Newspaper Page Text
THE PASSING OF A SPLENDID RACE Tke Gkinese Brought the Lining Death to^aWaii .HOPE FOR JI SCIENTIFIC LEPROSY REMEDY Dr. WinsloW /Anderson's Learned, Valuable and Interesting p^per on the Dread J^alady The ancient condition of the Hawaiian Islanders was like that of the natives of the South Pacific— especially those of Poly nesia — to whose race they belonged. It is estimated on the beat authority that the islands were inhabited as early as 600 A. D., and probably much earlier. From this time, until shipwrecked Span iards were driven by the trade winds to the Islands of Hawaii in 1527, no defi nite kuowlege of the inhabitants has been obtained. In 1555 the islands were dis covered by Juan Gaetano, and again by Captain Cook in 1778. Captain Cook esti mated that in 1778 there were over 400,000 inhabitants. In 1832 there were only 130, --000; in 18ti6the population was reduced to 59,000, and in 1896 there are about 32,000 native Hawaiians. The causes operative in the extermination of this splendid race are diseases such as consumption and measles, brought over by the early sailors and settlers. Oftentimes measles will kill off half of the inhabitants of a village when attacked. Intemperance, syphilis and other vices are responsible for many deaths. The native medicine men or "Kahunas" play no small part in Killing off these simple-minded men-of-the-sea by their superstitious and barbarous method of treating the sick. The total mortality of leprosy since its introduction into the islands has been only about 5000. Leprosy appeared on the islands for the first time in 1844, at which time several Chiness were found suffering from the disease. It is therefore known to the Ha waiians as mat pake, or Chinese disease. The first case of leprosy among the native Hawaiians occurred eight years later (1852). At the present time (1896) there are about 1200 lepers on ihe islands, ot whom about 7CO are males and about 500 are females, mostly native Hawaiians and balf whites. There are a few Chinese, English, Americans, Germans, Portu guese, Spanish, South Sea Islanders and one negro suffering from the disease. During the twenty-six years following the time leprosy first made its appearance on the Hawaiian Islands the disease spread to an alarming extent; accordingly in 18t>6, during the reien of Kamehameha V, a leper hospital was established at Kalihi, Oahu, for the purpose of segregation and isolation. Later in the same year a leper colony was founded on the beautiful island of Molokai. Here on the north ern slopes, sheltered from the winds, is a fertile valley comprising some 5000 acres. This valley is surrounded on the north, east and west by the ocean and on the south by impassable precipitous mount ains, 2000 to 3000 feet in height, formerly an extinct volcano. In this garden of the sea, with luxuriant tropical verdure, is the present site of the Hawaiian leper colony, where the unfortunate sufferers are surrounded by all the comforts the present enlightened Hawaiian Govern ment, can give them. Here they live and cue in sunshine and in peace! Origin of leprosy. As with many other diseases and social conditions, it is somewhat difficult to de tcrmina when and where leprosy origi nated. It is probable, however, that leprosy arose in the delta and valley of the Nile in prehistoric times. Leprosy ' was endemic in Egypt as eariy as 1500 j B. C, and existed in India, Palestine, Arabia and China. It was also endemic | among the Hebrews when they migrated from Egypt.— Lev. xii. Leprosy existed in Persia, and the j earlier Greek and Latin writers speak of j ihe disease. In Greece and Italy we find it as early as the first century B. C. The ' disease was probably introduced by the ] army of Pompey. From there it spread to the Roman colonies in Spain, Gaul and Britain. Charlemagne made laws regu- j lating the marriage of lepers in the seventh century. In the eleventh century we find | the disease at, Canterbury. During the i criifadcs leprosy became epidemic in i Western Europe. It was estimated that j at least 19.000 lepers existed in Europe at ! this time— lo96 to 1271 A. D. Hospitals and lazarettos were estab lished for the care and isolation of lepers all over infected Europe. Ninety-five such houses are recorded in England, .Scotland and Ireland. Bergen, Norway, established a hospital in 1277, which until late years had 2000 inmates. Leprosy is J met with even at ihe present day in many parts of the civilized world, from the frozen north of Norway and northern Russia to the sunny south of India and the Pacific islands. Within tha last six months a case was discovered on the streets of Paris ana sent to the Hospital ht. Louis, where there were already sev- i eral other patients. The hospitals in San I Kenu and in Spain and Portugal are never without leprous