: THE CORONA, as Seen July 29, 1878, During the Solar Eclipse, Wherein the
.-..• .Sun Was Situated Nearly in the Same Part of the Heavens as It Will Be
■:.:":' ' jn'the Coming Eclipse.
Actual Path of the Moon's Shadow Over the Earth During the Coming Eclipse
of August 8 and 9, 1896.
LIGHT FOR A CENT A YEAR
; ■ "THE. ' J^EW W\qj*ETO-ELECJRIC ILLUMINE JION WILL BE ALJ^IOSJ
•V" > • AS CJ4E^f. AS DAYLIQJ-1J /\FTEJ* J)iE f LAJ^T ■ .
•'; : : : " -.' HAS BEE|i fy\lD FOp
• . It is less than twenty years ago since the ;
• introduction of tbe electric lieht, and I
while inventive genius has been busy de- :
vising' many improvements in the neces- 1
sa'ry mechanism of electric production and
application yet such improvements have
not given to the public cheap light.
v>'iien,in 1877, the newspapers published
• tbe statement of Mr. Edison, that "he
■would be able to produce within a year J
' electric illumination for domestic use at a ;
]'ess«r cost than that ot gas," many of the j <
small Holders of pas stocks sold their
• holdings* at a very low price, because they
tliought that eas was to be supplanted by
the new light. Alaß for our hopes! The j
beautiful and brilliant electric light is not !
a 'cheap illuminant.
There has now been discovered a princi
ple in magneto-electrics that upsets all
■previous theories and bids fair to solve
the problem of cheap lighting by render
ing it possible to produce the electric light
(as well as electric power) at a ridiculously
• low cost.
. Recent investigations and experiments '
show it to be practical to apply the newly
discovered principle to present systems
and reduce the cost of the light to less
than 1 per cent of what it now costs.
If we wrap some insulated wire around
fhe ends or poles of a magnet, then any
change which may take place in the j
Strength or intensity of the magnet will I
produce a current of electricity on the in
.sulated wire, and this current may be con
veyed to a distance by the use of conduct
If at any place or places in the conduct
ing wire we insert a substance which offers
a greater resistance to the flow of the cur
rent than does the wire, the substance will
. get hot, owing to tne energy of the current
being expended at that place in overcom
ing the resistance, and so producing heat. |
Kow, the electric lamps which we use at
the present time consist of resistances,
■which are extremely great as compared
■with the resistance of the conducting wire.
In"the incandescent lamp a filament of
carbon is used, while in the arc lamp the
carbon pencils are kept separated, and the
sir between the points of the carbons is
employed as the resistance. The current
. . of electricity when it arrives at one of these
points of resistance converts its energy
into heat of sufficient intensity to render
the resisting substance luminous.
The electric current is produced by rap
idly revolving the armature of the dynamo
jn close contact with the poles of the dy
namo magnet, which are wrapped with in
sulated wire. Each revolution ot the ar
- mature weakens and strengthens alter
nately the intensity of the magnet, and so
produces a current of electricity on the in
. Now the work of rotating the armature
.calls for the expenditure of power, and
here is where the cost comes in. The cost
of the'electric light must always depend
•upon the cost of the power employed.
Where coal is used as a power producer,
the.cost must necessarily be high. Again,
• the present crude and faulty construction
6f the resistance points, i.e., the lamps,
renders it impossible to convert into light
all the electrical energy developed ; by far I
: the larger portion is always non-luminous
heat. "With an ideal lamp, ten times the
number of Jighta could be lit by the same
amount of electrical energy that is now re
quired to maintain one lamp.
■ The law of magnetic attraction, as laid
down in the textbooks, is that "Like
Doles repel; unlike poles attract." That
is, the north pole of one magnet will at
tract tha south pol« and repel the north
'pole of another magnet.
Tho discoverer of the carious phenom
enon I am about to describe was experi
menting with a couple of ordinary steel
magnets placed with opposite poles in po
• tition, and consequently exercising an at
traction for each other, when it was found
that the introduction of a thin aliver of
soft iron between the poles of the two
magnets completely changed the nature
of their power ; the like poles attracted and
the unlike ones repelled.
