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The San Francisco call. [volume] (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, February 18, 1896, Image 8

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Professor Sanford Explains
Crooke's Tubes, Ether Vibra
tions and X Rays.
The Great Thing That Roentgen's Dis
covery May Be and Things That
It Is Not.
Professor Fernando Sanford of the de
partment of physics of the Stanfora Uni
versity has just received a letter from his
associate, Professor Carmen, who is now
in Berlin, and who has investigated Roent
gen's photographs with his X or un
known rays. Professor Carmen doesn't
say very much, but what he does say
comes from a scientist.
"I saw Roentgen's photographs the
other day," writes Carmen in the course
of his letter, "and heard Warburg, pro
fessor of physics in the "University of Ber- I
lin, and others discuss them. Lummerhad
also seen then), and there seems to be no j
doubt about the reality of the phenomenon. :
* * * The photograph of the hand, in
which only the bones and the ring are
shown, is very striking. It is, however,
not very sharp. A photograph of a mag
netic compass in a wooden case, photo
graphed through the case, is very sharp- I
indeed. We know as much here as any,
where, but there is yet no consensus of
opinion as to what the phenomenon really •
is. The natural idea is that they are lon
gitudinal ether waves. They are, how- '
ever, very faint."
Professor Sanford is a widely known
physicist, who has made some important
discoveries in physical science, the most
important of which were his photographs
in the dark, with the so-called Hertzian
waves, made three years ago, and he is '
naturally keenly interested in Professor !
Roentgen's startling discovery of unseen
shadows, not made with light, and of a
way to tix them on photographic plates.
Sanford has experimented a little with
Roentgen's process, and has secured faint
results, but be has not had ready for use
the proper apparatus, and is not ready to
talk about his experiments.
He talKed about Roentgen's work, how
ever, yesterday, at the university, and ex
plained, in a way that people of ordinary
intelligence can understand, what Roent
gen's discovery may possibly be. The :
scientists are only guessing at the new
thing yet, though many have opinion
"The point of chief scientific interest in
the matter, which is the theory by which
Roentgen and others explain the phe
nomenon, the papers say tittle or nothing
about," said Professor Sanford. "That is,
that he has discovered a new form of
motion or vibration in the ether vibra- ;
tions that are longitudinal instead of
transverse to the Tine of progress. I :
would not express any definite opinion
about it. It would be only guessing, and
there is plenty of guessing going on. It is
a scientist's business to guess, but to find
out fore he talks. A large part of the
stuff and most of the pictures the papers
pub are necessarily fakes. It is but
natural that there should be a good deal of
slopping over about such a thing, of
course. * It is too early to make any
uetir.ite predictions as to what scientific or
practical value the discovery will have,
out it is, of course, a thing of great in
terest to physicists, and it may extend our
knowledge wonderfully."
Then the physicist led the way into a
big laboratory, full of all sorts of costly
scientific apparatus, and elucidated some
what the story (if Roentgen's X rays.
The discovery and the process of Profes
ior Roentgen (call it Kantgen, with a,
short a and a hard g) began with a
Crooke's tube, and the professor picked
up a Crooke's tube and connected it by
two wires with an induction coil, which
was in turn connected with a two-cell bat
tery. A Crooke's tube arranged for use is
a hollow sealed shell of glass of any size or
Ehape, from which the air has been very
marly but not quite exhausted, and into '
which run platinum wires connected with
the opposite poles of a battery.
The bulb of an incandescent electric !
lieht is a pretty good Crooke's tube. The ;
one that Professor Sanford picked up
was made to show extra effects. It was of i
two compartments— one a small one— be- I
tween which there was free connection :
through a slender glass tube bent double j
and then into the form of a cross. Air or 1
fluid passing between the compartments i
would go up, around and back through I
the cross. Ihe professor set the current at ]
work and instantly the Crooke's tube be- i
came a thing of beauty. Around one of
the wire ends at one end of the tube there ■
appeared a purple glow that was simply a
mass of fluorescence in the vacuum. The
wire itself gave out no light. At the other
end of the tube was a much smaller fluor
escence. The glass cross glowed with a
beautiful greenish light, which seemed to j
stream through the cross but not leave it.
