehension that I made the start. There
were no trails or streams to follow; native
villages were few and far between, and
traveling had to be done entirely by com-
Eass and the general lay of the land. I
ad secured at bt. Michaels a splendid dog
team and also the services of two Indian
guides. We followed the shore line of
Bering Sea from St. Michaels to the mouth
of the lukon, then ascended the river a
distance of 500 miles to Kozerfski, at the
mouth of Shageluk Creek, where the Holy
Cross mission of the Russian church is lo
cated. At this point I secured new guides
and started overland across the divide to
the Kuskokwim River.
"After what seemed an interminable
length of time, during which period bitter
cold weather, followed by blinding snow
storms, was encountered, our party of
three people struggled into the Moravian
mission, near the mouth of the Kuskokwim
I found there a settlement which is a mar
vel, and certainly worthy of more than
passing note. Ten years ago a missionary
and bis wife, who had been sent out by the
Moravian church at Bethlehem, Pa were
put ashore on the beach at Kuskokwim
Bay. They had come from San Francisco
by a whaling schooner, and when their
ecanty store of supplies and a little lumber
were landed, and the schooner had con
tinued its journey to the far north, they
were left as utterly and absolutely alone in
a strange land and among strange people
as if they had suddenly been transported
to another planet. From that day to this
they have neither left their adopted home.
The man is J. W. Kilbuck, who has since
become famous, and whose name is known
throughout the breadth of the land. He is
a full-blooded Delaware Indian, and is a
man of exceptional ability and attain
ments.
"He is a very fine linguist, and after
years of study and research has at last
made a grammar and dictionary of the
Mamalook language as used by the Esqui
maux. His work and what he has accom
plished are simply wonderful, and when
one considers his years of labor and self
den ial it is but little wonder that the
natives hold him in veneration. There is
at present connected with the mission be
sides Mr. Kilbuck and his wife a trained
nurse by the name of Miss King, Miss
Mack, a schoolteacher, and Mr. Heilmack,
who is a machinist and engineer and who
Two Interesting Sketches of Travel,
is putting up a sawmill for the mission.
It is by far the best, most successful and
most liberally managed mission in all
Alaska, and is supported entirely by the
Moravian church. A week was spent in
enjoying Mr. Kilbuck's hospitality, and
with fresh dogs and Indian guides fur
nished by the mission, a start was made
across the country to the head of the
Alaska peninsula.
"Before leaving the mission I learned
that considerable prospecting had been
done on the Kuskokwim, with every indi
cation of some licfa placers being opened
up in that section this season. The Kos
kokwim is quite a large river and there is
no reason wny as good diggings should
not be found along its banks and upon its
tritutark-s as on the Yukon. It is practi
cally an unknown country, but with the
advent of the thousands of prospectors
now flocking to the interior it is safe to
say it will not long remain unknown.
'•Leaving the mission, our course lay in
a northeasterly direction. We proceeded
up the river a distance of what I estimated
to be about 150 miles, where we left the
stream and turned due east. A vast and
almost impenetrable forest of spruce was
encountered, through which traveling
with dog team was not only slow but ex
tremely difficult. The higher the altitude
the slower became our progress, and fre
quently but a few miles a day could be
made on account of windfalls and huge
slides. It being midwinter, the days were
very short and we had but five hours of
daylight. Passing above the timber line
tne cold became intense. I had no ther
mometer with me. but I judge it must
have been 40 or 50 degrees below zero.
"Our faces were badly frozen several
times, and at nights, having no wood with
which to make fires, we would have to bur
row into a snowbank, and with the dogs at
our feet and lying about us, we would man
age to keep passably warm. As we neared
the summit huge icefields were crossed,
and canyons and crevasses were encoun
tered which seemed to have no bottom,
and whose sides were absolutely perpen
dicular. By the time the divide was
crossed and "a chain of lakes on the oppo
site side was reached, my supply of food
had become nearly exhausted and neces
sity compelled me to resort to the native
food. Did you ever eat frozen, raw seal
meat? No? Well, its flavor is not exactly
i like that of pate de foi gras, I assure you,
but to a famished stomach it is iiiuch
preferable to either whale or seal blubber,
or to a steady diet of snowball pudding.
"Traveling uppn the smaller chain of
lakes, which run into and terminate in Lake
Tikchik, was much easier, and thence
down the Tikchik River to the Nushagah,
then down the latter river to its mouth,
comparatively rapid progress was made, i
Near the point where the Nushagah River I
puts into an arm of Bristol Bay is a can- I
nery. It was deserted save by a watchman, I
who heartily welcomed me. " I was the first \
white man he had seen since the close of I
tne canning and shipping season last fall, i
Two days were spent here, during which
I secured new docs and other guides, who
were better acquainted with the route j
which lay before me. From the Nushagah |
we proceeded overland to the Kvicnak
River, thence up that stream to Lake
Iliamna.