Diagram A will help to exphvin the phe
nomenon. The magnet "A" is rigidly axed (
and magnet "B" ib pivoted upon a horizon
tal axis, so that if may oscillate. A piece of i
thin, soft iron is suspended so as to pass I
freely between the ends of the two mag- i
nets. The cord supporring the soft Iron
passes over a pulley and is attached to the !
end of magnet "B.:
Without the presence of the soft iron
the poles of the two magnets exercise at
traction, and the magnet '"U" is held in a
horizontal position. When, however, the
piece of soft iron drops in between the
magnets the attraction is immediately
changed to repulsion, and the end of mag
net "B." which is free to move, is forced
downward. The piece of sofi iron is con
nected by the supporting cord in such
manner that, when the end of magnet
"B" drops, it raises t c soft iron and
thereby permits attraction, causing the
end of "B" to then rise: but, in so doing,
it drops the soft iron, the presence of
which causes repulsion. A series of alter
nate attractions and repulsions is thus
produced, communicating to magnet "B"
a motion of rapid oscillation.
To make practical application of this
phenomenon to the production of light a
machine is constructed, as shown in dia
The magnet "A" is rigidly attached to a
support, and magnet "B" pivoted on a
horizontal axis, so that its poles are free
to revolve in a vertical circle in front of
the poles of magnet -'A." The strip of
soft iron is suspended from an eccentric
that is driven by means of a cord which
passes around a pulley fixed to the spindle
of magnet "B."
Once started magnet "B" must revolve,
and at each revolution it changes the mag
netic intensity of magnet "A." A spool
or helix of insulated wire surrounds each
pole of magnet "A," and this wire is
charged by a current of electricity gener
ated in ptecisely the same manner as is
the current created by our present form of
dynamo. It is, in fact, the same kind of
current, and it may be taken from the
spools and conveyed away and used, as is
Diagram A — lllustrating the Principle of
the Magnetic Motor.
Diagram B— The Magnetic Generator.
Diagram C — The Electric Lamp of the
the current we now employ in present
systems of electric lighting.
A number of inventors are busily en
gaged in the development of a lamp based
upon the known characteristic of electri
cal discharges to become luminous in a par
THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, StTNTJAY, AUGUST 2, 1896.
THE MOM WILL '
CAST HER SHADOW ON THE
JOTAL EGLIPSE OF JHE SUN ON JHE 9TH OF
/UJQUST JO BE OBSERVED AT YEZO
BY LICK ASTRONOMERS
Before the present week has passed as
tronomers will have gleaned some further
knowledge about the mysterious surround
ings of the sun, which for centuries have
been a cause of wonder and investigation
when revealed to view for a few minutes
by a total solar eclipse.
The intensity of sunlight is such that it
is only on the rare occasions when the
moon acts as a screen, by passing between
the earth and sun, that the solar append
ages, the chromosphere, the prominences
and the corona can be most advantage
ously studied. The latter, indeed, has
rarely if ever been discerned at other
times. This is tbe incentive that has led
astronomers from all parts of tbe globe to
travel to those favoied spots that lie in
the track of the moon's shadow, with in
struments devised years in advance and
plans prearranged so as to forestall any
obstacles that might interfere with their
California ha 3 not forgotten the view of
the sun's corona obtained January 1, 1889,
and her astronomers are foremost in the
expeditions that have been prepared to
observe th^ eclipse occurring on the Bth
of this month in far distant lands, for the
sun has set on the Pacific Coast before it
They are fully equipped with the best
portable instruments, and all expenses
including that of a journey to Japan, have
been defrayed by the generosity of Colonel
C. F. Crocker, Mrs. Phoebe Hearst and the
Hon. William M. Pierson.