Now, this Crooke's tube, as it lay there j
glowing with its strange light, was ready!
to produce one of Roentgen's photographs ;
if things had been lixed right around it.!
Vibrations of some sort — X rays —
were surely beaming from it in all direc
tions, Bbisme through the box on which the
tube lay, as sunlight would shine through i
a glass case, and if the reporter had I
The Apparatus by Which Professor Sanford Photographs With Invisible Hertzian
[Sketched by a "Call" artist.}
possessed a sense capable of perceiving
those rays he might have seen before him
the skeleton of the professor of physics as
one might see tron or wooden bones in a
glass manikin when the white sunlight
shone through it.
But now don't think that this pretty
light, the vibrations that the human eye
is capable of perceiving, would have any
thing to do with the Roentgen photo
graph. Scientists would have said so,
until Roentgen accidentally discovered
something the other day, that arrange
ment of batten', induction coil • and
vacuum was setting up different kinds of
vibratory motions that variously rolled
out through the surrounding ether, air
and solid substances, as a Big turbine
wheel, for instance, might cause all sorts
of heavy and light, slow and rapid, shak
ings through the water and the mill. If
that arrangement had been set up before a
scientist a few centuries ago the only phe
nomenon he would have perceived would
have been the glow of light, because the
particular vibrations producing it are the
only ones of the lot that man happens to
have a sense to perceive.
Since a century and more ago when man
learned by experiment to recognize the
electric current by its effect on something
besides sense, the ordinary force of the
electric current would have been recog
nized in that simple arrangement of Pro
fessor Sanford's.
That makes two things that would have
been the limit of the forces of nature
: which man would have perceived that ar
rangement on the laboratory table setting
into activity up to a very "few years ago.
Then Hertz found a new sort of vibrations
proceeding from an induction coil and es
pecially from the neighborhood of an elec
tric discharge and these are now called
; Hertzian waves. They are not light, heat,
'or the electric current. They are vibra
tions that flow outward from their source
like light from a thing that glows, and un
til Hertz stumbled on them so recently
nobody ever dreamed that such things
! were bustling about in the universe. These
Hertzian waves Professor Sanford knew to
! be in operation there.
And now comes Professor Roentgen
( with the discovery that from this arrange
; ment described there proceeds what is be
i lieved to be a kind of vibration more dis
: tinct from the other sorts than the Hertzian
waves are from light. No sense can per
! ceive it, and it is being recognized and
studied by its effects, noticed now for the
first time. It illustrates how little man is
capable of perceiving. This was the way
Professor Sanford talked over his Crooke's
"There are many peculiar phenomena
which take place in Crooke's tube, and
they have been studied for about fifteen
years. If the air is entirely exhausted
there can be no spark produced in one.
They are generally exhausted to from the
one-thousandth to the one ten-thousanth
part of an atmosphere. The end of the
wire connected with the negative pole of
the battery is called the cathode, and the
effect appears to proceed from the cathode.
When the current is started the particles
of rarefied gas are electrified and driven off
from the cathode with great force.
"If there is sufficient gas it becomes
luminous tnrough the particles striking
each other. When the particles can reach
the walls of the tube and pound against
them, they set up a fluorescence in the
glass. I'robabiy they cause the glass to
set up light vibrations in the ether. The
cathode rays are not the X rays of Roent
gen, nor are they rays of light. They are
the steams of gas "particles as they are
repelled from the cathode, and it is rather
their effect which is talked about.
"If I put certain substances near this
tube they will likewise fluoresce as has
been known for some time. It has not
been known that the cathode rays would
produce the same effect when the fluores
cence was hidden, though it had been dis
covered that when a tiny sheet of alumi
num is set in the tube like a pane of glass
the cathode rays striking on this opaque
window would produce a fluorescence in a
proper substance placed behind it.
