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CATHODE RAY WONDERS Professor Sanford Explains Crooke's Tubes, Ether Vibra tions and X Rays. WAVES WITH A NEW WIGGLE^ The Great Thing That Roentgen's Dis covery May Be and Things That It Is Not. Professor Fernando Sanford of the de partment of physics of the Stanfora Uni versity has just received a letter from his associate, Professor Carmen, who is now in Berlin, and who has investigated Roent gen's photographs with his X or un known rays. Professor Carmen doesn't say very much, but what he does say comes from a scientist. "I saw Roentgen's photographs the other day," writes Carmen in the course of his letter, "and heard Warburg, pro fessor of physics in the "University of Ber- I lin, and others discuss them. Lummerhad also seen then), and there seems to be no j doubt about the reality of the phenomenon. : * * * The photograph of the hand, in which only the bones and the ring are shown, is very striking. It is, however, not very sharp. A photograph of a mag netic compass in a wooden case, photo graphed through the case, is very sharp- I indeed. We know as much here as any, where, but there is yet no consensus of opinion as to what the phenomenon really • is. The natural idea is that they are lon gitudinal ether waves. They are, how- ' ever, very faint." Professor Sanford is a widely known physicist, who has made some important discoveries in physical science, the most important of which were his photographs in the dark, with the so-called Hertzian waves, made three years ago, and he is ' naturally keenly interested in Professor ! Roentgen's startling discovery of unseen shadows, not made with light, and of a way to tix them on photographic plates. Sanford has experimented a little with Roentgen's process, and has secured faint results, but be has not had ready for use the proper apparatus, and is not ready to talk about his experiments. He talKed about Roentgen's work, how ever, yesterday, at the university, and ex plained, in a way that people of ordinary intelligence can understand, what Roent gen's discovery may possibly be. The : scientists are only guessing at the new thing yet, though many have opinion "The point of chief scientific interest in the matter, which is the theory by which Roentgen and others explain the phe nomenon, the papers say tittle or nothing about," said Professor Sanford. "That is, that he has discovered a new form of motion or vibration in the ether vibra- ; tions that are longitudinal instead of transverse to the Tine of progress. I : would not express any definite opinion about it. It would be only guessing, and there is plenty of guessing going on. It is a scientist's business to guess, but to find out fore he talks. A large part of the stuff and most of the pictures the papers pub are necessarily fakes. It is but natural that there should be a good deal of slopping over about such a thing, of course. * It is too early to make any uetir.ite predictions as to what scientific or practical value the discovery will have, out it is, of course, a thing of great in terest to physicists, and it may extend our knowledge wonderfully." Then the physicist led the way into a big laboratory, full of all sorts of costly scientific apparatus, and elucidated some what the story (if Roentgen's X rays. The discovery and the process of Profes ior Roentgen (call it Kantgen, with a, short a and a hard g) began with a Crooke's tube, and the professor picked up a Crooke's tube and connected it by two wires with an induction coil, which was in turn connected with a two-cell bat tery. A Crooke's tube arranged for use is a hollow sealed shell of glass of any size or Ehape, from which the air has been very marly but not quite exhausted, and into ' which run platinum wires connected with the opposite poles of a battery. The bulb of an incandescent electric ! lieht is a pretty good Crooke's tube. The ; one that Professor Sanford picked up was made to show extra effects. It was of i two compartments— one a small one— be- I tween which there was free connection : through a slender glass tube bent double j and then into the form of a cross. Air or 1 fluid passing between the compartments i would go up, around and back through I the cross. Ihe professor set the current at ] work and instantly the Crooke's tube be- i came a thing of beauty. Around one of the wire ends at one end of the tube there ■ appeared a purple glow that was simply a mass of fluorescence in the vacuum. The wire itself gave out no light. At the other end of the tube was a much smaller fluor escence. The glass cross glowed with a beautiful greenish light, which seemed to j stream through the cross but not leave it. Now, this Crooke's tube, as it lay there j glowing with its strange light, was ready! to produce one of Roentgen's photographs ; if things had been lixed right around it.! Vibrations of some sort — X rays — were surely beaming from it in all direc tions, Bbisme through the box on which the tube lay, as sunlight would shine through i a glass case, and if the reporter had I The Apparatus by Which Professor Sanford Photographs With Invisible Hertzian Waves. [Sketched by a "Call" artist.