"Here it was learned from some natives
that it would be impossible to cross the
straits from that point in a bidarka on ac
count of floating ice. At the village of
Iliamna, near the head of the lake, another
change of dogs and guides was made. The
very heaviest teams procurable were gotten
and a start was made for the settlement
called Katmai on Shelikoff Straits. The
nature of the shore line rendered land
travel near the water an absolute impos
sibility, it being studded with mouniain
like glaciers, impassable canyons and
streams that fairly stood upon end in their
mad race for the sea. These were avoided
by following as closely as possible the sum
mit of the range of mountains which lie
along the coast. Reaching Katmai a
three-hatch bidarka was secured, and with
two natives I attempted to cross the straits.
Stormy weather set in, and we were com
pelled to turn back. We waited eight days
for favorable weather, and during that time
skirted the coast as far north as Cape
Douglas.
"On the ninth day out from Katmai a
second attempt was made to cross the
straits, this time our efforts being crowned
with success and landing our bidarka on
Afognak Island. At Afognak I took the
schooner Lettie and landed at Kodiak
April 6. I had been gone four months on
the way, and had traveled, as closely as I
could compute it, about 3800 miles, a great
deal of the distance being over a section of
country which I am positive had never be
fore been trodden by man.
"At Kodiak I found great excitement ex
isting over the Cooks Inlet country.
Nearly eighty miners are there waiting to
be taken to the new discoveries in that
section upon the first boat. Most of them
will prospect on Turn- Again Arm, about
350 miles from Kodiak. I came from the
latter place on the mail steamer Dora to
Sitka, and thence to Juneau. lam thank
ful, indeed, once more to be in civilization
and among those friends whom I hold so
dear."
Mr. Merrian may well feel proud of
having achieved an undertaking the like
of which would have appalled som* of the
bravest of the world's explorers. Lord
Lonsdale's journey a few years ago was
somewhat similar to that of Mr. Merrian,
except that it was over a much easier
territory and was attended with compara
tively little danger and almost no hard
ship. His route Jay north from Winnipeg
to Hudson Bay, thence to the Mackenzie
River and on down to the Arctic Ocean.
His lordsbip had a small army of retainers
and bearers and traveled about ac com
fortably as he could have done over the
Western prairies.
The trip from St. Michaels overland to
Kodiak in midwinter iB hazardous in the
extreme. One must necessarily walk
every step of the way in order to break
trails for the dogs, and with the mercury
hovering around 50 and 60 degrees
below zero, no fuel with which to build
fires, frozen food to eat and nothing to be
seen but an illimitable expanse of barren
and snowcapped icefields, an indomitable
pluck, an iron will and a heart that will
flinch at nothing are the essential quali
ties of the intrepid traveler who will un
dertake such a journey.
A Word in the Colonel's Ear.
The following story is told of the Forty
eighth Georgia Regiment:
As the regiment was on the march to
Gettysburg some of the soldiers stepped
out of the ranks and confiscated a couple
of geese, and one of the drummers un
headed his drum and put the captured
birds in it.
Shortly afterward the colonel came
along, and, noticing that the drummer
failed to give his usual drum whacks, rode
up and said :
"Why don't you beat that drum?"
"Colonel," said the startled man, "I
want to speak to you."
Th e colonel drew close to him and said:
"\\ ell, what have you to say ?"
The drummer whispered:
"Colonel, I've got"a couple of geese in
The colonel straightened up and said:
vV ell, if }-ou are sick you needn't play,"
and then rode on.
That night the colonel had roast goose
for supper.— Atlanta Constitution.
THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, SUNDAY, JUNE 2, 1895.
ARE NO LONGER CANNIBALS.
The Natives of the Fiji Islands as Seen by a
Chicagoan.
SUVA, Fiji Islands, April 4.— lt de
pends entirely upon the nature of the per
son whether a lengthy visit to the Fiji
Islands would prove agreeable and inter
esting or the reverse. Any one desirous of
enjoying the luxuries and comforts of
travel and unwilling to put up with the
hardships and difficulties should decidedly
seek other localities. The European set
tlements of Suva and Levuka offer no in
ducements, either from the standpoint of
pleasure or instruction, which would war
rant more than a mere passing glimpse.
Native life can only be seen in its worst
state, and the white portion of the commu
nity certainly offers no attractions. With
the exception of a very few miles of paved
streets in the two towns no roads exist in
the group fit even for horseback riding.