"Roentgen accidentally discovered in
his laboratory that a sheet of paper moist
ened with double cyanide of barium and
platinum and left near a Crooke's tube
when the tube was covered with a black
cloth would show fluorescent effects, show
ing that the cloth was transparent to the
cause of the fluorescence. He followed
this discovery with his experiments. The
effects secured can hardly be explained by
any knowledge or theories held before.
The rays from the Crooke's tube, which
produced Roentgen's new fluorescent ef
fects and later his photographic effects
after passing through wood and flesh, are,
of course, not light, and they are not
Hertzian waves evidently. His theory is
that the gaseous particles, striking against
the glass, produce a vibration which sets
up waves or vibrations in the ether dif
ferent from any other kind of motion. He
thinks that they are longitudinal ether
* "We have no sense that enables us to
take cognizance of the ether as we can of
light and heat, but we know that light
and radiant heat are vibrations in an elas
tic medium, and we call that medium the
ether. It must pervade all bodies, because
some form of radiation can pass through
all bodies at a velocity far greater than it
would be if the bodies themselves trans
mitted it. The ether is as real to physicists
as matter. We know only one kind of
ether waves, and they are now all included
in the term radiation. We know no limit
to their lengths. One very small octave
in the range of wave lengths we can per
ceive by the eye as light.
"Now, every kind of ether waves or vi
brations that we know anything about
can be reflected, refracted and polarized.
"We also know that all the kinds of ether
waves with which we are acquainted are
transverse vibrations; that is, the vibra
tions are back and forth across the line or
plane of motion, like waves in water or in
a rope when it is shaken, or like the vibra
tions of a string. When we speculate
about Roentgen's rays being longitudinal
Hand, photographed from life on January 17, 1890, X rays being used after the method of Professor Roentgen in the
Physical Staat Laboratory of Hamburg. The plates, while the picture was taken, were lying in a closed box. The
rays had to penetrate the hand, as well as the wooden cover of the box.
[Reproduced from a. photograph made in Hamburg. Sent by Henri Windel, Berlin.]
vibrations in the ether we mean that they
are liKe sound vibrations, in which the vi
brations are back and forth on the line of
motion without crossing it. In sound vi
brations tte air goes out on a straight
line, stops with a condensation and goes
on again. Sound is the only kind of longi
tudinal vibrations we know anything
"It has been recognized by physicists
! that there is no theoretical "reason why
j there should not be longitudinal in
; the ether, but it has been supposed that the
| ether was so nearly incompressible- that
i the waves would have almost infinite
j velocity and length and hence could not
ibe perceived. All elastic bodies, solid,
: liquid and gaseous, transmit, longitudinal
• waves, and as the ether is an elastic body
it would certainly transmit them too.
i Roentgen has discovered that his new rays
i cannot be reflected, refracted or polarized,
as we can do with all known kinds of ether
\ vibrations. So Roentgen thinks that lie
has discovered a new kind of radiation.
What longitudinal ether waves would do
we do not know.
"Whatever Roentgen's discovery may
j b-5 it is an important find. Anything that
; will throw light on electrical phenomena
I is of value to science. We are calling on
the ether to explain heat, light and elec
trical effects, and probably all effects
which we class under chemical and mag
• netic attractions and repulsions, and even
i gravitation, as far as we have any hope of
. explaiuing it.
"It should be remembered that we have
before produced photographs with electrical
i waves not luminous, and others have done
i to a certain extent what Roentgen has
done and without the aid of light, except,
j we can refract and reflect the waves which
, have been presumed to produce the effects.
: In 1893 I produced photographs in the dark
! with the use of electrical waves, and I have
attributed them to the Hertzian waves. It
j is barely possible that my pictures were
' due to the X rays.
! "A great general misconception about
! Roentgen's discovery and its possibilities
i would be corrected if it were remembered
that his rays cannot be reflected by any
i thing or refracted by a lens of any sub
stance. Hence no image can be produced.
