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HOW LORD LEIGHTON OF STRETTON FOUND ROSY THE PATH TO FAME TfJNJONDON, Esq.. Feb. The rnalevo \soKm lent old ,air >* who, forgotten at the MmstsfT important ceremony of christening, revenges herself upon her innocent vic tims by disastrously complicating their lives, must bave been placated by the most obsequious attentions when Frede rick Leighton was in the cradle, for it would be difficult to imagine a life more serene, more successful, - richer in tri umphs, more smiled upon by all the fussy, fairy godmothers of fate, chance and fortune. He was born in Scarborough in 1830. His father and grandfather were physicians, men of means, and for that day of rather wide and unusual cultiva tion. Before he was half as tall as a mahl stick his infant scratchings were taken as en grand serieux; the family went abroad, and Frederick, aged 10, began to study drawing in Rom?. Here there is no question of early strugeles with pov erty, obdurate relatives blind to youthful genius; the road to fame was made smooth to the feet of this gifted aspirant. It was a royal road in this instance. He was crowned, so to speak, without lifting a band; everything was prepared for him; LORD LEIGHTON OF STRETTON. HAS THE EARTH MORE THAN ONE MOON? Wonderful Field of Speculation Opened Up by the Latest Discovery. CITSLHE latest alleged startling discovery | vl'fr* in the realm of astronomical *ci- i jAfO ence gives peculiar emphasis tothe timeworn proverb that "people are blind to what is going on under their noses." Ever since astronomy has enchained the i attention of men they have been assidu- j ously seeking to learn more about the far- j distant orbs of the celestial universe than j waa known to t eir predecessors. From the time when the first rude spyglass was constructed down to the present day of highly developed telescopes astronomers have swapt the midnight skies in eager search after some fragment of knowledge I to add to the meager store possessed by ! the scholar. Almost invariably the ob- j ject of research was a far-distant star. The confines of the stellar galaxy at tracted greater than did its nearer center. The great Herschell devoted his ener gies to "sounding the depths of space," and without success. In the abandon ment to the peculiar fascination of at tempting to solve the infinite the finite seems to have been forgotten. We know less about bur nearest neighbor, the moon, than we do about Mars; less about Mars than we do of the sun. We have placed j in the balance and actually weighed every i one of tbe members of the solar system, I POSITION OF INVISIBLE MOON. even to the giant planets .Uranus and Neptune, which are so far away as to be invisible to the naked eye; and yet we do not know the shape of our own moon, and the best scientists are divided in opinion as.to whether it possesses an atmosphere or not. We have constructed a perfect map of Mara and determined his conti nents and seas, but we are unable to say wbat causes the radiant streaks which emanate from the huge Tycho Brabe mountain upon, our moon, uot 300,000 miles away. The discussion of the physical charac teristics of the earth cannot be properly called astronomical, and yet it cannot be eic t del from that branch of science. The movements of the earth, while purely within tbe domain of mathematical physics, can only offer a means of solu tion by a careful study of astronomy. Ever since mathematical astronomy has been practiced it has baen known that the earth had several very peculiar move ments which were apparently unaccount able. We are apt to speak of the "stable earth." As a matter of fact the earth reels like a drunken man. At no time does she pursue an undeviating, steady course, nor ars her movements regular. Her erratic wanderings, if duplicated at all, can occur only at such long intervals of time as to appall the human concep tion ln the attempt to comprehend the immense line of figures that are neces sary to express the possible recurrence of a single movement. The north star is popularly supposed to be a fixed point. It is not. What is known as Polaris is the present north star, but 13.C00 years ago tbe north pole of tbe earth pointed to the brilliant Vega, and will again in course of j time. I CroWned With J-lardly an Effort- Jhe Laurels Fell Upon His J4andsome BroW and /Idjusted TKemselVes in tKe Most Eminently Becoming Manner— Van Dyck BroWns Story of His Life he placed himself in positions, and the laurels fell upon his handsome brow and adjusted themselves in the most emi nently becoming manner. From Rome— and who could overesti mate the influence of this early training he was taken to Berlin and Dresden. In every city he attended the classes at the academy. In those days he was an infant phenomenon in his