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ORIGIN OF THE BITTER HATRED THE APACHE FEELS FOR AMERICANS.
_4 The late B. D. Wilson, the noted pioneer of San Gabriel, who died but a few years ago, left an important auto biography which has just come to light. It contains a story never before told of the real cause of the hatred of the Apache Indians for the Americans, and will inevitably take a considerable place in the history of the West. In brief, this story is that the Apaches were friendly to the Americans until, in the hitter part of the '30's, their friendship was destroyed by the treacherous assassination of one of their principal leaders by an American. There is, perhaps, no name more revered in Southern California than that of B. D. Wilson. He was one of the earliest settlers of that portion of the State, planted the first large vine yard, and, with his son-in-law, the late J. de Earth Shorn, was one of the first to ship oranges East. He was a firm believer in the possibilities of Califor nia, and claimed that the State's only need was population. To this latter end, and much against the inclina tions of the large landholders, he favored immigration and started the colony system, which has since be come so universal. He sold the town site of Pasadena, which had been his sheep corral, to a colony from Indiana, and also induced the settlement of the nor. thriving town of Alhambra. His -__>•___£■. isions were enormous, Including "Pasadena, San Gabriel, Alhambra, Ra mona and the winery now known as Shorb. He had the full confidence of the native Californians, and when Los *^ Angeles was a Spanish city he was one of the largest property-holders there, and was the first Alcalde. <.}.*' The historical value of the autobio . ygraphy which Mr. Wilson left and which until the present time has been ■ _ Jiii the hands of the family, can be ■ "f. over-estimated, for it gives an /..-insight into Apache life not afforded .by any other narrative. The Apache ••"••"has been looked upon as an unredeem .-..': able savage, bloodthirsty beyond all credibility, crafty in despicable war fare, utterly without compassion, mur- . '"tiering for the mere lust of taking hu man life, delighting in the most hideous , .Of tortures. Mr. Wilson, however, in his paper declares that the Apache, as far back as IS:'.:;, was a Christianized ■"" Indian, that under the influence of the mission fathers he had acquired a cer " -tain civilization, but that this advance ment was gradually undone by the ill treatment accorded him by the Mexi can Government, and that the climax was reached when, through the treach ery of an American, the Apaches' prin cipal leader was assassinated. B. D. Wilson was a man of striking personality, and was one of that small band of Americans who went into the West in these early days and helped to found an empire. He was born in lSLii, at Nashville, Term.. and the pre mature death of his father forced him ..-when a lad of 15 into business. His . 'first venture was in the establishment of a trading post near Vicksburg. .Here he did business with the Choctaw :• arid Chickasaw Indians. He remained ../ V: ksburg until about 1830, when, •*'.' -/is health failing him, he joined the trading company which went out that ■j-vj-jL-r to Siinta Fe, N. Mex. The latter point "he reached early ln 1533. Eife in Santa Fe proving somewhat tame, Wilson, having heard that great • .wealth was to be obtained by the •.trapping of beaver in the country in habited by the Gila and Apache In dians, which lay still farther west and w near the Gila and Colorado rivers, or 'T ganized a party of adventurous Americans and started for that coun try. The party was enormously suc cessful and returned to Santa Fe at .-•.the close of the succeeding year, where it disposed of its furs and dis banded. Wilson, however, left again for the Apache country, this time with a company of trappers under the com . mand of Enoch Barnes of Missouri, who was murdered a few years ago in Los Angeles County, Cal. Wilson's memoir shows that the first hunting trip passed oft without inci dent, which indicates that up to that date the Apaches were friendly. But during the second expedition the com plexion of affairs changed materially. Mr. Wilson says: "Up to this time* the Apaches were on good terms with the Americans, but they had an un dying hatred for the Mexicans owing to the bad treatment of their chief, Juan Jose." This Juan Jose figures throughout the balance of the