} possessed a sense capable of perceiving those rays he might have seen before him the skeleton of the professor of physics as one might see tron or wooden bones in a glass manikin when the white sunlight shone through it. But now don't think that this pretty light, the vibrations that the human eye is capable of perceiving, would have any thing to do with the Roentgen photo graph. Scientists would have said so, until Roentgen accidentally discovered something the other day, that arrange ment of batten', induction coil • and vacuum was setting up different kinds of vibratory motions that variously rolled out through the surrounding ether, air and solid substances, as a Big turbine wheel, for instance, might cause all sorts of heavy and light, slow and rapid, shak ings through the water and the mill. If that arrangement had been set up before a scientist a few centuries ago the only phe nomenon he would have perceived would have been the glow of light, because the particular vibrations producing it are the only ones of the lot that man happens to have a sense to perceive. Since a century and more ago when man learned by experiment to recognize the electric current by its effect on something besides sense, the ordinary force of the electric current would have been recog nized in that simple arrangement of Pro fessor Sanford's. That makes two things that would have been the limit of the forces of nature : which man would have perceived that ar rangement on the laboratory table setting into activity up to a very "few years ago. Then Hertz found a new sort of vibrations proceeding from an induction coil and es pecially from the neighborhood of an elec tric discharge and these are now called ; Hertzian waves. They are not light, heat, 'or the electric current. They are vibra tions that flow outward from their source like light from a thing that glows, and un til Hertz stumbled on them so recently nobody ever dreamed that such things ! were bustling about in the universe. These Hertzian waves Professor Sanford knew to ! be in operation there. And now comes Professor Roentgen ( with the discovery that from this arrange ; ment described there proceeds what is be i lieved to be a kind of vibration more dis : tinct from the other sorts than the Hertzian waves are from light. No sense can per ! ceive it, and it is being recognized and studied by its effects, noticed now for the first time. It illustrates how little man is capable of perceiving. This was the way Professor Sanford talked over his Crooke's tube: "There are many peculiar phenomena which take place in Crooke's tube, and they have been studied for about fifteen years. If the air is entirely exhausted there can be no spark produced in one. They are generally exhausted to from the one-thousandth to the one ten-thousanth part of an atmosphere. The end of the wire connected with the negative pole of the battery is called the cathode, and the effect appears to proceed from the cathode. When the current is started the particles of rarefied gas are electrified and driven off from the cathode with great force. "If there is sufficient gas it becomes luminous tnrough the particles striking each other. When the particles can reach the walls of the tube and pound against them, they set up a fluorescence in the glass. I'robabiy they cause the glass to set up light vibrations in the ether. The cathode rays are not the X rays of Roent gen, nor are they rays of light. They are the steams of gas "particles as they are repelled from the cathode, and it is rather their effect which is talked about. "If I put certain substances near this tube they will likewise fluoresce as has been known for some time. It has not been known that the cathode rays would produce the same effect when the fluores cence was hidden, though it had been dis covered that when a tiny sheet of alumi num is set in the tube like a pane of glass the cathode rays striking on this opaque window would produce a fluorescence in a proper substance placed behind it. "Roentgen accidentally discovered in his laboratory that a sheet of paper