The rays pass through substances trans
j parent or translucent to them and cast
shadows on the negative which are fixed
there. It is wholly the fixation of shad
ows. The bones of the hand being opaque
to the rays cast their shadow on the plate
when the rays pass through the hand. The
negatives used are prepared for the effect
of light. Negatives better adapted to these
rays may be expected to be invented."
Professor Sanford set up the simple ap
paratus by which he photographed coins
and so on in the dark three years ago.
Two wires were run from an induction coil
connected with a battery. A thin little
box was the whole photograph gallery.
One wire was passed into the box on each'
side. One wire connected with a medal
fastened to the side of the box. The other
wire connected with a metal plate facing
the medal. Between the two was slipped
a negative shut up in a plate-holder and
the current turned on. The experiment
was not carried through, but if it had been
the plate, after fifteen or twenty minutes,
would have shown, on development, a fair
picture of the medal. Sanford's theory is
or was that the Hertzian waves beamed
back and forth between the medal and the
metal plate, passing through both the nega
tive and its case, which ere transparent
to these mysterious new Hertzian vibra
tions. The medal becomes, as it were,
glowing with unseen Hertzian waves, to
which the wood is as glass. The raised
parts of the medal being nearer the nega
tive, though ever so little,, would produce
a deeper effect for that reason, and this
effect would be reproduced in the printing.
But then maybe it was longitudinal waves
in there. - , .
The J. Ray May Oblige Us to Rearrange Our
The Call is in receipt of Professor Roent
gen's communication to the Wurzburg
Physical Society, entitled "A New i Form
of Radiation." In his pamphlet the pro
fessor advances the theory that the new
rays, improperly called cathode rays, are
longitudinal vibrations of the ether. He
does not profess to know absolutely what
they are even that they are rays" at all.
But Jaumann in a paper on "Longitudinal
Light" argues that this theory will ac
count for many obscure phenomena asso
ciated with the cathode rays discovered
by Lenard. y •
yln ' his pamphlet Professor Roetgen
says: ' . t
If we pass the discharge from a large Rubm
fcorff coil through a Hittorf or a sufficiently
exhausted Lenard, Crooke's, or similar appa
ratus, and cover the tube with a somewhat
closely fitting mantle of thin black cardboard,
we observe in a completely darkened room
mat a paper screen washed with barium
platino-cyanide lights up brilliantly and
fluoresces equally well, whether the treated
side or the other be turned toward the dis
charged tube. Fluorescence is still observable
two meters away from the apparatus. It is
easy to convince one's self that the cause of
the fluorescence is the discharge apparatus
and nothing else. " y y ' ;-' • •* "
most striking feature of this phenome
non is that an Influence (agens) capable of ex
citing brilliant fluorescence is able to pass
through the black cardboard cover, which
transmits none of the ultra-violet rays of the
sun or of the electric arc, and one" immedi
ately inquires whether other bodies possess
this property. It is soon discovered that all
bodies are transparent to this influence, but in
very different degrees. A few examples will
suffice: Paper is very transparent; the fluo
rescent screen held behind a volume of 1000
pages still lighted up brightly: the printer's
ink offered no perceptible obstacle. Fluores
cence was also noted behind two packs of
cards ; a few cards held between apparatus and
screen made no perceptible difference. A single
sheet of tinfoil is scarcely noticeable; only
after several layers have been laid on the top
of each other is a shadow clearly visible on the
The Crooke's Tube That Fluoresced and Beamed X Rays in Professor Sanford's
[Sketched by a "CaU" artist.]
screen. Thick blocks of wood are also trans
parent; fir planks 2cm. to 3cm. thick are but
very slightly opaque. A film of aluminum
about 15mm. thick weakens the effect very
considerably, although it does not entirely
destroy the fluorescence. Several centimeters
of vulcanized indiarnbber let the rays
through. Glass plates of the same thickness
behave in a different way, according as they
contain lead (flint glass)" not; the former
are much less transparent than the latter.