memoir. It was he who was murdered by the treacherous r"v American and it was his death that V}e\l to the Apache hatred of Ameri cans. According to Wilson, he was very superior man, who had been edu cated for the church, could read as well as write and was something of an accountant. The Mexicans had mur dered his father, and for this reason Juan Jose had severed all connection with them, had joined his own people and had proclaimed war against all Mexicans. "But his relations." says Mr. Wilson, "with the Americans, both traders and hunters, were of the most friendly character, and he never lost Van opportunity to show his friendship. Whenever by any mistake any ani mals belonging to .American parties were stolen by Apaches Juan Jose would have them returned to th. owner." This state of affairs, however, was to be destroyed by an American by the name of James Johnson, living at Oposura, in the State of Sonora, Mex ico who had long retained cordial re lations with Jose. He was married to a native of Oposura and had traded for many years between Oposura and New Mexico, thus securing for himself quite a competency. He was on good terms with the Apaches, and if by mistake his stock was captured in the general raids Juan Jose would return him his animals. This shows still further that the Apache had noquarrel with the Americans but earnestly de sired to maintain amicable relations. To the Governor of Sonora Juan Jose was an object of fear. He had been notified by his central government to either kill or capture Juan Jose. This hi despaired of ever doing:, because the "*Vy Apache had him continually beset bl spies who intercepted his dis . : paV'-hes. These dispatches Jose would bri>:g to the Wilson camp for perusal. • "We thus became informed." says Wil son's" memoir, "of the military move ";: • nts contemplated by the Mexican % Government. That Government would > -not give permission to Americans to trade or trap in this territory. We '"were there as interlopers and smug '".-_ glers, and we would have fared badly "had we fallen into the hands of the - Mexican forces. Juan Jose was in ' every way valuable to us." .- The Governor of Sonora, failing in all his plans to capture Jose, entered into a compact with Johnson to mur- , der him. The story that ensued is best told by Mr. Wilson's manuscript: "These Gila Apaches had been mis sion Indians during the Spanish occu pation, but when Mexico gained her independence she treated them so bad ly that they rebelled and maintained a constant warfare against everything that bore the name of Mexican. They were a civilized people and, indeed, many of them could not speak Apache, and felt a strong contempt for the wild tribes of Apaches known under the names of Coyoteros, Mescaleros and Jicarrillas. The necessities of the war have since made them more friendly, and they intermarry with the other:--. "About this time there was a party of ten or twelve men under Eames from Missouri in Sonora trying to buy mules. Along with this party was Wil liam Knight, who acted as interpreter and • who had given his name to Knights Landing in Central California. Barnes failed to get: any animals, as the Apaches had stolen them. IP wished to return to New Mexico, and Johnson told Eames that the nearest way home was through the Apache country. He assured him there was no possible danger, as the Apaches were friendly to Americans. It was then that Johnson concocted' the plan of murdering Juan Jose with the assist ance of a man by the name of Gleason, or Glisson, who also resided in Opo sura. Johnson availed himself of the Eames party, who were entirely un conscious of the plot, to carry out his plans. 'Johnson acted as guide. A few miles distant from Oposura, near the Gila River, they were met by Juan Jose. By means of intercepted dis patches, Juan Jose had learned of the compact between the Governor and Johnson, but placed no credence in the letters, as he was firmly convinced that Johnson was incapable of such baseness. He argued, T have been al ways the friend of the American; I have never robbed him or done him harm; is it then possible that an Amer i' an will enter into a compact with a Mexican Governor to murder his friends? It is not a thing even to be thought of!' "Poor Juan Jose! He had no idea of the depth of human perfidy, or he ; would never have trusted his life to i Johnson's promises. Still there must have been some lingering doubt. of Johnson's honesty, and he expressed it in a manly way. He