moist ened with double cyanide of barium and platinum and left near a Crooke's tube when the tube was covered with a black cloth would show fluorescent effects, show ing that the cloth was transparent to the cause of the fluorescence. He followed this discovery with his experiments. The effects secured can hardly be explained by any knowledge or theories held before. The rays from the Crooke's tube, which produced Roentgen's new fluorescent ef fects and later his photographic effects after passing through wood and flesh, are, of course, not light, and they are not Hertzian waves evidently. His theory is that the gaseous particles, striking against the glass, produce a vibration which sets up waves or vibrations in the ether dif ferent from any other kind of motion. He thinks that they are longitudinal ether waves. * "We have no sense that enables us to take cognizance of the ether as we can of light and heat, but we know that light and radiant heat are vibrations in an elas tic medium, and we call that medium the ether. It must pervade all bodies, because some form of radiation can pass through all bodies at a velocity far greater than it would be if the bodies themselves trans mitted it. The ether is as real to physicists as matter. We know only one kind of ether waves, and they are now all included in the term radiation. We know no limit to their lengths. One very small octave in the range of wave lengths we can per ceive by the eye as light. "Now, every kind of ether waves or vi brations that we know anything about can be reflected, refracted and polarized. "We also know that all the kinds of ether waves with which we are acquainted are transverse vibrations; that is, the vibra tions are back and forth across the line or plane of motion, like waves in water or in a rope when it is shaken, or like the vibra tions of a string. When we speculate about Roentgen's rays being longitudinal THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1896. Hand, photographed from life on January 17, 1890, X rays being used after the method of Professor Roentgen in the Physical Staat Laboratory of Hamburg. The plates, while the picture was taken, were lying in a closed box. The rays had to penetrate the hand, as well as the wooden cover of the box. [Reproduced from a. photograph made in Hamburg. Sent by Henri Windel, Berlin.] vibrations in the ether we mean that they are liKe sound vibrations, in which the vi brations are back and forth on the line of motion without crossing it. In sound vi brations tte air goes out on a straight line, stops with a condensation and goes on again. Sound is the only kind of longi tudinal vibrations we know anything about. "It has been recognized by physicists ! that there is no theoretical "reason why j there should not be longitudinal in ; the ether, but it has been supposed that the | ether was so nearly incompressible- that i the waves would have almost infinite j velocity and length and hence could not ibe perceived. All elastic bodies, solid, : liquid and gaseous, transmit, longitudinal • waves, and as the ether is an elastic body it would certainly transmit them too. i Roentgen has discovered that his new rays i cannot be reflected, refracted or polarized, as we can do with all known kinds of ether \ vibrations. So Roentgen thinks that lie has discovered a new kind of radiation. What longitudinal ether waves would do we do not know. "Whatever Roentgen's discovery may j b-5 it is an important find. Anything that ; will throw light on electrical phenomena I is of value to science. We are calling on the ether to explain heat, light and elec trical effects, and probably all effects which we class under chemical and mag • netic attractions and repulsions, and even i gravitation, as far as we have any hope of . explaiuing it. "It should be remembered that we have before produced photographs with electrical i waves not luminous, and others have done i to a certain extent what Roentgen has done and without the aid of light, except, j we can refract and reflect the waves which , have been presumed to produce the effects. : In 1893 I produced photographs in the dark ! with the use of electrical waves, and I have attributed them to the Hertzian waves. It j is barely possible that my pictures were ' due to the X rays. ! "A great general misconception about ! Roentgen's discovery and its possibilities i would be corrected if it were remembered that his rays cannot be reflected by any i thing or refracted by a lens of any sub stance. Hence no image can be produced. The rays pass through substances trans j parent or translucent to them and cast shadows on the negative