cases. Turkey and the lonian Islands are also infected. ' Crole alone has over bOO cases. In British ! India it is estimated that there are over! 100,000 cases. In Japan there are 100,000 i lepers. One hundred thousand cases or ! more will be found in China. The prov ince of Canton counts over 10,000 lepers. South America and Africa are infected with leprosy, so that it is impossible at present to ascertain the number of per sons afflicted with the disease. It is I safe, however, to estimate that no fewer j than from 300,000 to 350,000 cases of j leprosy exist at the present time in various parts of the world. Even San Francisco has a number of cases on hand most of the time. Caubk or leprosy. Temperature, climate, aoil, race, habits and food all have been regarded as predis posing if not ticking causes of the dis ease. That temperature has no obvious influ- j ence on the disease is manifest from the fact that Jeprosy prevails alike in Norway and India. That soil and climate are equally inop erative is shown by the fact that it occurs both on marshy soils and at high eleva tions, both on the seacoast and inland regions, both on continents and on islands. Race and habits are not specific causes, as proven by the existence of the disease } among persons of the most diverse and opposite habits. Tne theory that a fish diet is a cause of leprosy has been dis proven Dy the fact that the disease ap pears in many parts — such as the interior of Spain, for instance, where only the very wealthy can afford fish. That leprosy originates from cold and exposure and a want of vegetable diet ia also erroneous, beoause the greatest num ber of cases occur in warm climates, such as India, where clothing is never needed and where a vegetable diet alone is used. The real cause of leprosy is undoubtedly the leprous bacillus, a Email, rodlike vegetable micro-organism similar to the bacillus tuberculosis. The disease is contracted by inoculation — actual con tact of the mucous membrane or abraded parts of the cutaneous system. It is never hereditary, as is generally sun posed; but children may, and often do contract the disease from infected mothers after birth. The most usual manner of inoculation in the Hawaiian Islands 13 found to be their method of greeting. When two friends or relations, meet they first rub noses, them embrace and kiss. During this kissing process their lips are firmly pressed together and the tongue is protruded into each other's mouth. This form of salutation is no doubt responsible for the spread of the disease as much if not more than any other social custom or relation which ex ists. Another prominent method of prop asrating the disease in found ia the man ner the Hawaiians care for those afflicted with leprosy. Dr. L. F. Alvarez, in Pacific Medical Journal, January, 1895, says: •<* • • I found an unfortunate woman in a dark, low basement. She was paralyzed, blind, without finsrers or toes and had open ulcers on her arms and legs. Her friends fed her by conveying pot— a native dish not unlike bill-poster's paste — to her mouth with their fingers, and gave her water by taking a mouthful of it, fit ting their lips to the leper's and transfer ring the water to her mouth. This dis gusting manner of giving water to the sick still prevails in many Hawaiian homes where spoons are unknown. This leper woman was returned to the hospital at the leper settlement. Since then nine teen persons of her family and friends have developed leprosy, many of whom httd been nursing this woman." Leprosy undoubtedly occurs from di rect contagion — transmission of the bacil lus of Hansen — from an infected person. All animals enjoy perfect immunity from leprosy, occasionally reported cases to the contrary notwithstanding, as the bacillus in these so-called leprous animals has never been demonstrated. Incubation. The period it takes for the disease to show itself after incubation averages about six to seven years. Duration. The disease proves fatal in from ten to twenty years. It is not the object of this article to dis cuss the pathology of leprosy. Suffice it to say that three well-marked varieties of the disease exist, viz., tubercular leprosy, non-tubercular or anesthetic leprosy, and mixed tubercular and paralytic leprosy. The tuoercular variety being the most rap idly fatal, the patient seldom lives more than from eight to ten years after the dis ease manifests itself. Treatment of Leprosy. In such a chronic and fatal disease as leprosy it is small wonder that many dif ferent kinds of remedies have been tried. Excision of the primary lesion has failed, as it has in syphilis, because the system is already infected before the primary le sion appears. Mercurials and iodide of potassium are worse than useless. Creo sote, salol, salicylate of soda, gynocardic