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CALIFORNIA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT.
■ fay ALIFORNIA possesses in a their most favorable form those 1 Phj-sical agencies which Buckle, V Guyou and other students of nature have found to most > powerfully influence the growth of nations. In climate, in soil, in food products and in the beauty and grandeur of physical aspects she stands unrivaled, while her coast line and natural facilities for water com munication cannot be surpassed any where. . She possesses, in a marked degree, those other elements of • wealth and prosperity coveted by all • mankind. For the construction of -.• ships we have iron and timber, and the raw materials necessary to the arts and manufactures can be found neither greater in quantity nor better '■■ In kind In the most prosperous States. Granite and sandstone abound, and to my knowledge the marble columns for ■; the Stockton library could be procured :" in but two of the States of the Union, of which California was one. We have - also sufficient copper, asphalt, petro leum and borax to supply the coun try, and it was California's gold that saved the nation's credit during the Civil War. Nowhere else can such abundant resources be found, and no other. State or country can rival us in them. What California needs is energetic development. We have done well, but not enough. With less than 2 per cent in population this State alone produces . SO per cent of the country's borax, nearly 40 per cent of its gold, all its beet sugar, its raisins and its quick silver, and in farm productions it stand, tenth, while in fruit-growing it has no peer. Our commerce, according to the last census, was 5 per cent of ; .that of the entire Union, and when the awakening Orient, with its countless millions and its material wealth shall seek the sea, we, with our favorably located harbors, will outstrip our older sisters in the carrying trade, In manufactures, in the working up of our raw material, we allow our growth to be crippled by the prefer ence given to foreign products and our infant industries to be killed by the Influx of Eastern prison-made goods. There is no reason why California should not be one of the greatest of States. She has a coast line of twelve hundred miles, while ihe ocean line alone, if laid out in the Atlantic sea board, would expend from New York City on the north to Charleston on the south. In her area of 100,000,000 acres many great States of the East might be lost. New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Ohio combined, if HOW TO REACH THE YUKON GOLD FIELDS Very important Information for Those Going to Alaska Next Spring. Splendid Inducements Offered by San Fran cisco as an Outfitting Point— What the Alaska Trade Committee Is Doing. In anticipation of the Immense rush to the gold fields of Alaska in the com ing spring and in order that the pub lic might be convinced that the proper outfitting points for prospectors and miners is San Francisco, a committee is now- actively engaged in furnishing valuable information concerning Alaska and subjects pertaining there to to every applicant. The committee is known as the Alaska Trade Com mittee, and is composed of the Mer chants' Association, Board of Trade and Chamber of Commerce of this city, which organizations nave combined for this special purpose. The reliability and integrity of the gentlemen composing the committee are well known, and residents of any State in the Union who desire advice:" as to how to go to Alaska, when to go, what to take, where to get it and what it will cost may be certain of re ceiving gratuitously the best possible Information relative to those import ant subjects. It is generally conceded that the quickest route to the Yukon is via San Francisco. This city has direct con nection by regular steamship lines with St. Michael at the mouth of the Yukon River. The open sea passage Is the shortest and safest route. The Japanese current and the prevailing trade winds expedite the northern movement of steamers. At St. Mich ael passengers and freight are trans ferred to river boats. Travelers reach the Yukon River and its tributary gold-laden streams without having to pay any Canadian duties until Circle City is reached. Thus far there has been no duty collected on individual miners' outfits. San Francisco also maintains regular and direct com munication by steamship lines with Juneau, Dyea, Skaguay and other Alaskan ports, and by making San Franc their starting point travel ers will not be stranded en route wait ing for overcrowded steamers. The question of securing proper out fits is one which the committee has to answer more frequently than any other. The? invariable answer is to secure outfits in San Francisco. The supplies of our merchants are practi cally inexhaustible. Those of smaller towns on several occasions during the rush last summer were utterly deplet ed. Merchants in those towns found themselves unable to fill large orders and were forced to telegraph to San Francisco for shipments of