As may be seen from the diagram rep
resenting the theory of total solar eclipses,
a tapering shadow projects from tbe moon
to the earth, and though correct relative
sizes and distances are necessarily ignored
it may be seen that the dark shadow
meets the surface before the cone is ter
minated, which occurs when the earth's
satellite is at or near perigee and also at
or very near its node. It will then be j
some thousands ot miles less than its
mean distance of 238,800 miles from the
j earth, and its disk, being nearer than j
usual, will seem slightly larger than that
of the sun, and will cover that luminary
completely for a few minutes.
The lighter shading in the diagram is
the penumbra, which extends around the
darker shadows or umbra, and falls on aj
much larger area, in which tbe sun is seen |
j more or less partially eclipsed; but these ;
views nave not thescientific importance of |
the few minutes of total eclipse with
which a limited area is favored.
These valuable minutes will be well
utilized by the dozen or more parties who
have traveled afar to waylay the small ;
shadow as it flits over the path marked on
tha accompanying map, commencing in the
Arctic seas near Norway and terminating ■
in the North Pacific Ocean. This path of
totality on the present occasion, as may be
seen, lies far from the centers of civiliza
tion and the radiance of the corona will
glimmer unseen over the wilds of Siberia i
and ba mirrored only in the heedless waves
for many thousands of miles.
It is to be hoped, however, that many of
its choicest rays may fall on the object
glasses that have been sent ao far to re
flect its marvelons structure. While the
features of the solar disk may be observed
at all times with magnifying power, all
the strange surroundings beyond it are
invisible to observers in general. Close to
the limb or circumference of tbe sun lies
the chromosphere "like a prairie on fire,"
though luminous heat there, even when
red and fire like, is far beyond the mere
burning stage, all parts being fused and
vaporous to an intensa degree unknown
on this earth. At intervals much higher
appendages appear of the same glowing
hue, which is due to hydrogen, the chief
constituent of these two phenomena.
These high prominences, often treelike or
cloudlike in form, varying in height from
thousands to hundreds of thousands of
miles, are probably jets of the lighter solar
substances thrown out by the violent
activity within the intensely heated sun.
The chromosphere and prominences can
be s en fairly well at almost any time by
means of a spectroscope, though the ab
sence of sunlight considerably facilitates
observation of details, but the corona
which extends far beyond them is the
main object of attention during totality.
It is then clearly visible to the naked eye
and has been observed since the earliest
ages with wonder and admiration. As the
body of the moon, in passing between the
earth and sun, first encroaches on tbe
west side, the orb of day assumes a strange
gibbous shape and gradually diminishes in I
tial vacuum. Crookes tubes are well
known examples of this phenomenon. In
the new lamp there is no filament of car
bon. The electrical energy is not called
upon to expand itself in the production of
heat. There is nothing to bar its prog
ress. The lamp is simply a glass tube
from which the air has been nearly all
extracted, and in the opposite ends of the
glass are blown wires which terminate
just inside the tube.
The incandescent lamp now in n?e is a
very clumsy affair. It seems to have been
based on the idea that tnere is consider
able warmth in a fight; for it offers fight
to the electrical energy that attempts to
overcome the great resistance of the car
bon filament, and compels that energy to
expend itself in the battle, mainly in the
exhibition of useless heat.
The vacuum lamp affords the elecrtica!
energy an opportunity whereby it may,
for the time being, change its dress, so to
speak, without loss of it« vitality, and
masquerade under the guise of light with
no great diminution of energy, every par
ticle of electricity manifesting itself in
luminosity and without heat.
There are no known physical or mechan
ical difficulties in the way of producing
illumination on precisely the lines here
laid down. That such a mode of lighting
has not yet been made public does not
preclude ite availability, it has passed
out from the realm of possibility, for it is
now within the domain of probability. It
is both feasible and practical. The cost of
light produced by such a syßtein as herein
described would be a mere bagatelle as
compared with what the present expense
is under existing systems. The entire ex
penditure would be in the first cost of
plant and installation. Maintenance
would be extremely little. A 16-candle
power, lamp would not cost 1 cent per
year. Frank M. Close, D. Sc.
area until reduced to a slender crencent
white and brilliant, but yielding a light
that is neither that of noon nor sunset.