An interisland steamer plies regularly
back and forth between the various isl
ands, stopping in at different stations and
plantations located along the coast lines
for produce and freight. An opportunity
is thus afforded to get an exterior view of
a portion of the group, but the accommo
dations for passengers are very limited and
inferior. A small steam tug thrice weekly
leaves Suva for a short trip up the Reua,
the largest river in Fiji, but even then
one is confined purely to sights of sugar
plantations and scattered white settle
ments. Cutters can always be chartered
for long or short cruises, but the absolute
lack of country inns throws the stranger
upon the hospitality of the natives where
none of the conveniences of civilization
can ever be found.
Even in Suva and Levuka the hotels are
not good, the cuisine being especially poor.
Meats, vegetables and all delicacies are im
ported, no effort being made to procure
home products, either because of the gen
eral apathy which seems to exist univer
sally or indifference.
On the other hand, any one willing to
rough it in the strictest" sense can find in
the Fiji Islands a glorious opportunity to
make beautiful excursions where the cus
toms of a novel and curious people can be
studied to good advantage and scenery of
unsurpassed grandeur can be seen. The
accomplishment of such results ne
cessitates much privation, actual la
bor and great personal discomfort. Many
miles must be traversed on foot across
steep and rugged mountain ranges, over
footpaths so narrow, rough and slippery
that every muscle in the body is taxed to
the utmost limit. Voyages lasting from
early mornine to the duslc of evening must
be made in canoes so frail and insecure
that a clumsy movement means immediate
capsizing. The cramped position thus ex
perienced for hours become most fatiguing
to the novice. Rivers, streams and
brooks must be crossed continuously
either by wading or swimming, frequently
strong currents making the passage
almost perilous. The road often re
solves itself into these very watercourses,
which must be followed with broken inter
vals for long stretches. A fierce, pitiless
sun at all times and a perfect deluge of
tropical rain to a greater or less extent
must be endured and accepted as a matter
of course.
At night sleep has to be secured in grass
huts with beds composed of woven straw
mats spread on the floor and the native
bamboo headrests used for pillows, with a
lot of half-naked, brown-skinned savages
for companions. Unless anxious to ado a
troublesome bure'en to necessary impedi
ments in the way of tinned meats and
hardtack, the traveler must content him
self with yams, dates, fruits and an occa
sional fowl for food.
In no other manner can the aboriginal
life be viewed, and all attempts in other
directions will prove useless and end in dis
appointment.
The Fiji Islands have been associated
with cannibalism for so many years that
the very words have practically become
synonymous. When first cast into the
midst of the bushy-headed inhabitants, the
fact that Great Britain now rules the group
with an iron hand is temporarily for
gotten, while a sensation almost of awe is
felt.
Our first view of the archipelago was ob
tained from the steamer. Two tiny coral
reefs with typical white sandy beach and
heavy clumps of cocoanut "palms were
passed at sunrise. On one of these a new
lighthouse is now in the course of erection
to take the place of the one completely de
molished by the recent hurricane. Dur
ing the day we sailed among the islands
many of large size, all very green and usu
ally mountainous. The same volcanic
origin so plainly indicated in Hawaii could
be discerned, but the outlines were much
less severe in character and the general
effect far softer.
Navigation through the many channels,
owing to the numerous shoals and sub
merged reefs, is very intricate and danger
ous. Viti Levu, the largest of the group,
from which the name is derived (Fiji being
a mispronounciation of the word), came
into full view in the afternoon. The top
most crags and peaks, although not over
4000 feet in height, were enveloped in a
veil of clouds. It was dusk when the reef
encircled basin on which Suva is situated
was entered, the voyage from the eastern
most to the westward portions of the isl
ands, a distance of 150 miles, having con
sumed fourteen hours.
Just as the sun sank behind the hills
our ftrst close view of the famous man
eater was obtained. The picture was one
not easily forgotten. On one side ex
tended the dark-ereen mountain slopes,
cut with innumerable ravines and preci
pices, gorges with a frintre of tufted palms
skirting the waters edge; the sea of most
delicate view stretched away on the other
side, a long line of white breakers lashing
over the coral reef in the distance; over
head the skies formed a canopy tropically
soft and beautiful, every bank of clouds
forming a distinct and individual tint,
graduating from the most brilliant scarlet
to the daintiest purple, pink, yellow and
golden.
As darkness soon followed the lights of
the town began sparkling and glistening
like so many fireflies.
Suva proved to be a most matter-of-fact,
unromantic and commonplace little spot.
The total population of 3500 seems to be
divided rather equally between imported
Hindoos, Europeans, natives and other
Polynesians. The East Indians, as a rule,
are such as having served through their five
years' indenture, have taken off small
homesteads and become the gardeners and
farmers of the community, storekeepers on
a limited scale, or house servants. The
islanders generally confine themselves to
labor in and around the docks or as fisher
men. A large portion of the native Dopu
lation are members of the police and con
stabulary departments, while a still greater
number apparently have no occupation
whatever. Cninamen are extremely scarce,
even that frugal, thrifty race finding no
room for competition with the Hindoo.