acid, quinine, arsenic, iron, gurjun oil ana chaulmoogra oil have proven of benefit. For external use chrysarobinum, iodine, ichthyo!, iodoform, europhen and pyoleta nine have proven useful. The Goto Treatment. This consists in bathing daily in hot water in which are placed bags containing hichiyon bark, taifunshi, sulphur and yoku yaku. Internally he gives seiket suren pills, tincture chloride of iron, qui nine, strychnine, iodide of potash, gentien, columbo, carbonate of soda and potash, and Epsom salts. Goto during his many years of residence in Hawaii failed to cure a single case. "The proof is lacking that cure has been obtained in any case 1 ' (Dr. Emerson. Government Physician, Hawaii). "Many of the patients reported Dy Dr. Goto as almost cured have since died of leprosy." (Dr. Alvarez). Several Hawaiian lepers have gone to Japan to be treated at Go;o's leper hospital in Tokio. But several years' treatment :n that institu tion, "in some cases without even amelioration, convinced these Hawaiians that it was useless to remain in Japan, hence they returned home and were sent to the leper settlement" (Dr. Alvarez, Bacteriologist, Hawaiian Government). "Dr. Goto's Japanese treatment has failed" (Dr. Ashmead). From per sonal observation in the Hawaiian Islands I am satisfied that Goto's so-called treatment is entirely em pirical, without the slightest scientific foundation, and, as every educated phy sician who has ever tried it or seen it tried confirms, it is absolutely without any merit in the treatment of leprosy. The so-called temporary benefit results merely from the cleanliness obtained by the fre quent bathing and the tonic treatment, which could better be established by scientific medicaments. More recently (August, 1896) a Dr. Thomas Holmes of Brooklyn, N. V., de scribed in the daily press as "an aged physician, " has discovered a cure (?) for leprosy. He incloses his patient in a glass case, into which he also introduces "certain gaseous vapors, into the composi tion of which suiphur enters largely.' 1 This vapor is supposed to kill the bacilli. When it is remembered that before lep rosy is discoverable there are already de structive ulcerations of tne tissues or pathological affections of the nerves the absurdity of the "cure" is at once manifest. A possible cure for leprosy exists in using the antitoxine —an alka loidal extract— of the bacillus of leprosy itself. A year or more ago the present bacteriologist of the Hawaiian Islands, Dr. L. F. Alvarez, in discussing the sub ject with the writer concluded to try the antitoxine of the leprous bacilli hypo dermically at the leper station at Kalihi. This treatment 1 saw carefully and scientifically applied on the islands dur ing my recent visit, and if there are any scientific data for the use of vaccination as a protective against smallpox, rasteur's treatment of hydrophobia, Koch's treat ment oi tuberculosis, Behringand Roux'b treatment of diphtheria, etc., then cer tainly leprosy may be benefited and cured by using the antitoxine of the bacillus it self. One great obstacle is the separa tion of the antitoxic from the toxic elements in the leprous toxines extracted from the leper bacilli, but this can be over come by patient investigation, and I do not despair of finding a scientific remedy for this dreadful malady. Win-slow Anderson, M.D., M.R.C.P., London, M.R.C.S.. England, etc. in Pacific Medical Journal for September 189ti. THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, SUNDAY, AUGUST 16, 1896. THE SENSATION IS PLEASANT Embryonic /ictresses Say So of Belas co's Falls LIKE BELNS SWUNG DOW.N BY TJiE JWHR f\&rd Floors HaVe No Terror for Jhem, and When They Strike Jhey JRise Up Smiling Banp! ! There was the report of a pistol yesterday in Belasco's Lyceum of Acting and a young girl threw up her arms, cast her eyes heavenward in a spasm of agony and fell prostrate — on a soft cushion. Frederick Belasco fired the shot and Miss La Faill* fell. There was no bnllet that penetrated the heart of La Faille, but she fell just the same and lay as though she were dead. There was nothing at all unusual about it because Miss La Faille is shot at three days in the week and falls in Frederick Bclasco In the Act of Hurling a Fair Pupil to the Floor. a way that makes the observer's blood curdle. Miss La Faille was not the only aspiring young actress that measured her length on the cushion yesterday; a half-score of others followed her. They wero not all shot at, either. They were seizad by the hair and hurled down by their stern teacher. One of the most important accomplish ments of an actress is to be able to fall. They must learn to fall down with a min iature crash and not yet really injure themselves. It is a hard thing to learn, too. "I devote an hour a day," said Miss Drinkall, "to my falling. I fall on the