which are fixed there. It is wholly the fixation of shad ows. The bones of the hand being opaque to the rays cast their shadow on the plate when the rays pass through the hand. The negatives used are prepared for the effect of light. Negatives better adapted to these rays may be expected to be invented." Professor Sanford set up the simple ap paratus by which he photographed coins and so on in the dark three years ago. Two wires were run from an induction coil connected with a battery. A thin little box was the whole photograph gallery. One wire was passed into the box on each' side. One wire connected with a medal fastened to the side of the box. The other wire connected with a metal plate facing the medal. Between the two was slipped a negative shut up in a plate-holder and the current turned on. The experiment was not carried through, but if it had been the plate, after fifteen or twenty minutes, would have shown, on development, a fair picture of the medal. Sanford's theory is or was that the Hertzian waves beamed back and forth between the medal and the metal plate, passing through both the nega tive and its case, which ere transparent to these mysterious new Hertzian vibra tions. The medal becomes, as it were, glowing with unseen Hertzian waves, to which the wood is as glass. The raised parts of the medal being nearer the nega tive, though ever so little,, would produce a deeper effect for that reason, and this effect would be reproduced in the printing. But then maybe it was longitudinal waves in there. - , . A GREAT DISCOVERY. The J. Ray May Oblige Us to Rearrange Our Ideas. The Call is in receipt of Professor Roent gen's communication to the Wurzburg Physical Society, entitled "A New i Form of Radiation." In his pamphlet the pro fessor advances the theory that the new rays, improperly called cathode rays, are longitudinal vibrations of the ether. He does not profess to know absolutely what they are even that they are rays" at all. But Jaumann in a paper on "Longitudinal Light" argues that this theory will ac count for many obscure phenomena asso ciated with the cathode rays discovered by Lenard. y • yln ' his pamphlet Professor Roetgen says: ' . t If we pass the discharge from a large Rubm fcorff coil through a Hittorf or a sufficiently exhausted Lenard, Crooke's, or similar appa ratus, and cover the tube with a somewhat closely fitting mantle of thin black cardboard, we observe in a completely darkened room mat a paper screen washed with barium platino-cyanide lights up brilliantly and fluoresces equally well, whether the treated side or the other be turned toward the dis charged tube. Fluorescence is still observable two meters away from the apparatus. It is easy to convince one's self that the cause of the fluorescence is the discharge apparatus and nothing else. " y y ' ;-' • •* " most striking feature of this phenome non is that an Influence (agens) capable of ex citing brilliant fluorescence is able to pass through the black cardboard cover, which transmits none of the ultra-violet rays of the sun or of the electric arc, and one" immedi ately inquires whether other bodies possess this property. It is soon discovered that all bodies are transparent to this influence, but in very different degrees. A few examples will suffice: Paper is very transparent; the fluo rescent screen held behind a volume of 1000 pages still lighted up brightly: the printer's ink offered no perceptible obstacle. Fluores cence was also noted behind two packs of cards ; a few cards held between apparatus and screen made no perceptible difference. A single sheet of tinfoil is scarcely noticeable; only after several layers have been laid on the top of each other is a shadow clearly visible on the The Crooke's Tube That Fluoresced and Beamed X Rays in Professor Sanford's Laboratory. [Sketched by a "CaU" artist.] screen. Thick blocks of wood are also trans parent; fir planks 2cm. to 3cm. thick are but very slightly opaque. A film of aluminum about 15mm. thick weakens the effect very considerably, although it does not entirely destroy the fluorescence. Several centimeters of vulcanized indiarnbber let the rays through. Glass plates of the same thickness behave in a different way, according as they contain lead (flint glass)" not; the former are much less transparent than the latter. If the hand be held between the discharging tube and tho screen the dark shadow of the bones is visible within the slightly dark shadow of the hand. Water, bisulphide of carbon and various other liquids behave in this respect as if they were very transparent. I was not able to determine whether water was more