Practically all business is in the hands of
Europeans, who eke out a miserable exist
ence, with most unsatisfactory financial re
sults. Absolutely no aggressive spirit pre
vails. On every hand can be seen the
marks of lethargy, apathy and lack of en
terprise and energy. The settlers throw
the blame of this unfortunate state of
affairs upon the Government, which, it is
claimed, is trying to build up the colony
as a black man's country, regarding and
treating white people as a necessary nui
sance.
The selection of Suva as the site for the
capital was bad. Much of the land is new
made, necessitating the erection of a sea
wall as a protection against the tides. The
western expanse prevents the benefit of the
trade winds being felt, and the humid at
mosphere makes the heat at times almost
unbearable. During the wet season the
rainfall is incessant and heavy, and as the
soil does not immediately absorb moisture
like in Honolulu, dampness much of the
year is prevalent.
The majority of the commercial houses
line one side of Victoria promenade, which
faces the sea and is the principal thorough
fare. The town covers quite an extensive
area, dwellings being scattered about in all
directions upon the slight elevations in the
rear and aiong the waterfront. Public, busi
ness and private edifices and buildings are
of frame construction, with roofs occasion
ally of shingle, but in most instances of
corrugated iron. The water supply, brought
from a long distance at much expense, is
excellent, but beyond this luxuries cease.
In addition to three or four steamship
agencies, half a dozen firms of commission
dealers, and scarcely a score of general or
special mercantile establishmenfs, the me
tropolis of Fiji boasts of three hotels, a
Custom-house, postoffice, Government
building, a library and one semi-weekly
publication, the Times. Seven steamers
call regularly at the port each month
bound on cruises between the various col
onies. Other Bteamers occasionally, and
trading schooners at frequent intervals,
also make short trips.
Levuka, which until fourteen years ago
was the capital and most important town,
is in every way preferable to its modern
rival. The natural surroundings are very
attractive, low, undulating hills arising
almost directly from the seashore, covered
with a mass of tropical verdure. Delight
ful breezes are always blowing, the climate
being dry and salubrious. The Island of
Ovalan is small and offers several very
pretty excursions. Although the oldest
of ail European settlements, the same lack
of roads found everywhere exists here.
The whole population of Levuka is largely
made up of Germans, who carry on a
modest but thriving trade with other Paci
fic islands.
The hurricane of January was felt to a
greater extent here than elsewhere. Abun
dant traces of the ferocity of the gale have
been left behind. Dismasted ships, run
high and dry upon the reef, withered
cocoanut palms, ruined piers and frame
structures nearly collapsed tell the tale.
The ocean waves, driven to a frenzy
of rage, swept over the shore lines,
washing away much of the road, sev
eral buildings and part of the docks.
A dozen little cutters anchored within the
reef were blown far out to sea or sunk.
Houses rocked like cradles, their inmates
expecting with every minute to find the
entire edifice sent flying through the air.
For hours the storm raged with unmiti
gated fury, the winds and the moun
tains vying with each other in the creation
of deafening noise— the rain continuing to
fall in perfect torrents throughout.
These annual hurricanes will prove the
greatest drawback to Fiji's success. The
elements form an insuperable obstacle that
the hand of man can never overcome.
The society of Levuka is much more se
lect and exclusive than in Suva, notwith
standing that the gubernatorial mansion
and all the red tape necessarily there con
tained is now located in the latter place.
A vast amount of jealousy between the
two settlements exists, extending from
commercial to social life.
The limited improvement in contempla
tion by the Government is all being cen
tered in the present capital, and nothing
but its superior class of inhabitants and
former reputation keeps Levnka from fall
ing into "innocuous desuetude."
One day I met Ratu Epeli, son of
Cokaban (Thokombau), King of Fiji, who
had to come to Suva either for pleasure
and recreation or to draw his pension. He
is a fine-looking, able chap, very large and
heavy and quite dark. His hair, instead
of being worn, as is the custom with the
natives, in an immense mop and dyed
with brilliant yellow, was cut quite short,
and left in its natural black state. A queer
looking King he appeared when promenad
ing through the streets, without a hat and
with his short "sulu" extending only to
his knees, loose-fitting calico jacket, and
bare legs. Several court retainers and les
ser chiefs accompanied him, following be
hind at a respectful distance. His home is
in the original native capital of Bau,
where he cordially invited me to visit as
his guest. Our conversation was carried
on through an interpreter, as he
cannot speak a word of English.