If the hand be held between the discharging
tube and tho screen the dark shadow of the
bones is visible within the slightly dark
shadow of the hand. Water, bisulphide of
carbon and various other liquids behave in
this respect as if they were very transparent.
I was not able to determine whether water was
more transparent than air. Behind plates of
copper, silver, lead, gold, platinum, fluores
cence Is still clearly visible, but only when the
plates are not too thick. Platinum o.2mm.
thick is transparent; silver and copper sheets
may be decidedly thicker. Lead ,I.smm.
thick is as good as opaque, and was on this ac
count often made use of. A wooden rod of
20x20mm. cross section, painted white, with
lead paint on one side, behaves in a peculiar
manner. When it is interposed between ap- I
paratus and screen it has almost no effect when i
the X rays go through the rod parallel to the
painted side, but it throws a dark shadow if
the t rays have to traverse the paint. Very
similar to the metals themselves are their salts,
whether solid or in solution.
These experimental results and others lead
to the conclusion that the transparency of dif
ferent substances, of the same thickness is
mainly conditioned by their density: no other
property is in the least comparable with | this.
The following experiments, however, show
that density is not altogether alone in its in
fluence. I experimented on the transparency
of nearly the same thickness of glass,, alum
inum, calcspar and quartz. The density of
these substances is nearly, the same, and yet it
was quite evident that the spar was decidedly
] less transparent than the other bodies, which
were very much like each other in their be
! havior. I have not observed c?.lcspar fluoresce
in a manner comparable with glass.
With increasing thickness all bodies be
come less transparent. In order to rind a law
connecting transparency with thickness I
I made some photographic observations, the
j photographic plate being partly covered with
1 tin increasing number of sheets of tinfoil.
I Photometric measurements will be undertaken
when I am in possession of a suitable photo
! meter.
The retina of the eye is not susceptible to
these rays. An eye brought close up to the
1 discharge apparatus perceives nothing, al
though, accordiug to experiments made, the
media contained in the eye are fairly trans
! parent.
A number of experiments are cited as
showing that the X rays cannot be re
fracted or reflected, and, therefore, cannot
: be concentrated by lenses.- Neither, he
says, can they be deflected by a magnet.
; His experiment showing that the cathode
rays and the X rays are different is re
lated as follows :
After experiments bearing specially. on this
question (deflection by magnet), it is certain
that the spot on the wall of the discharge ap
paratus which flouresces most decidedly must '■
I be regarded as the principal point of the radia-
i tion of the X rays in all directions. The X
[ rays thus start from the point at which, ac
i cording to the researches of different Investi
gators, the cathode rays impinge upon the
wall of the glass tube. If one deflects the ca
thode rays within the apparatus by a magnet,
it is' found that the X rays are emitted from
another spot— is to say, from the new ter
mination of the cathode stream.
On this account also, the X rays, which are
| not deflected, cannot be merely unaltered re
flected cathode rays passing through the glass
; wall. The greater density of the glass outside
j the discharge tube cannot, according to Len
| ard, be made responsible for the great differ-
I ence in the "deflec lability."
| 1 therefore come to the conclusion that the
i X rays are not identical with the cathode rays,
i but that they are generated by the cathode
I rays at the glass wall of the discharge
apparatus; , .
I 1 his excitation does not only taKe place in
; glass, but also in aluminum, as I : was able to
; ascertain with an apparatus closed by a sheet
of aluminum 2mm. thick. Other substances
I will be studied later on.
The article continues:
The justification for -giving the name of
i "rays" to the influence 1 emanating from the
: wall of the discharge apparatus depends
I partly on the very regular shadows which
i they form when one interposes more or less
j transparent bodies between the -. apparatus
j and the fluorescing screen or: photographic
plate. Many such shadow pictures, the for
! mation of which possesses a special charm,
j have I observed photographically. - For ex
! ample, I possess photographs of the shadow
,of . the profile of the door • separating the
j room in which was the discharge apparatus
j from the room in which was the photographic
plate; also photographs of the shadows of
the bones of the hand, of the shadow of a wire
wound on a ; wooden j spool, of a weight In
closed in a small box, of a compass in which
the magnetic needle is completely surrounded
by metal, of a piece of metal the lack of
homogeneity of which was brought out by me
X rays, etc. - . y, ... . . • |
To show the rectilinear propagation oi -the I
X rays there i* a pin-hole photograph, which I
I was able to take by means of the discharge
apparatus covered with black paper. Ihe
image is weak, but unmistakably correct.