goods by express. In consequence prices in those places were advanced beyond reason, and the persons who had been led to believe they could buy on short notice in those towns as cheaply as in San Francisco were compelled to pay exorbitant prices for goods on the eve of sailing. V. . The .hotel accommodations of San Francisco are ample, and no matter how great the rush may be every visitor is certain of finding accommo dations suited to every condition in dropped upon the map of California, would simply blot out a few of her counties, and to cover the map it would take the addition of Delaware, Ver mont, New Hampshire, New Jersey and Rhode Island. It cannot be doubted that the ad- Vent of what we are pleased to call a new era has aroused our citizens to the knowledge of the wonderful re sources of the State and to better directed action. We have grown, it is true, but we have forgotten while growing to sufficiently advertise that fact to the world and so create mar kets for our products. How easily this may be done is shown by the in crease ln the demand for our dried fruit brought about by the Hamburg exhibit this year. Had an appropri ation been made for the Paris Exposi tion our Hamburg exhibit could have been kept Intact in Europe, a daily ad vertisement of the State. It is to be hoped that the next Legislature will provide for this great exposition and also for the maintenance abroad of a State agency. This movement has resulted already in the material progress of the State, the repeal of many bad and the enact ment of some good laws. The favoring of foreign products by our State insti tutions is now prohibited. Other laws have found their place in the statutes lessening the cost of constructing and reducing that of maintaining certain State institutions and placing them un der civil service rule; still others pro hibiting those adulterations which, among other things, forced from the market our own pure productions. In addition many State expenses have been reduced, the State being placed on a steady cash basis for the flrst time in ten years, the amount annually taken from the people as taxes being dimin ished and a greater reduction rendered probable, notwithstanding the estab lishment during recent years of many new State institutions and the increase of our population.- The good thus accomplished does not more than equal the beneficial re sults of private enterprise and benevo lence. The construction by our citi zens, under the leadership of Claus Spreckels, of a railroad down the great San Joaquin Valley, connecting with tide water at Stockton, has by compe tition given our shippers a rate for transportation impossible to secure through commissions and courts, and in my opinion settled— so far as Cali fornia is concerned— vexed "trans portation" question. Soon, by extensions, we shall possess ?reater facilities and lower rates, and when the national Government meets life. The smaller towns on the coast are unable to insure the proper care of visitors In this respect, an important point which no Klondike-bound trav eler can afford to ignore. As regards prices it may be said that the keen competition In the lines of goods most required by the miners prevents any combination and conse quent rise in the price of commodities. Prices will be found to be at bedrock. San Francisco manufacturers and merchants, with half a century of ex perience, are thoroughly familiar with the needs of miners. No other city in the world has had the same facilities for gaining this knowledge. San Fran cisco merchants study and understand the packing of goods for every climate, especially for the Arctic. San Fran cisco is the distributing center for the whole Western coast for all California flour, woolen goods, clothing, blan kets, canned goods, dried evaporated vegetables and fruit, beans and agri cultural products which must form a large portion of the miner's stock of supplies. Many of the best goods in these lines which are sold in other cities are shipped from the great warehouses of San Francisco. Con densed foods of all kinds are obtain able here. Furs, which form a very important, if not essential, item in a miner's outfit, are abundant and cheap, as San Francisco is the headquarters of the two largest Alaska fur compa nies in the world and the center for all the whaling fleets. The bureau of information of the trade committee is located at the ferry depot, where a staff of compe tent, courteous and painstaking men daily furnish full and reliable infor mation on any subject relating to the gold fields, the means of reaching them, routes, arrivals and departures of vessels, fares, freights, duties, out fits, prices, locations, American and Canadian mining laws, regulations, etc. Those who desire to obtain direct Information from men who have re cently prospected in the Klondike country, in the Copper River region or in the Yukon Valley, will find in at tendance at the bureau "Yukon pio neers," prepared to give them correct and trustworthy ideas, derived from years of experience. These men can state the necessary (requirements, modes of travel, ho-.