These ratus, or chiefs, are powers
in the land, and it is through them that
the British Government now rules the
group. Once every year the rokos. or lieu
tenant-governors, meet in convention with
the leading English officials, and then the
policy referring to native affairs is dis
cussed and final decisions are made.
WILLIAM PRESTON HARRISON.
RELIEF FOR PHILATELY.
A Concerted Move to Kill Off
the Flood of Speculative
Issues.
Stamp Collectors Have Been Sys
tematically Mulcted of Millions
of Dollars.
What at one time was hailed with un
qualified delight by all collectors of stamps
is now viewed too often with well-merited
suspicion. Every one eagerly sought for
new issues as soon as they were known to
be out in former years. Now all new
comers require time and investigation to
get into philatelic favor. This change is
due to the practice of many countries —
some rich and powerful— either producing
or lending themselves to the production of
what are termed "speculative" or "made
for-collectors" stamps.
It was found that in this way a consider
able revenue could be raised at little or no
cost, as the hundreds of thousands inter
ested in stamp-collecting throughout the
world could always be depended upon to
absorb anywhere from a few thousand dol
lars of stamps to $1,000,000 worth of each
new issue.
Some countries took to printing new
issues whenever their coffers ran low,
others created surcharges, or overprinted
existing issues, thus creating new varieties
at little expense, and many have resorted
to the jubilee or commemorative dodge,
incited thereto by the extraordinary popu
larity of the Columbian issue of the United
States, of which it is estimated some
million and a half dollars' worth were
bought by collectors.
r inally an agitation against the practice
was begun in the philatelic press. Col
lectors were cautioned against certain
issues, and societies were organized having
for their special object the boycotting of
the objectionable stamps. But little head
way was made toward their suppression,
as the dealers continued to handle them,.
and they were generally of such attractive
designs that the younger and less informed
collector was sure to prefer them to the less
showy but more legitimate issues.
So g^reat were the possibilites of wealth
in this direction that one dealer, M. F.
Seebeck, more enterprising than his col
leagues, started a stamp factory of his own.
His method of operation was simple and
most effective. He made contracts with
some of the impecunious countries of
Central America, whereby he agreed to
furnish them a new issue each year with
out cost to them, providing the surplus
stamps of each year reverted to him, and
he took good care to see that there were
ample reversions. At present such con
tracts are in force with Honduras, Nica
ragua, Salvador and Ecuador. When cur
rent the sets of some of these countries are
worth as high as $20, but when obsolete
they are retailed for about 40 cents.
Among the other countries charged with
indulging in speculative stamps are many
of the colonies of Great Britain, of France
and of Portugal, San Marino, Roumania,
Japan, many Chinese treaty ports. Hong
kong, and quite a number of independent
and insignificant minor countries, such as
the principality of Trinidad, off the coast
of Brazil; Brunie, Sarawak, Labuan and
North Borneo.
Each month for the past year may be
said to have seen a new issue from former
stamp-issuing countries or from a govern
ment that had hitherto found no need of
the postage stamp, many not even having
a postal service.
The outcry against the imposition thus
practiced on the fra
ternity at last became so general and pow
erful that the matter was taken up by the
Philatelic Society of London, the most
influential of its kind in the worla, and to
which many of the members of the royalty
of Europe belong. At a recent meeting
the following resolution was adopted :
That this society is of the opinion that the
great increase in the production of speculative
stamps for sale to collectors threatens to have
a very serious effect on the collection of gen
uine postal issues throughout the world, and
that a committee be appointed to consider the
bGst means to be adopted to put a stop to the
scandal.
Another strong move in the same direc
tion was made later by the City of London
Philatelic Club, which resolved, "That the
time had arrived when collectors and deal
ers should combine to put a stop to the
sale of speculative issues, and that leading
dealers should be approached with the
view of inducing them in future to refrain
from chronicling and cataloguing all doubt
ful issues until their bona-nde character
had been established."
As the direct result of the steps taken by
these societies, Stanley Gibbons (Limited)
of London opened communication with
the C. H. Mekeel Stamp and Publishing
Company of St. Louis, Mo., looking to se
curing their co-operation in mitigating or
eradicating the evil complained of. In
Stanley Gibbons' letter to the Mekeel Com
pany occurs the following:
"There is great danger to our trade and
to the future of philately, in that, through
such issues as these (Chinese locals, prin
cipality of Trinidad, French colonial, etc.),
ridicule will be cast upon collecting, and it
is ridicule that kills every hobby. If you
agree with us, we ask you to join with us in
ignoring such stamps. We are writing to
the leading stamp merchants of the world
a similar circular letter to this to get at the
opinion of the trade. We propose from
now on to cease to catalogue these locals
and speculative emissions, to omit all
notices of them in our journals, to cease to
import, to sell or to buy them in any way,
and, in fact, to ignore them as far as pos
sible."