hard floor now and it does not hurt me in the least. But when I began you may be assured I was covered with black and blue spots and sore in every muscle." "There is quite a science attached to the accomplishment of falling. It looks easy, the same as swimming does," said an other future debutante, "but when you come to actually practice it you find it an exceedingly difficult matter. "It requires nerve, too," chimed in an other coming histrionic heroine, the pos sessor of a mass of golden curls. "When your head strikes the floor, unless you The Fair Pupil Hnrled to the Floor, Lying Prostrate Yet Unharmed. know how to fall, the sensation is not at all pleasant." "We all like to fall though," exclaimed a third. "It is real fun when you get used to it." Mr. Belasco took his position at the end of the cushion and called to one of his pu pi!s to go through the ordeal. Suddenly his genial expression changed to one of suppressed fury. He grasped the young lady by the hair and hurled her with great force to the floor. She fell. The noise of her falling was distinguishable above the din of the wagons on the cob blestones of Market street She lay a moment with her eyes closed and then got up, smiled and said: "It didn't hurt me the least bit." The young lady, who fell with perfect grace and abandon, was fortunate, from the onlooker's stana point, because one or two falls were considered sufficient by her teacher, and she was allowed to sit down and arrange her fallen hair and watch the others. One of the iron-clad roles of this particular lesson is that the pupil remove all the hairpins from his or her hair and allow the tresses to flow as nature in tended. But if a novice exhibited the slightest timidity or lack of faith in the softness of the floor and strove to lessen the force of her fall by her arms, she was placed under the ban, and reauired to go through the operation at least twenty times. "There are several kinds of falls," said Miss La Faille. "When one's senses reel from uorrow one falls directly backward, the shoulders being the first portion of the body to strike the ground. "A front fall is when one is reduced to the depths of despair. Then the fall is flat on the face, the hands being used to protect the face. "When one is shot or stabbed there is first a reel and a stagcer and then a fall to the side or partially on the back, as the case may be. The hands are then at the side and the eyes are closed. "Whenever we fall we imagine we are in the midst of some terrific passionate scene and fall as naturally as we would on such an occasion. "At first it produces headache and causes nausea to fall and the tendency is to throw oat the arms to protect yourself, but with the right kind of practice this all wears off and it becomes really a pleasur able sensation. "The first lessons are always on the cushion, but this only continues for about three weeks of daily lessons. After we aro thrown down on the hard floor and fall down ourselves on it. "At home we practice falling down a flight of stairs, and trip ourselves pur posely to fall. "It is not always the heaviest women who fall the heaviest. It is all art. A light woman unversed would fall with great weight. We simply relax every muscle and fall as though we had no con trol whatever over our limbs." Longevity of /\nimals. Rabbits and guineapigs live 7 years, squirrels and hares 8, cats about 10, dogs about 12, foxes 14 to 16, cattle 15 to 18, bears and wolves 20, rhinoceroses 25, the ass and the horse 25 to 30, the lion 30 tc 40, the camel 40. According to Aristotle, Buffon and Cuvier the elephant lives two centuries; some authors say even four or five. After his victory over Porus, Al exander consecrated to the sun an ele phant that had fought for the Indian mon arch and gave it the name of Ajax, and then, having attached an inscription to it, he set it at liberty. The animal was found 350 years later. Buffon says the stag's age is 35 or 40 years. Fishes, especially the large species, are long-lived. Acccording to Bacon, eels reach 60 years, carp have been known to live at least 150 years, when they seemed as lively and agile as ever. Dolphins, sturgeons and sharks live over a century and attain a huee size. Pike have been known to weigh 1000 pounds, indicating a great age. A pike caught at Kaisers-Lautern was 19 feet long and weighed 350 pounds; this was in the year 1497. It bore in its gills a copper bolt with an inscription stating that it had been put in the pond by the order of Frederick 11, that is, 261 years before. Whale-fishers have exterminated the huge whales of the polar seas. Those that were formerly met with were of prodigious size. It is supposed, with some prob ability, that they lived several centuries and that they may even reach the age of 1000 years- It is not known with any degree