facility with his pen cil and unusually deficient in every other study. At 13 he was at school in Frank fort, but at 14 we find a serious discussion taking place in Florence, and his artistic career fully decided upou ; accordingly he was enrolled among the students at the Accademia delle Belle Arti in that city. That the vain, precocious and ignorant lad was himself responsible for the resolu tion to attend a little to his general edu The accompanying little diagram will show to the readers of The Call the path | marked out by tbe north pole among the stars— a wavy circle. This condition is | brought about by what is known as the I "precession of the equinoxes." The sun is i swiftly traveling through space, and car rying with bim all the members of his system, of which our earth is one; so that, as the earth sweeps over the mighty orbit of the solar system, her pole describes a circle. But it is not a perfect circle. She i- constantly nodding, and tbis move ment, which is a real wabble, is termed the earth's nutation. Our scientific men have sought to account for this wabble by seeking its cause in the attractive lorces of the sun and moon — that is, when the sun and moon are on the same side of the earth their "pull" upon the earth would be greater than when the sun was on one side and the moon on the opposite; thus the earth would be swayed a little out of her true orbit as the relative positions of the sun and moon changed. Granted that this is the true solution, then the "wabble" ought to ex hibit some degree of uniformity. It does not. Next, it is attempted to further ex plain the "wabble" by applying the law of perturbation — tbe effect of attraction exercised by other stellar bodies. Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle of matter. But after all the known causes have been diligently exploited and applied, the fact remains that there are "wabbles" which are un accounted for. At one position of her orbit the earth is a great deal farther away from the sun than at another. Does the sun's attraction vary? If at all times there were the same number and masses of stars at one particular portion of the earth's orbit.it might be easy to account for this deviation from a true circle. But there is not. And no one has yet been able to explain -satisfactorily why the ball we live on exhibits at one time a coyness to her ardent wooer, and at another time a rapturous desire for his warm pretence. Recently a gentleman of established reputation as a mathematician, and an astronomer of no mean accomplishments, residing on the California coast, bas an nounced to a few of his intimate friends THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 1897. cation is more than likely ; his studies in the direction of art could not but bring to his attention the unknown fields in which he had been set to labor. His interest in history and mythology, his practical and methodical mind, saved him from «he fate of the Strasborg goose. His studies at the Academy wera abandoned and he re turned to set. 00l in Frankfort for three years, never losing for an instant the aim he had In view. In 1848 he resumed his study of drawing and painting in Brussels, finally drifting to Paris, and working there, very serenely, very gayly, and without a master. The habits of his earlier youth were too strong to break, and he was never satisfied to re main more than a year in one place. During this time he painted his first picture. "C mabue Finding Giotto in the Fields of Florence." At this period the Florentine masters j held him in thrall. All the charm, all the 1 delicacy of these early painters, the dark and suave richness of color in the old city itself had temporarily banished from his memory the rods and goddesses wbo had overawed him in Rome; and yet it was in Rome itself that ne painted that most Florentine ' of Florentine pictures, "Cimabue's Madonna Carried in Pro cession Through the Streets." He was not yet 25 when it was exhibited in tbe Royal Academy, and purchased imme diately by her Majesty the Queen. In this day of republican ideas that would not be a matter of entire felicita tion to a young painter; the prestige of such patronage is no longer as puissant, but at that time it placed Frederick Leigh ton in the first rank, and as we glance at the immense canvas we must come to tbe conclusion that the distinction was de served. The complete development that com monly crowns uninterrupted labor be tween the years of 40 and 50 he bad at tained at the age of the average student. To be sure be had worked, after a fashion, for fifteen years, and had seen the best the world could offer. His judgment was formed. Like most precocious develop ments, his talent bloomed too soon, and he rarely reached a higher note than that be struck immediately in