I looked very carefully for interference phe
nomena with X rays, but unfortunately, per- '
haps only on account of the small intensity of ;
the rays, without success.
Researches to determine whether electro
static forces affect X rays in any way have
been begun, but are not completed.
If we ask what X rays, which certainly can
not be cathode rays, really are, we are led at
first sight, owing to their powerful fluorescing
and chemical properties/to think of ultra
violet light. But we immediately encounter
serious objections. If X rays be in reality
ultra-violet light this light must possess tho
following characteristics:
(a) It must show no perceptible refraction
on passing from air into water, bisulphide of
carbon, aluminum, rock salt, zinc, etc.
(b) It must not be regularly reflected to any
appreciable extent from the above bodies.
(c) It must not be polarizable by the usual
(d) Its absorption must not be influenced by
any of the properties of substances to the same
extent as it is by their density.
. In other word's, we must assume that these
ultra-violet rays behave in quite a different
manner to any infra-red, visible or ultra-violet
rays hitherto known. I could not bring myself
to this conclusion, and I have, therefore, sought
another explanation.
There seems at least some connection be
tween the new rays aud light rays in the
shadow pictures, and in the fluorescing and
chemical activity of both kinds of rays. Now,
it has been long'known that besides the trans
verse light vibrations, longitudinal.vibrations
might take place in the ether, and, according
to the view of diil'erent physicists, must take
place. Certainly their existence has not up
till now been made evident, and their proper
ties have not on that account been experi
mentally investigated.
May not the new rays be due to longitudinal
vibrations in the ether?
I must admit that I have put more and more
faith in this idea in the course of my research,
and it behooves me, therefore, to announce my
suspicion, although I know well that this ex
planation requires further corroboration.
tat, December, 1895.
In commenting editorially on this com
munication, the London Electrician has
this to say:
It may not be without interest at the present j
moment to recall the main points of difference i
and of similarity between Roentgen and i
Lenard rays— to use two brief and convenient
expressions. Roentgen rays are not deflected
by a magnet; Lenard rays are. Roentgen rays
suffer far less absorption and diffusion than
Lenard rays. Lenard found that his cathode
rays failed to pass through anything but the
thinnest soap films, glass and aluminum foil,
etc. ; the Roentgen variety will traverse sev
eral centimeters of wood and several milli
meters of metal or glass. Roentgen was able
to take "shadowgraphs" and detect fluores
cence 200 centimeters away from the
discharge tube; six or eight centimeters
were enough to wipe out Lenard rays in air
at atmospheric pressure, and even in hydro
gen gas. at only 0".01(>4 millimeters pressure,
the "radiation length" for cathode rays was
only 130 centimeters, hydrogen at atmos
pheric pressure behaving as a decidedly tor
pid medium. These are, however, rather dif
ferences in degree than in kind. Lenard rays
emanate, of course, from the cathode itself,
but Roentgen rays, according to their dis
coverer, start from 'the luminiscent spot on
the glass wall of the discharge tube at which
the cathode rays terminate. The points of
similarity between Roentgen and Lenard rays
are their photographic activity, their recti
linear prooagatlon (as evidenced by the sharp
shadows cast) and the fact that In both cases
it would seem the total mass of molecules i
contained in unit volume ot any substance
practically determines its transparency. All I
things tend to show that we are on the verge '
of a great scientific discovery, which may
oblige us, nolens volens, to "rearrange our j
Sneak-Thieves Entered S. Son
nenfeld's Store on Kearny
Customers' Jewels Left to Be Repaired
Are Taken — Not the First *
While S. Sonnenfeld was at luncheon
yesterday noon his store at 321 Kearny
street was, he declares, entered by a sneak
thief, a Yale lock having been picked to
gain admission.