of pre cision how long birds live, except that their longevity is great. An eagle died at Vienna at 103. Buffon says the life of the crow is 108 years, and Hesiod says 1000 years. A paroquet brought to Florence in 1633 by the Princess Provere d'Urbia when she went there to espouse the Grand Duke Ferdinand was then 20 years old, and it lived fully 100 years after. The cele brated naturalist Willoughby had certain prcof that a goose lived a century, and it is conceded that the swan's is longer yet; some authorities give it two and even three centuries. For Feed mci nc a Horse. An ingenious man has invented a device for feeding his horse, and he does it with one of the ordinary alarm clocks. For in stance, if the horse is to have its morning feed of grain at 5 o'clock, the alarm is set. and when the morning comes the horse gets its breakfast before its owner's eyes are open. It is so arranged that the alarm pulls the slide, letting the grain run through a sluice to a manger. The tone of a piano is best when the in strument is not near a wall. OBSERVED IN CITY LIBRARIES Strange Story of the Little Woman in Weeds JILL-DJIY VISITOR WITHOUT JIjN OBgJECT Jhe Ten-year-Old Qirl Who Reads /Iristotle and the "Reflective Woman" Who, by Will In the reading-room of the Public Li brary may be seen day after day a slight youne man, with a pale, refined face. His clothes are neat, but old, and however well kept they will soon become sbabby. He comes in every morning at 10 o'clock and leaves about 5. Sometimes he goes ont at noon for a few minutes: at other times he remains during the lunch hour, and taking a roll frexn his pocket slowly eats it. He reads one paper after another, and seems mostly interested in the adver tisements. He makes a memorandum of some of them, and for the moment his face brightens. Then he takes up the magazines and looks them over with a listless air. Upon rare occasions some one recognizes him and he return? the nod shrinkingly and goes on reading. One of these chance acquaintances in speaking of him said : "Two years ago he bad a prosperous lit tle business in the country. He failed, and his wife persuaded him to come to the city. He would make a good salesman; he is also a bookkeeper, but he has never been able to obtain a position. He can vassed for a while, but his sales were few. His modest retiring manner was against him. Once he obtained a position as brakeman on a streetcar, but the work made him ill. Now he goes downtown early every morning, looks for work for an hour or two and then comes here, where be remains until night." "And his wife?" "Oh, she invested a little money she had laid by in a tiny shop which she tends. She also Eews for the factories, and takes care of the baby." "Why, pray, doesn't he remain home to help her?" "She prefers that he should not. If you happen to ask for him she says: 'John is downtown. Poor fellow. He leaves home at 7 o'clock and walks around all day looking for work.' Then the brave little woman sighs, waits on a customer, sews and soothes the fretful baby. With it all she is falling behind and before long the shop must be given up. "Her husband does not mean to deceive her, but if he went home after two or three hours she might scold and say he did not try. When he comes in at night, tired and dispirited, she says quite cheer fully, 'Any news, John;' And when he answers 'No,' she says: 'Never mind, get up early to-morrow morning and look again.'" Another frequenter of this library is a consumptive-looking man of middle age. He comes about 7 in the evening, selects a book, remains reading it until iO o'clock, and then lakes it home. The next night be appears again, takes out another book and proceeds as on the evening before. Evidently he sits up half the night to fin ish it, for he is engaged during the day in some light occupation that doe? not over tax his feeble strength. He is a bachelor and a most Baying man. Books are his only diveraion. The only pleasure he has taken in twenty years was his trip to Chi cago during the exposition. He lives over and over again the delights ot that visit, and his conversation is chiefly upon that subject He tells you between the inter vals of a hacking cough that in 1900 he in tends going to Paris, and it is noticeable that the books he reads are all works of travel. Not a possibility of his not sur viving until then ever crosses his mind, although his frail figure, his halting step, his weak voice, make one doubt whether the next night he will be reading in his accustomed place. The busiest time at this library is after school hours. Then come trooping in the school children, from the tiny tot just be ginning to read to the boy or girl ready to leave school. Of course they choose books according to their age and taste. One iit tle girl about 10 years old comes