his earnest works. I*. was a note at once resonant and clear, even if it lacked any qualities of depth or vibration. There is neither weakness nor hesita- tion to be detected in this fine canvas, in which Master Cimabue, glitt ring in silver that he has found the cause of these myste rious perturbations of the earth in an invis ible satellite. Many of our most brilliant minds shrink from adverse criticism with a repugnance that in other natures wou'a * be considered morbid. It is due to this that the gentleman withholds for the present his individuality, but bas nevertheless communicated to those of his friends whose educational attainments fit them to pass intelligent judgment the facts of his startling discovery. There is really nothing strange in this. The world is al ways ready to pass judgment upon mat ters it does not understand. Th- question of intra-Mercurial planets has long been a fiercely debated one, and has engendered erabitterments between scholars and scientists which have estranged minds that otherwise would have worked in per fect harmony. During the total eclipse of July 29, 1878, James C. Watson, prof-ssor * of astronomy at the universities of Michi- , gan and Wisconsin, discovered two plan- ; ets situated within the orbit of Mercury and close to the sun. At the same time Professor Lewis Swift of Rochester, N. V., independently of Professor Watson, also saw and claimed the discovery of these two new planets. But because other as tronomers were not favored with sight of t c bodies the discoveries of Watson and Swift were pooh-poohed into contumely. The records of astronomy show that well-sustained claims have been made on nineteen occasions since 1761 that intra- Mercurial planets were observed. So it is not to be wondered at that a sensitive mind should shrink from a possibility of ridicule. Human nature invades nature. The discovery of the invisible satellite of the earth is the result of a purely mathe matical investigation, and it is as capable of demonstration as is the presence of any one of the known heavenly bodies. T;>e planet Neptune is invisible to the naked eye. Yet its presence was detected by pre cisely similar means as were employed by the California mathematician in his dis covery of the earth's second moon. As tronomers had noticed that the giant planet Uranus, then the outermost known member of the solar system, exhibited per turbations which could not be accounted for by the presence of any known body. A young mathematician, afterward destined to be famous, reasoned that there must be another planet to account for the vagaries in Uranus' movements. He figured, and on September 10. 1846, he sent word to Dr. Galle of Berlin, who possessed a fine tele scope, to look at a certain spot in the heavens. Dr. Galle did so on the 13th and, there saw the new planet, now called Neptune. The circumstance is always re marked as the greatest triumph of mathe matical astronomy. The lately discovered second moon of the earth has an orbit which is extraneous to that of the earth's, and the satellite re volves around the sun at the same rate of speed as the earth, always keeping on the side of tbe earth opposite to that of the snn. It is therefore always within the cone of deep shadow formed by the earth, and as it does not receive any portion of the direct light of the aun it is conse quently invisible to us, just as is the visi ble moon when it is eclipsed in the earth's shadow. The exact size or diameter of the invisible moon cannot now be definitely stated, inasmuch aa its peculiar situation renders it always obscured from optical measurement. Its mass has, however, been calculated by computing the effect it produces in swaying the earth and the visible moon, and is placed at about one thousandth that of the earth, or 6,000,000, --000.000,000,000 tons. Supposing its den sity to be equal to that of our visible moon, which is three and a half times that of water, it would be somewhere about fifteen hundred miles in diameter. Its axial revolution is yet unknown. The remarkable position maintained by the newly discovered satellite is not with out parallel, nor, in fact, is such condition strange. In contemplating the phenome non of the stellar universe we must be content to accept what is presented to our cognizance without criticism. Human ideas of orthodoxy have no weight in the arrangement of the heavenly bodies. The .two moon* of Uranus revolve around that planet on north to sooth, and the axis of Uranus, instead of being perpendicular to the ecliptic is parallel with it. The brocade, with the youth Giotto behind him, struts proudly at the head of a con course of people, in the quaint, rich cos tumes of a medieval pageant The work is dignified and complete; if it has a cer tain youthful exuberance, a spark of