told Johnson of ! the Intercepted dispatches and asked if there was any truth in the letters. "Johnson swore with many oaths i that there was not a particle of truth | in the charges. Then said Juan Jose: THE SAN FRAXCISCO CALL, SUNDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1597. THE PEACEABLE CAMP BECAME THE SCENE OF A TERRIBLE TURMOIL. " 'Don Santiago, you have never de ceived me, and if you give me yo^ word of honor that the report is false, come to my camp with your men ana pass the night with us.' "Johnson gave his assurance, and the entire party set out for the Apache camp, It was there the foul plot was to be carried out. On reaching camp Johnson said to Juan Jose: " 'I have a sack of pinole which I wish to distribute to the women and children this evening.' "The chief ordered a man to attend to the distribution, but, -Indian like, the entire camp, men and women, gathered around the sack. Johnson knew this and acted accordingly. Gleason was to take Juan Jose aside on the pretense of buying a mule. When this was done Johnson, who had hidden a blunderbuss in his pack saddle blanket, was to fire into the crowd and Gleason was then to shoot Juan Jose. "As we expected, the camp gathered around the pinole sack, each anxious for his share of the contents, when sud denly the blunderbuss blazed out. It was loaded with balls and pieces of chain. The miss. plunged into the densely packed mass, killing not a few outright and fatally maiming others. The peaceful camp became the scene of a terrible turmoil. The Apaches fled in every direction, and Juan Jose was left to deal alone with the mur derous Gleason. "Gleason, on hearing the shot, drew his pistol, fired at Juan Jose, but missed him. The chief flung himself upon the treacherous white man, threw him down and pulled his knife. "Even then he did not -realize that it was Johnson who had fired into his people, but called out to him: " 'Don Santiago, come to my assist ance; I can kill your friend, but I don't want to do it.' ' •"-- "Johnson's only reply was to shoot Juan Jose while he was bending over Gleason with his drawn knife. Juan Jose fell dead on Gleason. Thus per ished that fine specimen of a man. I knew the man well and can vouch for the fact that he was a perfect gentle man as well as a kind hearted one." This treacherous assassination of Juan Jose ended forever the friendship of the Apache Indian for the American. From this time on the Apache regard ed the American as no better than the Mexican, to be relentlessly pursued until exterminated. The change from friendship to hatred was instan taneous. The Apaches soon recovered them selves from the confusion following the crime and set out at once upon the be ginning of the long and bloody warfare which culminated in the capture of Geronimo forty years later. Mr. Wil son's memoirs tell the story graphic ally of the events that ensued imme diately upon Juan Jose's death. The Indians lit signal fires, and, summon ing a large force of their fellows, set out in pursuit of the Americans wher ever they were to be found, vowing that none should escape. They fought the Johnson party into Oposura, and after a desperate fight with them re turned and fell upon the Kemp camp on Gila River, killing twenty-two men. Wilson himself was ignorant of this dreadful business and was then trying to intercept an eastbound caravan. Failing in this and learning that the caravan was but two days ahead, he, by forced marches, hoped to overtake it, but he and his party were captured by Apaches and taken to their camp. They were there given to understand that something terrible had happened between the Apaches and the Ameri cans "and that the young warriors were determined to sacrifice us." That night the Apaches danced their war dance and the prisoners expected their immediate release by death. The excitement was intense. The younger men were desirous of commencing the work of slaughter, but the old chief Mangan, was unwilling. He wished to remain on friendly terms with th. Americans, as he did not blame all for the treachery of one. Wilson's party originally six. was reduced to three' the others having managed to sup off. ' Their position was desperate. Man gan informed Wilson he had done his best to save him and his com panions, but his men were determined to kill him. Finally, at a late hour of the night. Mangan came in greatly excited and said he had to return to his warriors, and one of us must leave, as it was the only way he