regularly twice a week. From her appearance she is evidently the child of poor parents, but she has a bright winsome face, and a thoughtful air far beyond her years. She attracts attention by the books she invari ably selects. They are always works of philosophy. As she was trudging off with "Aristotle" the question was put to her : "Are you going to read this book your self?" "Yes," she replied, gravely, C l am going to read it to papa." "But why does not papa read it him self?" "Oh," she said, with a sad little smile, "papa is blind." "And mamma?" "Mamma goes out working, and poor papa is lonely until I come home from school. Then I read to him." "Don't you ever read stories?" "No; papa doesn't care for stories. Be sides he's going to write a book on philoso phy some day. He's going to tell me what he wants to say, and I'll write it down for him. Papa says we'll make lots of money, and then mamma won'tfneed to work." And, with a happy smile, the child put the learned volume in her satchel and trotted down the stairs. The Mechanics' Library on Saturday afternoon presents a brighter and livelier aspect than at any other time of the week. Owing to its convenient location it is a sort of rendezvous for ladies, young and old. Here, when bent on shopping tours, visits to the theater, etc, they meet their friends and forth they go together. Many of them return later when the male element appears in the shape of homeward-bound brothers, husbands and husbands-to-be. A regular Saturday visitor there is a lady dressed in deep mourning. She is young and has a refined, spiritual face. There is a strange Btory connected with her coming. For two years she had been in the habit of meeting her husband in the library on Saturday afternoons. He always came a few minutes after 5. When she saw him enter her face would brighten, she would quickly lay aside her book and, arm in arm, off they would go like two lovers. One Saturday, a few months ago, she sat waiting aa usual. Five o'clock came, and her eager face, needing only the light of the one prescenceto enkindle it to radi ance, was turned toward the door. A few minutes later a close observer might have noticed that her face blanched, that she half rose from her chair and then sat down with a gasp. But her husband did not appear. Half-past 5, her look had be come anxious ; at 6it was distressed. The library was now almost empty. She could no longer read, but rose and walked about. She went to the outer door and looked up and down the street for a familiar form. None was in sight. She returned to her seat. Then, as if unable to keep her anx ious thoughts to herself, she turned to a lady whose kindly face invited confidence and said : "Do you think any accident may have happened to the Oakland train?" "I do not know; but why do you ask?" "My husband had to go to Oakland to day on business, but he promised to meet me here at the usual time. He has never yet failed to keep his appointment, so I fear something has happened." "May not his business have detained him longer than he anticipated?" "Possibly. But what worries me is that at the time that he always comes I thought I saw him stagger in deathly pale and holding his hand to his head. Once he said jokingly that, dead or alive, he would surely come." The lady waited until 7 o'clock, then said: "I won't wait any longer. I'll go home." As she passed out she laid her card in the hand of the sympathetic stranger. The Sunday papers were full of a terri ble accident that had happened the day before at a little after 5 in the afternoon to an Oakland train. Among those who met death was the name of a man corre sponding to the name on the card. The man had been struck on the head and in stantly killed. Whether his spirit had kept the appointment or whether it was a fancy of bis wife's brain the reader may judge. The lady still comes to the library on Saturday afternoons. She sits in an ex- pectant attitude, with her eyes riveted on the door. A little after 5 she leans for ward, a startled look comes into her eyes, her pale face grows paler, she sighs deep iy, then rises and goes home alone. The Mercantile Library has a more re tired air than the -other libraries. It is never crowded. The people come and ro softly ; they do not congregate in croups to laugh and chat, and there are never many who remain to read. In the recesses, where there are tables and chairs, there is entire privacy. In one of these nooks may frequently be seen a small, middle-aged lady, with deeply set eyes and gentle face shaded hy soft gray hair. She always comes in the morning, and, choosing a sunny corner, seats herself at the table, clasps her hands upon her lap and gazes intently before her. She re mains thus for hours, and appears to lose consciousness of her surroundings. Her attitude of constant meditation