vain glory in the exhibition of a technique already accomplished and fluent, they are not unattractive qualities; it is certainly not for the sin of exuberance that the soberer conceptions of later years could be criticized. He is a frank observer of surface beauty ; emotion never distorts the features of bis heroic men and women; tragedy throws them into magnificently statuesque poses; athletes of the amphitheater, women from the Greek races, in spirit, at least, ideal ized from impecunious and very human models picked up at random in London or Paris or Rome. The beauty of visible form was his standard of accomplishment; it was form he studied in his draperies, the peculiarly characteristic folds of satin or silk or velvet. His sketches are often laborious and fine; who better than be could grasp and represent the noble fall and flow of the robes of a Senator, or the vere grace of the heavily swathed Roman matron ! In lfcOO he settled permanently in Lon don and soon after began to superintend the erection of the magnificent house in Holland Park Road, which he inhabited till his death and which has been recently bought by the Government for a perma nent exhibition. The bouse became a museum lor the collections of strange and interesting curiosities he gathered on every journey. Spain, India, Persia and Asia Minor, Algiers and Egypt, Turkey and Greece he explored between 1866 and 1876, during which period he was also elected to the full academic honors. He lived in a house, a little pompous, a little overloaded perhaps with rich and rare objects of artistic and antiquarian in terest; his social talents were remarkable; he was a fluent speaker, witb a handsome presence and a manner not too suave to be courtly; he arranged his surroundings in tbe most picturesque fashion, he him self was always the most conspicuous and picturesque figure. He was knighted on his election as president of the Royal Academy in 1878; eight years later he was created a baronet, and just before his death, but a few days, in fact, the rather empty honors of a peer age were conferred upon him. The acad emies of Vienna, Brussels, Florence, Peru satellite of Neptune has its orbit tipped over 150 degrees, and is, in fact, upside down. Of the two moons of Mars, one rises in the east and sets in the west, and the other rises in the west and sets in the east. The credulous man who would cry "impossible" upon reading this announce ment of the discovery of the earth's in visible moon has therefore the satisfaction of voicing his ignorance and self-conceit in so dong; for the testimony of the stars proclaims the absurdity of all human con ceptions. In one way only can ocular demonstra tion be had of the existence of our invisi ble satellite, and that is found in the occulta! ion of stars caused by its passage between them and the earth. Such phe nomena could only be momentary, and by reason of its extreme briefness may be well overlooked even by trained ob«ervers specially on watch for such occurrences. It is, however, no infrequent thing for such phenomenon to receive notice. Every astronomical observer has had the experi ence of the momentary occlusion of a star. The matter, however, is generally of so minute a period of time that no consider ation has been given to it, except perhaps to attribute it to some passing mass of vapor or else a visual defect of a tempo rary character in the retina of the ob server, natural to a prolonged strain of the optic nerve. One of the most interesting features of sidereal astronomy is the erratic appear ances and disappearances of stars. The books are full of the records of stars which have suddenly blazed forth with greater or less brilliancy and then faded back into obscurity and of stars that have suddenly and without premonition been blotted out from sight only to reappear after the lapse of a short period. The explanation of such phenomena is given by astronomy in its statement that there are many iuvisi gia, Berlin and Antwerp elected him to honorary membership; he .was a com mander of the Legion of Honor, a knight of the Prussian order "Pour le M-Tite," an associate of the Institute of France. He was courted, flattered and cordially liked by all classes, pre-eminently, how ever, by the aristocracy, who bought his pictures and considered him the most brilliant feature of any social function. When presiding at academy meetings or at the annual dinners, his red robes of of fice, worn with so much pleasure and grace, seemed the most appropriate cos tume ior this latter-day epicurean. His work occupies five enormous rooms at Burlington Hou-e. The weather since the opening has been vindictively cold; snow, sleet, cutting winds and the semi darkness cannot lessen the enthusiasm of his admirers. The great court at Burling ton House, through