Then a luminous halo seems to glimmer
into existence around the dark moon,
and radiates into wonderful beauty when
the sun is entirely obscured. This coronal
phenomenon has been variously depicted
and described, but the following descrip
tion by Professor C. A. Young accords
with general impressions:
The portion of the corona nearest the
sun is almost dazzlingly bright, with a
greenish pearly tinge which /contrasts
finely with the Ecarlet blaze of the promi
nences. It is made up of streaks and
filaments which on the whole radiate out
ward from the sun's disk, though they are
in many places strangely curved and inter
twined. Usually these filaments are
longest in tbe sunspot zones, thus giving
the corona a more or less quadrangular
figure. At the very poles of the sun, how
ever, there are often tufts of sharply de
fined threads. For the most part the
streamers have a length not much exceed
ing the sun's radius, but some of them at
almost every eclipse go far beyond this
limit. In the clear air of Colorado, during
the eclipse of 1878, two of them could be
traced for five or six degrees — a distance of
at least 9,000,000 miles from the sun.
A most striking feature of the corona
usually consists of certain dark rifts,
which reach straight out from the moon's
limb to the extremest limit of the corona.
The corona varies much in brightness at
different eclipses, and, of course, the de
tails are never twice the same. Its total
light under ordinary circumstances is at
least two or three times as great as that of
the full moon. The eclipse of this week
would in the classification of ancient as
tronomers be colled a repetition (saros) of
the eclipse of 1878, because it occurs under
the same general conditions and in nearly
the same part of the heavens after an ip
terval of eighteen years ten and a third
days. The fraction of a day causes it to
be visible in a more westerly region.
Though not a repetition, the two are con
secutive eclipses of the same series, which
extend over many centuries.
This relationship, however, affects
chiefly the duration of the eclipse, and,
beyond the visibility of the coronal rays,
will not influence their general contour.
Some of the same fixed stars will come
forth to bear witness to the absence of sun
light, and as tbe sun is in the constella
tion of Leo at present, Regulus will min
gle its white light with that of the corona.
An interesting feature of the coming scene
will be the brilliant light of the three
planets, Jupitfer, Venus and Mercury, on
the east side, within a few degrees of the
sun. Tbe results on tba\"paft of the earth !
within the shadow will he scarcely less
impressive. First comes the strange dark
ness, that unearthly shadow that may
never revisit the same landscape, speeding
with such velocity from the west; the sud
den twilight that is neither dawn nor
dusk; the unwonted violet tints in the
upper atmosphere; the yellow gleams
from the distant illuminated stratum near
the horizon, and then the weird vanishing
of all the marvels just as we commence to
What is the corona? is a question that
has been asked for centuries.
It is one of the unsettled problems of
solar physics, and for that reason the as
tronomers have gone forth to try and
bring back a satisfactory answer.
The neighborhood of Varanger Fjord,
to which a well-equipped expedition has
been sent by the Royal Astronomical So
ciety of London, is a wild, mountainous
land, an Arctic wilderness, where reindeer
moss is the only vegetation excepting a
scant herbage in the valleys cccupied by
the Norwegian fishermen. This has been
selected as a desirable station by many
European parties, though the eclipsß
takes place in the early morning hours
before the sun is far above the horizon
and the duration is less than two minutes.
Among the icebergs on the bleak coast
of Nova Zernbla a party of Russian scien
tists have sought a footing; but the rug
ged Northmen will cheerfully withstand
the chill of any surroundings except an
enveloping fog, which is too likely to be
their only sky view. Another important
Russian station is near the river Amur in
The shadow, passing in a southwest di
rection, lingers here nearly two and a half
minutes, For about the same length of
time it envelops the main portion of
Yezo, the northern island of the Japanese
An Invention for Raising Sunken Vessels by Means of Inflated Truss Bags.
empire, at 3 p. M., Augnst 9, which corre
sponds with 9:40 p. m., August 8, here, a3
Japan leads in date, being near the inter
national date line on the west side. Sev
eral English and American expeditions
have selected Yezo as an observing sta
tion. Near the east coast Professor
Schaeberle of the Lick Observatory will
again use the telescope forty feet in focal
length with which he obtained the beauti
ful photograph represented in the illustra
tion. From this and previous ones taken
in Cayenne December, 1889, he discovered 1
features in the corona not clearly dis
cerned before and was led to form his
famous theory of its probable cause.