has made her known as the "reflective lady." and many are the surmises as to the subjects upon which her thoughts are centered. One morning her meditations were dis turbed by a lady who sat down at the same table and began to read. As she read she passed her hand across her fore head and pave a slight sigh. The reflec tive lady noted the movement, and catch ing the expression of pain said gently: "Excuse me, mad a me, are you suffer ing?" The other looked up surprised, not only at the question, but at the sympathetic tone. "Yes," she replied, "my head aches dreadfully." "Let me take your hand," said the thoughtful lady. "Now, think that you have no headache, that you are entirely well. Do not allow your mind to wander from this point." The two sat thus for some time. Then the one who had been suffering said gaily: "How well I feel. Have yon hypnotized me?" "Not at all," was the answer. "I have simply cured you by will power. My mind has convinced yours of your error in supposing you had a headache." "Well," said the other laughing, "whether it was an error or a headache, I am relieved and truly grateful. Do you often," she continued, "exercise your heal ing powers?" "Yes; I have helped many people. I am helping sufferers in the distance when I sit silently here. In this place a peace falls upon my spirit, such as will not ad mit of the existence of any suffering, physical or mental. This morning I have been treating a man in the Mission who is paralyzed. To-night I will hear how he is. lam sure he is better." The lady whose headache had been cured opened her purse. "No," said the other, interrupting the movement, "don't offer me money. I couldn't take it." "Well, you'll let me thank you, won't you?" extending her hand, which was warmly pressed, and the two ladies parted. The one who had found relief from the headache went blithely out. The other re sumed her former attitude of deep cogita tion. Presidential Autographs. From the Collector it is learned that Presidential years brings out a crop of in teresting autographs. Sometimes it brings entirely new men into the market, but generally it lifts 25-cent and 50-cent speci mens to a higher plane. A Republican nomination will carry a 50-cent man to $150, while his election will make it $3. if an entirely dark horse should be chosen, his letters might easily be quoted at from $5 to $10, as there would be a great rush for him, and probably an insufficient bupply. For a long time Arthur was $10 to $12, but is now $5 to $6. Collectors who have complete sets of Presidents desire the new men at once, and their competition drives up the price. As ex-President Harrison generally dic tates his letters the price of his autograph letter continues very high. The Democratic Convention at Chicago will help the value of some man for a time, but it will probably fall back after November. McKinley's letters have never been very plentiful and have generally sold atfl. He is already worth $2 and will be higher later on. The letters of Vice- Presidents are never in very great demand unleis for other rea sons than holding that office. It is an of fice of possibilities and amounts to very little in itself. With the new 1 President comes a new batch of Cabinet officers and it generally includes several unknown men. It is gen erally months before any of their letters turn up, but they come in time. The autograph fiend is very busy in these times, and bis pressing communica tions form a large part of the mail of each Presidential candidate. Liite the poor, the fiend is always with us; but let us be gentle with him, as often he graduates into a reputable collector. SALINAS WINS PROTECTION HoW Derelict Public Officials Were Taught TO RESPECT DE.MJUJDS OF TJiE PEOPLE Jhe Gour\cil Disbanded the Fire Department, and the Indig nant Citizens Reconstructed It StraigKtWavj If there is a city which more than any other in this mighty State of California seems assured of a certain steady prosperity it is Salinas. By its very situation it is admirably fitted geographically to be the county seat of Monterey. It is but a few years since Salinas was s babe among towns — it has steadily grown into a healthy youth, and is about to attain its majority and enter into the full bloom of manhood. Its mu nicipal health and stability and broad promise have not been attained without several struggles worthy of a page in the annais of civil government. Its last and greatest fight for its liberties has been in full accord with its peaceful, rural sur roundings; it has been a fight for all that is near and dear to every patriotic citi zen—"The Home." Like all incorporated towns the citizens elected their City Council, "from the peo ple, to serve the people, for the people," but a factional fight arose within this Council of Fathers. Its inception is hard to