could save the others. I asked my men what we should do. One named Maxwell, had a sprained ankle and could not walk. The other, named Tucker, was an invalid, and replied that if he was to die it would be as well to die there, as he could not possibly get into the settlements, distant 150 miles. So It was concluded that I should go, and that forthwith, because from the chief's intimation the war riors were coming in a few minutes to take us out and burn us alive, for which they had already been preparing the wood. Wilson snatched up a buffalo robe. which he threw over his shoulders and only thus dressed left the camp, which was pitched at the base of a stony hill, and secured cover In a rent in the rocks, where he hid. His departure was soon known and the Apaches gave chase on horseback. After incredible hardships Wilson reached Santa Fe. He speaks thus of his journey: "The mountain was about twenty miles from a deep canyon, the only hiding place in all that country. I had, therefore, to get into the canyon before daylight, for on that plain a man could be seen from the hill in the daytime at a distance of twenty miles. I ran and walked as hard as I could and suc ceeded in getting into the canyon just as the day was breaking. I got on the ledge and sat down to rest before hid ing myself. At daylight, as I had ex pected, the plains were full of horse men, I slid down into the deep chasm or gorge, among the vines and brush, and remained there all day without food, and, what was worse, had the prospect before me of over 100 miles to march without nourishment. The next night was also a perilous one, having thirty miles of prairie to cross before I could get into the next hiding place. That night I walked thirty miles and got into a spur of the Rocky Moun tains, traveled until daylight, rested awhile and went on into a fine looking country. I traveled all that day and kept on, after taking a little rest dur ing the night, and when near daylight on that third night I unexpectedly ar rived at a sheep ranch that I knew nothing of. I there got some mutton and atole. My shoes were entirely worn out, my feet bleeding. I stayed there the whole day with the herder, who had the kindness to make me a pair of . moccasins out of some un tanned sheepskins with the wool on them, continued my journey till I reached the settlements at a place called Mono, procured a pair of shoes and some food. Finally walked in three or four days' time 100 miles or upward, which intervened between that place and Santa- Fe. where I arrived without money, clothing or friends, not even an acquaintance, and perfectly worn out. "I was but two days in Santa Fe when news was brought of the murder of the Kuykendall party about 150 miles south of Santa Fe, on the El Paso road, at a place called the 'Point of Rocks.' I volunteered to ac company the party to be sent out to bury the dead, and, with two others, we found the bodies. There were twelve dead men, whom we buried in a large pit." On Wilson's return to Santa Fe he met Eames, .who told him of the cir- cumstances of the killing of Juan Jose. "Johnson," writes Wilson, "met with the retribution that his crimes de served. He received no reward from the Mexican Government. Oposura was besieged by the" Apaches so often that he could do no business, and he had to sell his property. He deserted his fam ily and canme to California, and died in abject poverty near Gilroy. I never met him in California, nor did I wish to come in contact with such a wretch. His act of treachery caused the de struction of a large number of Ameri cans, and the Apache war has con tinued from that day to this. "It will be interesting to know that my two men. Tucker and Maxwell, were not killed. They got away, but I never saw them again. I also learned that Mangan, the chief, had a row with his people, who broke his aim. He fre quently visited me in Santa Fe, and, in DEDINGTON&CO., X I WHOLESALE _1L \ VV X-L-C-/ I iPiQ.__.l |J__| Druggists and Importers IDE_A.l_i__3_^,S iisr c< x s sh s Patent Medicines BRUSHES, SPONGES, ._ ii * A - 3sr:D CHAMois - Proprietary Articles FULL LINE OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC PERFUMES. The Largest and Finest Line of Druggists' Sundries on the Pacific Coast. Miners' Supplies. Agents for Redington Quick- silver Company. 23=25=27 SECOND STREET, San Francisco, Cal. , , -v_^^_f ,1, ,^_r ,I,^ _.^-i* _r ,,^_r ,^._r»^_.'*-<^ _^n. _-»^ _^i*. _-^_ _-»w _r*v _---»-. .—^ _— . ***■. j**. **. .-•■* ,*-. .