At the same station Mr. Burckhalter of
the Chabot observatory will for the first
time practically test the ingenious ap
paratus that he invented for photograph
ing the fainter outer coronal rays with the
fullest exposure, while the brighter inner
parts are protected from over exposure by
a rapidly revolving screen composed of
tapering extensions united near the base
of tbe inner corona. If this excellent
design is successful it will save future
astronomers from studying the entire
appendage from fragmentary pictures sup
plied by instruments of different powers.
Observations and photographs will also
be taken in Yezo by other local and East
ern parties, among which are to be found
Dr. G. E. Shuey, Louis C. Masten and
Professor Todd, who has observed many
eclipses on other occasions.
Two English expeditions have been
equipped with recently revised coelastats
adapted to eclipse observations by the ex
perience and skill of Dr. Comman, presi
dent of the Royal Astronomical Society.
As shown by the Illustration it con
sists of a large mirror which reflects the
heavens toward the tube of the telescope
in the adjacent shed. Excellent results
are expected from this instrument, which
has been on trial for some time at Oxford
University. As nearly all the accessible
positions where favorable weather could
be expected are occupied by one or more
parties, it is highly probable that satis
factory results will be obtained by some,
and that these scientific expenditures will
have brought new light and knowledge
before many days have passed.
jKe Astronomical Expeditions.
The expedition to Japan for the purpose
of observing the total eclipse of the sun,
which occurs on the 9th inst., is the third
which baa been sent out under the
auspices of the Lick Observatory for this
identical object. The first expedition was
organized in 1839, and consisted of S. W.
Burnham, who is now with the Chicago
University as manager of the great 40
--mch Yerkes equatorial, and J. M.
Schaeberle, who is chief of the Japan ex
pedition of 1896. The total, eclipse of
December, 1889, was observed by the Lick
expedition at Cayenne, French Guiana,
and its expenses were defrayed, as in the
case of that of this year, by Colonel
Charles F. Crocker, whose liberality en
abled the Lick Observatory to organize its
expedition under the most complete
auspices, re-enforced by instruments of
the highest power and effectiveness. The
scientific results of the Cayenne expedi
tion fully justified the anticipations of as
Photography enabled the observers to
secure for all time visible reproductions of
solar phenomena of the eclipse, and the
astronomers from the great California
observatory achieved results which greatly
added to the reputation of the Lick among
the scientists of the world. It was dur
ing the observations at Cayenne that
Schaeberle advanced the proposition of
"A Mechanical Theory of the Solar
Corona," a theory which greatly startled
astronomers at the time, but which Pro
fessor Schaeberle demonstrated almost be
yound a doubt in his subsequent publica
The second expedition undertaken by the
Lick Observatory was one to observe the
total eclipse of the sun of April 16, 1893,
which was visible over the greater portion
of the inhabited sections in the southern
hemisphere. Chile was selected as the
most favorable location for observation,
and a little mining station of Minas
Bronces was chosen on account of its
favorable atmospheric conditions. The
expenses of the expedition were defrayed
by Mrs. Phoebe Hearst, which was equipped
with the best instruments that were avail
THE CORONA, as Observed In Chile During the Last Total Eclipse in April,
THE COELOSTAT— Showing the 16-Inch Mirror Which Reflects the Heaver
Toward the Tube of the Telescope in the Shed. The Observer Is .
Adjusting the Mirror by Means of the Theodolite Attached to It.
TO RAISE SUNKEN VESSELS .