In answer the Meekel Stamp and Pub
lishing Company wrote that they would be
glad to co-operate with them.
The two firms above mentioned are
among the largest of the kind in the world,
the London firm carrying a stock valued
at $500,000 and the St. Louis firm one
valued at $150,000. The leading dealers of
this city, W. Sellschopp <fc Co., have also
announced their intention of co-operating
in the master.
There is, therefore, now reason to believe
that the speculative stamp has seen its
most prosperous days.
JAPANESE DISSATISFIED
They Feel That China Has
Been Treated With Too
Much Leniency.
Plans for a Grand Triumphal Parade
Are Dropped to Await Defi
nite News.
For some time past a committee of forty
of the Japanese residents of this City has
been preparing a fitting celebration of the
recent victory of the mother country. Now
everything is temporarily off, and the time
for rejoicing has been indefinitely post
poned. The cause of it all is dissatisfaction
with some of the terms of the treaty.
Mr. Ishikawa. a student, who was a
prime mover in the matter, explained that
they intended to celebrate on May 25.
"We were going to have a procession,"
said he. "Then we would have had a meet
ing to which we would have invited the city
notables. The programme would have in
cluded speeches and music. Our arrange
ments were nearly completed when we re
ceived the news of the treaty.
"This was a disappointment to many.
We were especially exercised, because it
was intimated that Japan would not
always keep the peninsula of Liao-Tong,
at the extremity of which is Port Arthur,
but would treat it more as a security to
insure the payment of the indemnity
money.
"Such an arrangement was unsatisfac
tory to many. Others, in fact most of the
residents, were anxious to celebrate any
how, but they wanted first to know what
they were going to celebrate. Of course,
we are all proud of the victories of our
army and navy, but we want to know just
how much territory we have really ac
quired before we begin to talk about our
gains."
Saburo Koya, the Japanese Consul, said
that he had been much interested in the
proposed celebration, though his official
position would not allow him to take an
active part in its preparation. Still he had
written Chief Crowley asking that neces
sary protection be accorded the parade that
was planned. He was much surprised to
learn of its postponement and the reason.
A meeting of the Hokoku Gikwai, or
"Patriotic League," has been called for
June 8. This organization has about 3000
members, who are scattered from Los
Angeles to Seattle.
It was formed to help the Red Cross ser
vice. Over $20,000 was sent to the front by
the members. Now that the Mikado has
declared peace the league proposes to for
mally disband. The meeting will be at
Union-square Hall.
New Capital for Brazil.
It apDears that the Brazilians are not
satisfied with their present capital, Rio de
Janeiro, which is not central, not very
healthy and perhaps not roomy enough.
They are about to build themselves a
brand-new capital, embodying, as the pro
jectors would say, every modern improve
ment. This news was given, says our
Paris correspondent, yesterday afternoon
to the French Academy of Sciences by one
o,ne of its members, M. Faye. This noted
astronomer has just received a communi
cation anent the new capital from Senor
Cruis, who appends to his name the sub
stantial title of President of the Brazillian
Committee of Preliminary Investigation
for the Removal of the capital of Brazil to
the Center of the States of the Confedera
tion. Senor Cruis states that the new
Federal capital will be built on the central
plateau of Brazil, in a rectangle of about
twenty-five miles long and seven broad—
quite a city of magnificent distances, equal
to anything in the United States. What
is more important, the site will be a
healthy one, and, notwithstanding the
nearness of the new capital to the equator
the climate will be comparatively mild by
reason of the altitude.— London News.
ROSECRANS IN BATTLE.
How He Held His Own Against
a Vastly Superior
Force.
ONE OF THE INCIDENTS AT IUKA
The General's Tribute to a Brave
Soldier Who Risked Death to
Save a Regiment.
When I was on a visit to General Rose
crans at Murfreesboro, Term., early in
1863, he introduced to me a member of his
staff, a young man of about 30, bearing a
striking facial resemblance to Napoleon.
His name was Arthur C. Ducat. He was
then inspector-general of Rosecrans' army,
and is now a resident of Chicago. W r hen
he had left the room the general saia to
me: "That is one of the bravest men I
ever knew ; I saw him once coolly face al
most certain death to perform a duty.
Three had fallen before his eyes, and he
had to run the gauntlet of a thousand
muskets; but he did it."
I cannot repeat the remainder in the
general's own words, but I think I can
correctly relate the circumstances. It was
at the battle of luka, where Rosecrans,
with only 2800 men actually engaged, was
fighting a Confederate force of 11,000, hold
ing a chosen and very strong position.