When the proprietor returned to his
place of business about 1 o'clock he at
once missed the contents of a jewel tray,
and an examination disclosed the loss of a
number of tides of jewelry which differ
ent individuals had left with him to be re
Mr. Sonnenfeld says the intrinsic value
of the jewels was $200, but that he pre
sumes many of them have an additional
value to their owners through certain as
This, it seems, is not the first time such
a theft has been attempted during the
noon hour. About a month ago Mr. Son
nenfeld happened to return from luncheon
earlier than usual and found a kit of tools
in his store, but whoever owned them had
Several People Injnred by Vehicles on
Public Thoroughfares.
Julius Olsen, a street sweeper, was run
into yesterday forenoon about 10 o'clock
while at work on Fillmore street, the shaft
of a buggy driven by Sanford J. Lewald
striking him violently in the right breast.
The injured man was at once taken to the
Lane Hospital near by. A
showed that one rib had been fractured.
Olsen is a man about 40 years of a»e
and lives at 337 Clementina street. Al
though he was suffering much pain yester
day afternoon the hospital authorities as
sert that he ought to be out and about in a
we^k or two. '«';; iy yy
Freddie Qutlici, the six-year-old son of
Venanzio Quilici. living at 1617 Powell
street, wa3 struck by a milk wagon at 2
o'clock yesterday afternoon and was se
verely bruised about the mouth and tem
ples. The child had suddenly dashed out
from behind a bakery wagon standing
near the curb and it was only through the
presence of mind of T. N. Belden, the
driver of the milk wagon, in swinging and
stopping his team, that a more serious ac
cident was avoided. A charge of battery
was entered against Belden pending an ex
amination as to the extent of the child's
injuries, rJeiden was afterward released
and exonerated from blame.
J. J. Scoville, secretary of the Veterans'
Home Association, had a rib broken last
Saturday afternoon while out driving near
Yountville. He had stopped to water his
horse at a stream when the animal became
frightened and dashed forward, hurling
Mr. Scoville to the ground. The wheels j
passed over him. The six-year-old child i
of Director Strohl was in the buggy at the I
time and was hurled into the water but j
was not hurt.
St. Louis is the largest tobacco manufac
turing center in the world.
,*4&£^^iJlll^ Choice Bulbs and Plants.
w e prepay the postage and guarantee safe delivery of the Plants.
\f^^^^^m^>^\ Set A-3 Beautiful Palms, 3 sorts, strong plants 50c
Jlfl/l^isisraE^O^ * B- 10^^ Carnations, 10 sorts SOc 1
aWtml \&%V%&3&fr4s>a^ Jr.e - w »nning Chrysanthemums, 10 sorts 50c Any
IWmkfflLWM^Sm F~l rrS^rt i doub L c Petunia ». 5 kinds 50c 3 SetS
Choice Bulbs and Plants.
W e prepay the postage and guarantee safe delivery of the Planta.
Set £~?« B . auti ! ul Pa,m ». 3 sorts, strong plants 50c
J*-* 0 Lovely Carnations, 10 sorts SOc Any
<g-V 0 Pnze-winmng Chrysanthemums, 10 sorts 50c ADy
D-5 Superb double Petunias, 5 kinds 50c 3 SetS
s~fJ^"d large-fiowercd deraniums, 5 kiuds..soc „ „
WIWIM^KNv^ M\ # v ' 1 Alm Ele £ ant everblooming Roses, 10 kinds 50c -J? «■
K ~ lO Flowering Plants, viz: 1 Fuchsia, 1 Heliotrope, $ I - 25
x ' 1 Mancttia Vine, 1 Carnation, 1 Geranium, or
V'/wVuJJ I Solaum, 1 Petunia, 1 Aoutilon, 1 Hydran- • 5 Sets
IMI; - Bea, 1 Chrysanthemum.... 50c ° l
OVinlPt Phnto r:n« 3 p lants New Ca,if - violet, *:?*
4 xio^^^^^^. [£ ""'»»■ HdIUS, QUC. 3 . ad - MUot - 3 Sawnley $2^P
«^^^^^di^^ Send for OUr lUust ™ ted Catalogue. It contains a
S^^m}' :i m*BaWtf 1,1 y* ~ . complete list of our Flower, Vegeta-
p t s; i^ ra^,V S 1 ,' r'. Tree a » d Shrub Seeds, Fruit Trees and Small
* nuts our latest importations from Germany, France, Poland
table See^y^cOY op Fft A S^S"^* 52? "f^ ? **"" **
COX SEED AND PLANT CO., San Francisco .