Jf\Z BL/\IRf/10RE WOULD H/WE BEEN QUIGKLy FLOATED Wljj-i'
IMPOJ*T/\NJ DEVIGE INVENTED BY J\
Had the invention of Charles Cura
mingg of Chicago, 111., been available a
few months ago it would not have been
such a prodigious task to raise the sunken
Blairmore. That is, of course, provided
the idea works as well in practice as it
does on paper. But really it is so simple
there is absolutely no reason why it
sh ruld not work. It has been tested and
found to wort to perfection on a small
The Cummings apparatus is called by
the inventor an "inflatable truss bag."
The principle on which it works is easily
explained. Suppose a common tin can
was opened and relieved of all its solid
contents. If a small hole was then made
in the bottom, or it was forced beneath
the sdrface of a barrel full of water, it
would soon sink to the botfom. Now sup*
pose that a toy balloon, d fluted, and with
several feet of hose, one end of which was
made secure at the opening so that it
could be "blown up" at will, was made
fast to the tin can while it was on the bot
tom of the barrel of water. If. at this
point of the proceedings air was forced
through the hose the balloon would begin
to expand. When enough air had been
forced into it to displace an amount of
water corresponding to the weight of the
tin can the balloon would riso to the top,
of course bringing the tin c:m along with it.
The apparatus for which Mr. Cummings
has just received a patent consists of sev
eral bag« made of strong material, and
with ropes and chains for securing them
to the sunken vessel. The size used de
pends altogether on the size of the vessel
to be raised.
These bags are deflated and made fast to
the vessel by divers. Air is then pumped
into them from the machinery on the
wrecking steamer until enough water is
displaced 10 cause them to rise to the sur
face and bring the vessel with them.
The position in which these bags are
placed depends altogether on how it is de
sired to raise the vessel. If the vessel is
uninjured and on an even keel they could
be fastened around the bulwarks, and
when the vensel was above water she could
be towed to a drydock.
If the vessel had a hole in her bottom
the bags could be placed on one side until
she turned over. Others could then be
placed at thi keel until she was bottom
up. By placing other bags in the proper
places the vessel could be raised to the
surface in this position and the hole
repaired. By expanding or deflating the
bags on the sides the vessel can be moved
in any position with the utmost ease.
Mr. Cummings has received patents on
all parts of his apparatus. The bags are
made out of a very strong material and
provided with strips that extend across
from side to side, to give extra strength.
The method of fastening these straps so
that they will not tear through the bag is
also patented. An ordinary airpump of
large size, driven by a ?team-en?ine, can
be used, but instead of forcing the air
directly into the truss bags it first pumps
it into a receiver, where it is under the
control of the operator, who can inflate or
deflate a bag at will.
The Bed Sea Miracle.
The Red Sea miracle receives strong cor
roboration in the report of Major-General
Tulloch, who made surveys in Egypt for
the Government Of Great Britain. On one
occasion, while surveying the borders of
Lake Menzalen, on the Red Sea, a sudden
and violent storm arose, the force oi winch
wss so prodigious as to carry everything
before it, including, incidentally, the ■
water oi the lnke. In a few hours tl\e
whole body of water had been abducted
and naught remained save vessels, niua
andsand. The vessels moored M the lake "
were stranded high and dry. with no water
Parts of Holland are from ten to thirty t
feet below the level of the sea.
- NEW - TO-DAY.
From U.S. Journal of llfdMne.
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aii'J strenirth. liv.mtevery f//\\\t' ' "■!
•> Gang or old man to know • f/df '.'«V'S ■ '2^
üboatit. Ztakeaptrsonsl' . \\f\' yj ' «£3
inter: in .~nch esses, oad \\\ < f\)l » 'SW
® no one need v hesitate : to , fia-'-'M-'- tfS
writ* me, as ell communi- «ilB ' Lj* '' KB) '
® cations nre ; held : strictly •- . ■ w?--..!- " -
conodentiitl. I send the recipe of this remedytST
absolutely i reo of coat. Do not put it off, but,^r '
Mm write me folly at once, you will always bleseiJa
Q^tho day you did so.~-' Address, ' ; ". ; :' . Sf&r '
THOMAS SLATER. Boot 2283 1 .A 1
Shipper ol'fomoiu.2aUoui«« Celery KaliniiM, Hlrh.^B
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