trace, but the City Council (whether through pique or false notions of economy is immaterial so far as results are con cerned) disbanded the Fire Department without providing any other means what ever of protection against the possible ravages of fire. This action, so unex pected and so menacing to the public safety, took the citizens by surprise. For some days this was the great topic of dis cussion, on every street corner and at every place of congregation. A public meeting was called and resolutions passed "prayiig the City Council to take steps to protect the property and lives of its citizens." It was a fair demand made in a constitutional manner, by the best men and wemen of the city, but for three long weeka ibis request was ignored, and then two fi«es, claimed to be of incendiary origin fthe firebugs are now in jail await ing trid), awoke the citizens to the neces sity of in immediate reconstruction of the Fire Department, and, if necessary, the impeadimer.t of certain members of the City Crancil. Witbthat swift action which ever char acterize the aroused temper of Americans an indjrnation mass-meeting was held, at tended by over 1500 taxpayers, and for three sours the Salinas Pavilion echoed with tie rise and fall of the voices demand ing inttant action for the public weal and safety. This meeting unanimously rein statedthe old Fire Department, gave back its coitrol to the esteemed Chief, "Tom" Joy. a young man whom the citizens es teem for his proved ability in fighting flamei and directing his charges. This meethg even went further and appointed a coamittee of four of its leading citizens to take immediate steps, if found neces sar}',to impeach the derelict members of the Gty Council. Su«h then is the brief sketch of a fight for ptotection which was fought openly and ron honorably in Salinas, the valley city. When one comes to consider that for three-weeks by a foolish action of the countil hundreds of thousands of dollars' wortl of property was jeopardized, thouands of lives in danger and a wbolo townliable to have its policies canceled — or rewritten at much higher rates— one recojnizes how miserable it is to see public officeused to satisfy private spleen, and how ommendable was the action of these Salitus citizens in effecting the reform in sucln peaceable manner. This action In a gravf public situation has won the hearty approbation of the insurance companies espedally and thousands of Californiana moregenerally. It i to these citizens that Ciaus Spreck els las decided to give the largest sugar beet actory in the world. It is from these peope that this industry is to obtain its latest and greatest impetus. It is from such public-spirited and loyal actions that the yesent and future welfare of Cali fornii is to be maintained and strength ened. Derliction of duty in public officials needaimmediate reproof, and this lesson in mmicipal correction given by the citi zens if Salinas to its City Council is worthy of emulation by all those who wish pure goveoment, which defined means the greatJ3t good for the greatest number. OHd Facts for the Curious. Pot toes made their way very slowly into, popular favor England, and were so coily that they, were ; only seen on the table; of the very rich. Fifty cents per pound was the price of them in the reign of Janes L %, Shortly after the restoration the Government and the Royal Society tried jo encourage their cultivation, but progn is was extremely slow and it was not unil nearly the end of the eighteenth centu: ' that the tuber came into general use. ; ; Secc id-hand plateglass dealers do a large iusiness in San Francisco and other large titles. } Nearly all of it is bought from . Insurance companies. . The large plates 4 are insured when put in the win dow, ■;. ad ; when any of them is broken the owe: usually prefers that the insur ance ouiDany should replace the broken plate^kther; than that he should be paid its pri*. . . The dealer in the* second-hand glass ontrives to utilize what remains of the uibroken part of the glass, cutting it into pjoes of smaller size and disposing of them c opportunity offers. ; : ■ The smallest tree in the world is the Greenland birch. It :is only three inches high, #t it covers a radius of nearly three feet. •: •■'.-■;;} ■--';- ■•-._ ,;/.,. ;•.: .;' Cycrfts in France must not only carry a bell s id a lamp, but i must have a name plate, dinewhere bearing their full name and atSress. Riding on the sidewalk is allowedwhen the roadway is under repair. —^— Rudjird Kipling's "Letters of Marque," descriptions of the old cities of Rajputana, .written when he was a reporter for the Pioneei will soon be brought out in Lon don. *fiey : were r reprinted .in ■ pamphlet form iiilndia, but could not be published, owing some -"difficulty about the copy right, fhich has now been removed.