411, 413 Sensome Street
Some Splendid Suggestion* to Men and
Women In Middle Life.
"A man is as old as he feels, a woman as old
as she looks." The number of years is of less
importance. There are thousands of old peo
ple who seem to be always young, and many .
would gladly learn the secret of i their wonder
ful energy, strength and vigor . r ■ ; /
Why is it that these remarkable old people
are able to keep so strong and veil ? Whyis it
that they are never complaining of colds,
coughs, grip, chills or other forms of sickness?
Perhaps the secret may be discovered by read
ing what some vigorous people of advanced
age have to say on the subject.
Melson Johnson, a leading resident of Knox
ville, Pa., says: "Some time ago I decided to
test the virtues of Duffy's pure malt whiskey.
It completely cured me of the grip from which
I whs Buffering. lam 82 years ot age, and find
that a little of this whiskey is the best thing
for keeping up health and strength that I ever
John Peddicord,ls Bond st., Baltimore, says:
"I am neaflv 90 years of age. Some time ago I
contracted a severe cough, which weakened
me considerably. I was fortunately persuaded
to take Duffy's pure malt whiskey, which soon
set me to rights. It is a splendid thing for
building up the system."
These are only two cases selected from thou
sands, but they are enough to show that Duffy s
pure malt is unequalea for its bracing, ener
gizing, stimulating effects. For this reason
care should be taken that no worthless imita
tion is substituted by grocers or druggists. Do
not be led to take anything but Duffy's pure
malt whiskey. Be sure that you get it, for
there's nothing else that can possibly take its ■
place. __________
The Best Bicycle Made \
FOR $85.00. . \
Full Line of Bicycle Sundries. \
at Lowest Prices.
ZBU4?i4yZ _/
Ely's Cream BabKgjSn
Cleanses the Nasal Wi^ :^Af^l.." , l
Passages. Allays Pain yuSrrvrL^a^J
and Inflammation, KjU *"EVER V M
Restores the Senses of Sbjs i/.^,y
Taste and Smell. M v S^^K
Heals the Sores. Wt^f^
Apply Halm Into each nostril wmmVkiZXKi^l^^Sk
KLYIiKOS,S6WarrSu st.N.Y mmWZS^^f^^jM
St. Joseph's Sanitarium.
agement of the Sisters of Mercy. Invalids re-
ceive the best of care and fine rooms at reasonable
rates. Persons or old age, without reference to
creed or nationality, may secure a home for life
Including care and medical attendance durin»
sickness by the payment of from one to two
thousand dollars. Each person is provided with a
private room. Climate unsurpassed, being free
from extremes of heat and cold. Sixth street and
University avenue, Sun Diego, Cal.
. A remedy used exclusively by a physician of
30 years' experience. A positive and unfailing
guaranteed cure for primary, secondary ana .
tertiary cases of blood disease. No case in-
curable. New cases cured in two weeks. Con-
sultation and full information free.
Koom 1, 632 Market St.. San Francisco.
J- eyes and flt them to Spectacles or Eyeglasses
with instruments of his own Inveutioa, warn*
superiority has not been equated. My success Ml
wen due to the merits ot my world
Office Hours— l 2 to 4v. v.
in st. mm siHTAtim,
Send for Circular.

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