which the wind sweeps with a rush, is always crowded with carriages. A row of footmen, shiv ering under their sables, wait under the pillars for their irrepressibly art-loving masters and mistresses. The rooms are crowded almost too much for comfort. Such an exhibition is a mistake in win ter. That yellow southern glow in which Lord Leighton loved to place his lightly clad figures is an inappropriate background for the men and women who, buried in furs and cloaks and muffled to their ears, come to see and criticize. There are more than 300 numbers. It is remarkable to see how rarely the artist rises above or talis below the standard of bis first labors. The earlier studies are of richer tone, deeper in color; he has been nearer to the Italian masters he loved. Gradually the general atmosphere light ens, until it is almost like a water-color in superficial delicacy. At times the suriace is as smooth as wax and the execution a little cloying in its sweetness. Generally the picture is saved by the noble— if Some what conventional— and the unfailing elegance of line. "The Summer Moon" i.» one instance in which the painter rose above his own level. Every one has seen a reproduction of those two magnificent figures leaning against one another, with clasped hands, asleep. Behind them is a circular open ing through which the moonlit sky is seen. It is only necessary to read the titles of the pictures to see that the nineteenth century was a mere anachronism to Lord Leighton. His imagination was peopled by nymphs and satyrs of Homeric days. b!e stellar bodies cavorting through space and tbat "these sudden disappearances and reappearances are due to one of these invisible stars passing between the earth and the occluded star." The presence of the invisible satellite of the earth will ac count for much of this phenomena. A wonderful field of speculation is op-ned up by this latest discovery. Is the invisible satellite a portion of the original earth us is the visible moon now supposed to be? Why does it not revolve around the earth? Perhaps it will be found that when we are able to definitely say what is the exact shape of the visible moon and why it always presents to us the same face we shall be able to intelligently begin the discussion of this question. Has mag netism or electricity any part in causing it to maintain its position / Is it receding from the earth? [Its distance is now about 1,600,000 miles from the earth] ls it soire wandering body like a comet which has fallen within the scope of the earth's attraction and held captive to our ball? These and many other questions of like character naturally present .them selves. They will undoubtedly stimulate research into cosmical phenomena near er home, an i we hope that the coming century will witness our acquirement of knowledge that shall enlighten us regard ing our immediate surroundings more fully than appears to grace the record of the passing one. It is, of course, ex tremely interesting to learn that there are stars so far away that light traveling with the inconceivable velocity ot 200,000 miles a second would require millions of years to reach our earthly vision coming from these distant globes; but such informa tion, while wondrous, is not the most in structive. The majestic plories of 'he Himalayas are grand and inspiring; they are to be viewed, studied and appreciated; but in the meantime do not let us neglect our own front yard. F. M. Close, D.Sc One of the best known of the large decorative compositions is "Hercules Wrestling With Death for the Body of Alcestis." It is singularly powerful and the figure of death might almost have been included among the pictures by Frederick Watts. . .-: Alcestis, robed in white, lies under large trees in the center of the picture; the mourners, in attitude" of grief and horror watch the contest spellbound, and behind these motionless figures is the sea, the FRAGMENT SKETCH OF GROUP OF GREEK SLAVES. [From Leighlon's "Andromache at the Well."} VAIN MAN, LOOK TO YOUR LAURELS This Pretty Qirl Gonstable Declares That Women Are Natural Officials iFf^LLEGHANY, Pa., Feb. 15. —A kliJ .' young woman in this town has ■«i\\/ found a new vocation. She bas become a constable. Just as much author ity is hers as any man could have in a similar position, and, what is more, she is always ready to fulfill her duties. Miss Florence A. Klotz is the young lady who has branched off from the conventional highway of womanhood, and promises to to become a model for the whole constabu lary from Maine to California. Miss Klotz does not go around swinging a club, because constables are not sup posed to perform that sort of duty. Sbe was appointed to the position she holds that she might act as constable for her father, Alderman Edward Klotz of this city. Her principal occupation is the serving of papers and kindred duties that attach to the special officer devoted to the service of an Alderman. Very often it happens that individuals learn that an alderman's constable is looking for tbem with a paper and tbey find it very con venient to be absent when the constable calls. It is a peculiar fact that the femi nine constable of Alleghany meets with no such difficulties. Constable Klotz is a very pretty girl and she is only 18 years old. dark, bright southern sea. In "Belaus* tion's Adventure" Browning speaks of Ny in this wise: " .