^. .-*. .*. .-, ______________ .— __. __. __ __. __. _ -■ my companions he was a pensioner of mine." • , After a brief residence In Santa Fe Wilson became desirous of going back to the Eastern States, and. wishing to avoid the arduous Eastern overland trip, went to California, whence he ex pected to take ship for New York. Failing three times in this he finally settled in Southern California, buying from Don Bernardo Yorba the Jurupa ranch, on which is now located the town of Riverside. He there married Ramona Yorba, the daughter of Don Bernardo, and moved to San Gabriel, where he planted the first large vine yard in California, calling his place "Lake Vlnyard," which name it bears to this day. Mr. Wilson died a few years ago. He had for the Californians a lasting affec tion, and in his memoir he pays this tribute to the native Californians: "After many unsuccessful efforts to leave California, and receiving so much kindness from the native Californians, I arrived at the conclusion that there was no place in the world where I could enjoy more true happiness and true friendship than among them. There were no courts, no juries, no lawyers, nor any need of them. The people were honest and hospitable and their word was as good as their bond. Indeed, bonds and notes of hand were entirely unknown among th*" natives." It may be mentioned in closing that the Mount Wilson in Southern Califor nia upon which the observatory of Dr. Swift is located derives its name from, the author of these memoirs. Gliropses of Celebrities. M. Jean de Reszke, the famous Pol ish tenor, who was married a short time ago to the Comtesse de Mailly- Nesle, apparently believes in long en gagements, at any rate in the non professional sense of the word. He was betrothed to the Comtesse for no fewer than seven years before he could make up his mind to take the fatal plunge. Mr. Winans' big fortune, the two millions which he left being exclusive of his American property, was made as a railway contractor in the palmy days of that business. He and his brother constructed several of the great trunk lines in Russia, and as they had practically a free hand from, the Emperor Nicholas they did not fail to turn their opportunity to good ac count. One of the largest private for tunes ever recorded at Somerset House was made by another railway king,_ Thomas Brassey. Sir Henry Irving has one peculiarity that only those brought into intimate contact with him recognize. This is in regard to the number of pairs of spec tacles and glasses of various sorts that he always has on hand both at the Ly ceum Theater and at his home. At the Lyceum he has quite two dozen pairs of one kind or another, and no employe about the place ever dreams of removing them, for when Sir Henry is busy with some production he is perpetually losing his spectacle*- and, as he is far more dependent on .hese than most people know, he flies to the nearest point where he is sure he may find a pair. He is constantly buying new pairs of glasses, and when he is good-naturedly rallied about this he pleads guilty to having quite sixty pairs either at the theater or at home. Although Mr. Balfour rides a wheel he is not yet an expert. Some time ago, it is said, he was cycling over his estate when he met a gentleman and two ladies whom he knew. Quite prop erly Mr. Balfour raised one hand from his wheel to lift his hat, and the next minute he had tumbled into a bed of flowers. "You did that very gracefully," was the comment of the trio of cyclists. "I always dismount in the presence of ladies," instantly replied Mr. Bal four. The Queen of Denmark, the eightieth aniversary of whose birthday was cel ebrated only recently at Copenhagen, has the proud distinction of having provided many European countries with their present or future sovereigns, and has not unjustly been called the "Mother-in-law" of Europe. Her Majesty is the grandmother of the present Czar and the Duke of York, and the recent marriage of her grand son, Prince Charles, to Princess Maud of Wales is another bond of friendship between England and Denmark. ■m ■ . His Christroas Digger. An eight-year-old lad was asked to write out what he considered a good Christmas dinner, and here it is: FURST CORSE. Mince Pie. SEKOND CORSE. Pumpkin Pie and Terkey. THIRD CORSE. Lemon Pie, Terkey, Cranberries. ' FOURTH CORSE. Custard Pie, Apple Pie, Mince Pie, Chocolate Cake, Ice-Cream and Plum Puding. DESERT. 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