transparent than air. Behind plates of copper, silver, lead, gold, platinum, fluores cence Is still clearly visible, but only when the plates are not too thick. Platinum o.2mm. thick is transparent; silver and copper sheets may be decidedly thicker. Lead ,I.smm. thick is as good as opaque, and was on this ac count often made use of. A wooden rod of 20x20mm. cross section, painted white, with lead paint on one side, behaves in a peculiar manner. When it is interposed between ap- I paratus and screen it has almost no effect when i the X rays go through the rod parallel to the painted side, but it throws a dark shadow if the t rays have to traverse the paint. Very similar to the metals themselves are their salts, whether solid or in solution. These experimental results and others lead to the conclusion that the transparency of dif ferent substances, of the same thickness is mainly conditioned by their density: no other property is in the least comparable with | this. The following experiments, however, show that density is not altogether alone in its in fluence. I experimented on the transparency of nearly the same thickness of glass,, alum inum, calcspar and quartz. The density of these substances is nearly, the same, and yet it was quite evident that the spar was decidedly ] less transparent than the other bodies, which were very much like each other in their be ! havior. I have not observed c?.lcspar fluoresce in a manner comparable with glass. With increasing thickness all bodies be come less transparent. In order to rind a law connecting transparency with thickness I I made some photographic observations, the j photographic plate being partly covered with 1 tin increasing number of sheets of tinfoil. I Photometric measurements will be undertaken when I am in possession of a suitable photo ! meter. The retina of the eye is not susceptible to these rays. An eye brought close up to the 1 discharge apparatus perceives nothing, al though, accordiug to experiments made, the media contained in the eye are fairly trans ! parent. A number of experiments are cited as showing that the X rays cannot be re fracted or reflected, and, therefore, cannot : be concentrated by lenses.- Neither, he says, can they be deflected by a magnet. ; His experiment showing that the cathode rays and the X rays are different is re lated as follows : After experiments bearing specially. on this question (deflection by magnet), it is certain that the spot on the wall of the discharge ap paratus which flouresces most decidedly must '■ I be regarded as the principal point of the radia- i tion of the X rays in all directions. The X [ rays thus start from the point at which, ac i cording to the researches of different Investi gators, the cathode rays impinge upon the wall of the glass tube. If one deflects the ca thode rays within the apparatus by a magnet, it is' found that the X rays are emitted from another spot— is to say, from the new ter mination of the cathode stream. On this account also, the X rays, which are | not deflected, cannot be merely unaltered re flected cathode rays passing through the glass ; wall. The greater density of the glass outside j the discharge tube cannot, according to Len | ard, be made responsible for the great differ- I ence in the "deflec lability." | 1 therefore come to the conclusion that the i X rays are not identical with the cathode rays, i but that they are generated by the cathode I rays at the glass wall of the discharge apparatus; , . I 1 his excitation does not only taKe place in ; glass, but also in aluminum, as I : was able to ; ascertain with an apparatus closed by a sheet of aluminum 2mm. thick. Other substances I will be studied later on. The article continues: The justification for -giving the name of i "rays" to the influence 1 emanating from the : wall of the discharge apparatus depends I partly on the very regular shadows which i they form when one interposes more or less j transparent bodies between the -. apparatus j and the fluorescing screen or: photographic plate. Many such shadow pictures, the for ! mation of which possesses a special charm, j have I observed photographically. - For ex ! ample, I possess photographs of the shadow ,of . the profile of the door • separating the j room in which was the discharge apparatus j from the room in which was the photographic plate; also photographs of the shadows of the bones of the hand, of the shadow of a wire wound on a ; wooden j spool, of a weight In closed in a small box, of a compass in which the magnetic needle is completely surrounded by metal, of a piece of metal the lack of homogeneity of which was