***• 1 know, too, a great Kaunlan pa n ter, strong As Ilerakles, thou :h nay with a robe Of grace that, s ftens down the ain-wy strength; And he has made a picture of It all. There lies Alkenis dead, beneath to* sun She longed to look her last tip in. 1 pronounce that piece Worthy to set up in our Pirklle. As a whole, in walking through these great rooms it is not of the Greeks one think-— but of two modern men of whom one is constantly reminde! and of whom Lord Lei:hton seems the English transla tion: Ingres the Great and Bmguereanl Van Dyke Brown. About 1000 fishing-boats engaged around the British coast are named Mary. Like all those who have joined tbe ranks over whicli the banner of new woman hood flaunts Constable Klotz is able to _t speak for herself. When it is impossible* to speak sbe has no hesitation in writing, V for a woman is never at a loss for an expe dient. Read what she has written : "To the Editor: I have never been able to see why a woman should not help her self. Everybody that studies tbe Bible knows that it says the Lord helps those who help themselves, and what better authority can anybody ask tban that? I am sure there is nothing said about sex in the Bible, so far as that is concerned. In the first place, I was on the road for my father as a saleslady for bis candy busi ness. I started in in that line when I was 15 years old, and naturally acquired a large quantity of experience in the line of the mystery of human nature. I am nat urally of an enterprising disposition and not very slow to make up my mind, let the circumstances be what they may. "One thing I know that would benefit the community at large, and that is that it would be better to bave women as con stables, who would attend to their duties and nothing else, than to have a lot of men whose ambition would be centered on the best whisky. The position of con stable is generally voted to some old poli tician or the friend of such in this State. Hence the result is a pitiable one. "It is my impression that there is a fitld for women in the constable line as well as for men, judging from my observations in the neighborhood. If the women cannot do as well as the class of men c osen con stables here then they had better retire and not try to do anything at all. I do not mean to say that all the men wbo are made constables are bad, but they are sorely tempted to* tread the path that leads to that condition in the course of their duties. "It seems to me that the time is rips in this country of ours for women to enfran chise themselves. It is time for this to be \ the case when husbands have to work for* $1 a day, and consequently are not able tv support a wile— much less a family. It is no concern of the public whether the con stable is a man or a woman, just so long as the work is done quickly and properly. Women possess the necessary .brains to be constables just as much as tbe men do, and what is more they use their brains to the advantage of the public as well as themselves. . "Of course they are not Samsons and if actual force is required, wbich hapnens very seldom, the constable bas a legal right to summon any one within hailing dis tance to give aid. Now, then, don't you see that a . woman can get along as con stable, for aren't the men always ready to fight for the women, and if they battled for a woman and for law and order too, what a splendid cause they would be championing. Still, I must confess that, as a general rule, a man is more amenable to the influence of a dear creature wbo cannot fight, and, besides, would not, than to a direct application of muscular force. "As a matter of fact my father would not let me undertake anything in which there was the sii. htest possibility of danger. He would rather, much rather, hunt up a constable somewhere in the town to perform the service. 1 don't know.- about the new woman part of it,. What 1 think is just what I said before*, It don't seem to me there is any reason o J earth why a woman should not help her self, and why she isn't able to fill lots of positions that are only given to men. "Flobknce A. Klotz. " 80 far as is known Miss Klotz is the only wom*n in the United States or any other place who has been appointed a con-* stable.