Dncat, in riding up to the general, had
observed a regiment of General Stanley's
division that was about to be enveloped
General William S. Rosecrans.
and overpowered by a much larger force of
the enemy. "Ride on and warn Stanley
at once," said Rosecrans. An acre on fire
and swept with bullets lay between them
and the menaced regiment; Ducat glanced
at it, and said: "General, I have a wife
and children."
"You knew that when you came here?"
said Rosecrans, coolly.
"I'll go, sir," said Ducat, moving his
horse forward after his momentary hesita
tion.
"Stay a moment. We must make sure
of this," said Rosecrans. He thought a
thousand lives of more value than four,
so, hastily writing some dispatches on the
pommel of his saddle, he gave oue to
each of the three orderlies, and set them
off. at intervals of about sixty yards, over
the bullet-swept field. Then he looked at
Ducat, who had seen every one of them
fall lifeless, or desperately wounded.
Without a word Ducat plunged into the
fire, and, wonderful to tell, he ran the
pauutlet in safety, and with his clothes
torn by Minie balls and his horse reeling
from a mortal wound, he got to Stanley,
and saved the regiment. The orderlies
found their graves in that acre of tire.
Usually victories are gained by large
masses of men properly posted and skill
fully handled by some eeneral out of the
range of fire and looking on at the conflict
in absolute safety. But often great battles
are won by some fearless commander, who
plunges into the thickest of the fight and,
while seeing the whole, is ever at the en
dangered points, inspiring his men by his
heroic example. It was so with General
Rosecrans himself, all whose victories were
won by his personal heroism, and Chicka
mauga, his so-called defeat, occurred be
cause he could not be everywhere at once
over a hilly and wooded field of battle,
more than rive miles in extent It
was so at luka and again at Co
rinth, where, with less than 20,000
men, he met Price and Van Doren with
30,000. There, when Davis' division was
broken and the Confederates had well
nigh clutched success, he rushed into the
thickest of the fight and solely by his per
sonal bravery turned defeat into victory.
During the terrible two days' fight at
Stone River he was everywhere at the crit
ical moment and time and again he saved
the day. He rode up to Sheridan when
he was holding back Cleburne from an at
tempt to turn his flank and 1000 of his
men lav dead or dying around him and
said, "You are doing bravely, general "
pointing to his decimated division.
Sheridan answered, " Here are all that
are left."
"Well," replied Rosecrans, "this point
must be held— hold it to the last man."
Riding on again he came to a brigade com
mander, who, with two-thirds of his men
lying disabled on the ground, was holding
another important position. He was
mounting a horse when Rosecrans ac
costed him with, "How goes it, colonel?"
The answer was. "You see, general.
Only one-third of my men can stand up
right, and this is the third horse that I am
mounting."
"Well, R said Rosecrans. "we must all
die, and we might as well die to-day as to
morrow. You must hold your ground
colonel."
And so it was during the whole of those
two terrible days— he was continually pres
ent at all the important contested positions
of the great fight.
To fully realize the awful nature of a
battle wherein 100,000 or 200,000 men are
engaged one needs to go over the field
while the ground still bears traces of the
desperate struggle. It was thus that,
piloted by one of Rosecrans' aids, who waa
constantly with him during the fight, I
££ n Y?£ er the ba «letield of Stone River.
Ihe different positions were pointed out to
me, and I got some idea of the herculean
character of Rosecrans' achievement.
Among others I was shown a point where
i^ Kentucky regiments, each about
lUUU strong, and recruited from the
same region, met iy one of the most fear
iui conflicts of the entire two days. It was
a small patch of wooded ground, and tbe
desperate struggle there had given it the
significant name of "Hell's Half Aacre."
ihe trees, mostly oak and poplar, were tall
and slender, branching out high above the
ground and standing from five to ten feet
apart. There was no undergrowth, so I
could ride freely over the spot. I did so,
and, inspecting these trees, I did not dis
cover upon any one of them, in front or
rear, twelve inches of square space that
was not marked by a Minie ball or a
nfle bullet. Standing on the two sides
of that small grove of trees, in one
short half hour, more than a thousand
men were either killed or wounded, and
for fully half that time Rosecrans. accom
panied by his senior aid, Major Frank S.
Bond, sat his horse within short bullet
range of the shower of fire from those des
perate combatants, who fought with a
fierceness engendered by both political and
personal animosity. Time and again Ma
jor Bond remonstrated with him for thus
exposing himself to imminent danger, but
he merely said : "I can't go till this is <le- -^
cided. If we are beaten here I shall have '
to make other dispositions." How he
escaped is one of those unaccountable
things that we are accustomed to term mi
raculous.