brought out by me X rays, etc. - . y, ... . . • | To show the rectilinear propagation oi -the I X rays there i* a pin-hole photograph, which I I was able to take by means of the discharge apparatus covered with black paper. Ihe image is weak, but unmistakably correct. I looked very carefully for interference phe nomena with X rays, but unfortunately, per- ' haps only on account of the small intensity of ; the rays, without success. Researches to determine whether electro static forces affect X rays in any way have been begun, but are not completed. WHAT X-RAYS ARK. If we ask what X rays, which certainly can not be cathode rays, really are, we are led at first sight, owing to their powerful fluorescing and chemical properties/to think of ultra violet light. But we immediately encounter serious objections. If X rays be in reality ultra-violet light this light must possess tho following characteristics: (a) It must show no perceptible refraction on passing from air into water, bisulphide of carbon, aluminum, rock salt, zinc, etc. (b) It must not be regularly reflected to any appreciable extent from the above bodies. (c) It must not be polarizable by the usual means. (d) Its absorption must not be influenced by any of the properties of substances to the same extent as it is by their density. . In other word's, we must assume that these ultra-violet rays behave in quite a different manner to any infra-red, visible or ultra-violet rays hitherto known. I could not bring myself to this conclusion, and I have, therefore, sought another explanation. There seems at least some connection be tween the new rays aud light rays in the shadow pictures, and in the fluorescing and chemical activity of both kinds of rays. Now, it has been long'known that besides the trans verse light vibrations, longitudinal.vibrations might take place in the ether, and, according to the view of diil'erent physicists, must take place. Certainly their existence has not up till now been made evident, and their proper ties have not on that account been experi mentally investigated. May not the new rays be due to longitudinal vibrations in the ether? I must admit that I have put more and more faith in this idea in the course of my research, and it behooves me, therefore, to announce my suspicion, although I know well that this ex planation requires further corroboration. WVKZBUKG i'HYSIKAL IN'STITCT DEE UNIVER3I- tat, December, 1895. In commenting editorially on this com munication, the London Electrician has this to say: It may not be without interest at the present j moment to recall the main points of difference i and of similarity between Roentgen and i Lenard rays— to use two brief and convenient expressions. Roentgen rays are not deflected by a magnet; Lenard rays are. Roentgen rays suffer far less absorption and diffusion than Lenard rays. Lenard found that his cathode rays failed to pass through anything but the thinnest soap films, glass and aluminum foil, etc. ; the Roentgen variety will traverse sev eral centimeters of wood and several milli meters of metal or glass. Roentgen was able to take "shadowgraphs" and detect fluores cence 200 centimeters away from the discharge tube; six or eight centimeters were enough to wipe out Lenard rays in air at atmospheric pressure, and even in hydro gen gas. at only 0".01(>4 millimeters pressure, the "radiation length" for cathode rays was only 130 centimeters, hydrogen at atmos pheric pressure behaving as a decidedly tor pid medium. These are, however, rather dif ferences in degree than in kind. Lenard rays emanate, of course, from the cathode itself, but Roentgen rays, according to their dis coverer, start from 'the luminiscent spot on the glass wall of the discharge tube at which the cathode rays terminate. The points of similarity between Roentgen and Lenard rays are their photographic activity, their recti linear prooagatlon (as evidenced by the sharp shadows cast) and the fact that In both cases it would seem the total mass of molecules i contained in unit volume ot any substance practically determines its transparency. All I things tend to show that we are on the verge ' of a great scientific discovery, which may oblige us, nolens volens, to "rearrange our j ideas." ROBBED WHILE AT LUNCH Sneak-Thieves Entered S. Son nenfeld's Store on Kearny Street. Customers' Jewels Left to Be Repaired Are Taken — Not the First * Attempt. While S. Sonnenfeld was at luncheon yesterday noon his store at 321 Kearny street was, he declares, entered by a sneak thief, a Yale lock having been picked to gain admission. When the proprietor returned to his place of business about 1 