When I returned to headquarters I said
to Rosecrans: "I have just been over the
battlefield with 'Charley' Thompson.
What were your sensations when so con
stantly under fire all of those two days?"
His answer was: "I had no sensations.
I was absorbed in planning how to beat
them."
On the following day I rode oat with
Kosecrans, General Garfield (then his chief
of staff), several other officers, and a squad
of about a hundred men, to Grantlands,
the birthplace and home of Miss Murfree,
the well-known author, but then occupied
by General Sheridan as his headquarters.
As we entered the forest inclosing the
town, Garneld broke out with Lowell's
poem, "I do believe in freedom's cause, "his
words being echoed back from the great,
spreading trees, and set to the music of a
hundred horses' heels. He had scarcely
ended when the general told how
Zekle crep* up, quite unbeknown,
wtn JJ? eked ln thru the winder;
While thpre sat Huldy all alone,
Itn no one nigh to hinder.
iJ'JSft* wo ld , you « ive to have written
that he asked, a 3 he finished the recita
tion. • .
"All the castles I ever built in the clouds."
I replied.
"So would I." he said.
"You know what Wolfe said before his
great victory— that he would rather have
written Gray's 'Elegy' than take Quebec
Would you have said that before Stone
River?"
He hesitated a moment, then answered :
"No; for now we need victories more thaii
poems."
Soon we saw through an opening in the
trees several thousand men under review
in a field at the left. "It is Negley's divi
sion," said Garfield. "Shall we ride over
tnere, general?"
Rosecrans assented, and, turning our
horses, we galloped off through the forest.
The underbrush was cleared away, and a
rich sward of blue grass covered the
cround, but every here and there a great
tree cut down "for the fortification ob
structed our way. One of these trunks,
eighty feet long and nearly ten through,
at the stumD, lay directly across our path.
Garfield and I, who rode on either side of
the general, reined our horses around the
two ends of the tree, and the remainder of
tne party divided ana followed us. But
Rosecrans spurred his horse, Toby, di
rectly at the trunk and cleared it at a
bound.
"That was well done," I shouted, "You
fire straight at the mark."
"It's the sure way to hit," he answered.
"It reveals to me what made you win at
Stone River."
"Well, what was it?" he asked, smiling.
"Promptitude, directness and the bound
ing leap of that horse, Toby— three things
that would carry a cat through Hades
without claws."
Among all the military leaders I have
known Rosecrans comes the nearest to
what I have read of Wellington.
James R. Gilmork.
[Copyrighted, 1895, by 8. 8. McClitbk, limited.]
NEW TO-DAY.
LADIES
AND ■
GENTLEMEN
These preparations are the result
of many years' study of medicine,
chemistry and dermatology.
I submit the names of a few of our
leading chemists and physicians to
you, and leave you to form your own
opinion as to the merits of my dis-
coveries.
ANTOINETTE
GRAY HAIR
RESTORER ■"«
For Ladies and' Gentlemen.
£<«%£> Any one in San
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WnmMW§ I receive their mone y
(!f {fjil s lull if they are
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REDUCED to $2 PER BOTTLE.
Mine. Marchand— Dear Madam: At yonr re- %
quest I have carefully analyzed your Gray Hair (
Restorer. In my judgment it Is an effective prep-
aration and will not injure the hair or the general
health. I can cheerfully recommend it to your l
patrons. Respectfully submitted, __>
W. T. WENZKLL, Analytical Chemist.
This is to certify that I am well acquainted with
W. T. Wenzell, and that I consider him one of th»
ablest chemists in San Francisco and a gentleman
of the strictest Integrity.
C. A. CLINTON, M.D.,
Ex-member of Board of Health.
I Indorse Dr. Clinton's opinion of Professor Wen-
sell. WILLIAM SEARBY, Chemist.
. This is to certify that I know Professor WenceU
and know him to be correct in every detail. .
W. H. LOGAN, I'h.G., M.D.
Mme. Marchand : I have seen your Antoinette
Preparations and have tested them and found them
to be excellent for the purpose for which they are
used. & F. JONES, Chemist.
While I Indorse the analysis of Professor Wen-
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respect in the opinion of C. F. Jones as regards the
Antoinette Preparations.
DR. ERNEST- LICHAU.
This Is to certify that I know Professor Wenzell
and believe his report to be correct.
W. M. MURPHY, M.D.
The HAIR and COMPLEXION scien-
tifically treated. I have no FADS,
no OUTFITS, no STEAMING. I have
something; wonderful for superfluous
hair. ,
Samples of Creme de la Creme '
given away.
SEND FOR BOOKLET.
MME. MARCHAND, '
Hair and Complexion Specialist,
MI POST STREET, ROOMS 32-36,
Taber's Entrance. Telephone 1349.

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