o'clock he at once missed the contents of a jewel tray, and an examination disclosed the loss of a number of tides of jewelry which differ ent individuals had left with him to be re paired. Mr. Sonnenfeld says the intrinsic value of the jewels was $200, but that he pre sumes many of them have an additional value to their owners through certain as sociations. This, it seems, is not the first time such a theft has been attempted during the noon hour. About a month ago Mr. Son nenfeld happened to return from luncheon earlier than usual and found a kit of tools in his store, but whoever owned them had disappeared. STREET ACCIDENTS. Several People Injnred by Vehicles on Public Thoroughfares. Julius Olsen, a street sweeper, was run into yesterday forenoon about 10 o'clock while at work on Fillmore street, the shaft of a buggy driven by Sanford J. Lewald striking him violently in the right breast. The injured man was at once taken to the Lane Hospital near by. A showed that one rib had been fractured. Olsen is a man about 40 years of a»e and lives at 337 Clementina street. Al though he was suffering much pain yester day afternoon the hospital authorities as sert that he ought to be out and about in a we^k or two. '«';; iy yy Freddie Qutlici, the six-year-old son of Venanzio Quilici. living at 1617 Powell street, wa3 struck by a milk wagon at 2 o'clock yesterday afternoon and was se verely bruised about the mouth and tem ples. The child had suddenly dashed out from behind a bakery wagon standing near the curb and it was only through the presence of mind of T. N. Belden, the driver of the milk wagon, in swinging and stopping his team, that a more serious ac cident was avoided. A charge of battery was entered against Belden pending an ex amination as to the extent of the child's injuries, rJeiden was afterward released and exonerated from blame. J. J. 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It completely cured me of the grip from which I whs Buffering. lam 82 years ot age, and find that a little of this whiskey is the best thing for keeping up health and strength that I ever John Peddicord,ls Bond st., Baltimore, says: "I am neaflv 90 years of age. Some time ago I contracted a severe cough, which weakened me considerably. I was fortunately persuaded to take Duffy's pure malt whiskey, which soon set me to rights. It is a splendid thing for building up the system." These are only two cases selected from thou sands, but they are enough to show that Duffy s pure malt is unequalea for its bracing, ener gizing, stimulating effects. For this reason care should be taken that no worthless imita tion is substituted by grocers or druggists. Do not be led to take anything but Duffy's pure malt whiskey. Be sure that you get it, for there's nothing else that can possibly take its ■ place. __________ "bazaw* THAT \ TRUSS=FRAME MEANS • THE "FOWLER!" '96 MODELS NOW IN. \ SJD3D THE '&% FOWLER TANDEM JUST RECEIVED. \ AGENTS WASTED 11 EVERY- CHI- AGENTS ALSO V FOR THE \ "BEN-HUR,' The Best Bicycle Made \ FOR $85.00. . \ BICYCLE REPAIRING A SPECIALTY \ Full Line of Bicycle Sundries. \ at Lowest Prices. ZBU4?i4yZ _/ Ely's Cream BabKgjSn Cleanses the Nasal Wi^ :^Af^l.." , l Passages. Allays Pain yuSrrvrL^a^J and Inflammation, KjU *"EVER V M Restores the Senses of Sbjs i/.^,y Taste and Smell. M v S^^K Heals the Sores. Wt^f^ Apply Halm Into each nostril wmmVkiZXKi^l^^Sk KLYIiKOS,S6WarrSu st.N.Y mmWZS^^f^^jM A DELIGHTFUL HOME. St. Joseph's Sanitarium. THIS INSTITUTION IS UNDER THE MAN. agement of the Sisters of Mercy. Invalids re- ceive the best of care and fine rooms at reasonable rates. Persons or old age, without reference to creed or nationality, may secure a home for life Including care and medical attendance durin» sickness by the payment of from one to two thousand dollars. Each person is provided with a private room. Climate unsurpassed, being free from extremes of heat and cold. Sixth street and University avenue, Sun Diego, Cal. . A remedy used exclusively by a physician of 30 years' experience. A positive and unfailing guaranteed cure for primary, secondary ana . tertiary cases of blood disease. No case in- curable. New cases cured in two weeks. Con- sultation and full information free. MOFFAT CHEMICAL CO., Koom 1, 632 Market St.. San Francisco. TSTHEVERY REST ONE TO EXAMINE YOUB J- eyes and flt them to Spectacles or Eyeglasses with instruments of his own Inveutioa, warn* superiority has not been equated. My success Ml wen due to the merits ot my world Office Hours— l 2 to 4v. v. HEALTH RESORTS. in st. mm siHTAtim, ST. HELENA, NAPA COUNTY, CAL. A RATIONAL HEALTH RESORT! Send for Circular.