*.* to pack animals, ways of' living, distances from given points of the various discoveries, how locations are made, etc. An interesting and instructive fea ture of the bureau is a complete ex hibit of wearing apparel, food-stuffs, tents, instruments, boats, sleds, tools, stoves, pack saddles, medicines and everything else deemed necessary either for the journey or for work at the miner's claim. This exhibit is an object lesson. It saves a man asking a thousand questions, enabling him at a glance to see what he really wants and what he can afford to do without. No one contemplating going to Alaska THE SAy FB Ay CISCO CALL, SUNDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1897. our State In the further Improvement of our rivers we can truly hail not only a new era but a great one. The results of this awakening also appear in the enlargement of our ap propriations for our higher education, and, through the generosity of Mrs. I'hebe Hearst, our State University is should fail to see this exhibit and know what is essential to the trip. It should be borne in mind that fully nrne-tenths of the proper requirements are either grown or manufactured in California, and that it is to the in terest of those who are Klondike bound to buy in the original market, thus saving the cost of freight and the middleman's profits. The Importance of the committee's work to California in the way of in ducing newcomers to settle here can not be overestimated. While the com mittee was formed to further the in- terests of the Alaska miner, prospector and tourist, it is convinced that many who start for that country will event ually locate in this more desirable one. Opportunities are here offered to all classes of miners and prospectors, from the man who comes with pick and shovel to the millionaire who brings millions to invest. The placer mines and the large gravel deposits found in several sections of the State are yielding large returns to Investors, and new ones are continually being discovered. The personnel of the committee is as follows: H. H. Sherwood, E. Holland, G. Liebes, H. A. Smith, S. Nickels- Route Alorjg the Side of tlje MouotaiQ. burg, P. S. Teller, J. Buckley, E. En gelberg,*l_. B. Pond, T. J. Parsons, L. Prager, William Haas. L. Michels, H. Sherwood, L. Blum, W. M. Bunker, S. F. Thorn, R. H. Warfield, N. P. Chip man, A. W. Porter, W. S. Scammell, H. Craig, M. Liebman, Grove P. Ayers, J. J. Smith, K. E. Kentfield, G. E. Plummer, F. W. Van Slcklen, S. Ham mond, James Horsburg Jr., Mr. Bald win, J. A. Folger, J. A. Magee, W. M. Williams, Julian Sonntag. At a meeing of the committee on Monday it was decided to send a car with exhibits, circulars, etc., to the East with a view of arousing interest in the claims of San Francisco as be ing the logical outfitting point on the Pacific Coast. Those desiring Infor mation in detail will do well to address the committee in this city and com prehensive replies will be returned im mediately. -* m * "The face of every woman is a his tory or a prophecy," said Mrs. Mar garet Sangster at the annual banquet of the Emma Willard Association re cently. "I have no sympathy with women who try to efface wrinkles. A woman has no business to look younger than she is. There is a his tory in every line of her face," . ■ ■*-** ' B"V GOVERNOR JAMES H. BUDD. GOVERNOR BUDD. to commence construction under an architectural plan that will attract the attention and challenge the admiration of the world. Our people are nowhere more progressive than in the ex penditures they make for education, the State, cities and counties devoting for that purpose alone $6,000,000 an MT. TAMALPAIS SCENIC RAILWAY Wonderful Scenes From the Top of That Moun- tain. A Luxurious, Inexpensive and En chanting Ride to the Summit Open to Everyone. The completion of the scenic railway to the top of grand old Mount Tamal pais, "the mighty sentinel of the sea," a few months ago was an incident of decided Importance to San Francisco and its environs. The difficulty of reaching the summit had for years prevented strangers as well as others from witnessing therefrom one of the most sublime scenes it is vouchsafed to man to view. With the completion of the scenic railway, however, the op portunity for reaching the summit is ever present, and the patronage ac- j corded to the new line Is an emphatic attestation of the wisdom of its pro jectors. The trip from this city to the summit of Mount Tamalpal3 is in two sections— one from San Francisco to Mill Valley and the other from the valley to the summit. The time occu pied in making the trip is about two hours. Taking the train at Sausallto. the tourist is carried to Mill Valley, a distance of five miles, where connec tion with the trains of the Mill Valley and Mount Tamalpais Scenic Railway is had. The road at once enters the romantic and heavily wooded canyon of Bllthedale. Crossing the canyon, the road swings out upon the broad, open flank of the mountain.- The as cent to the summit then begins, and as time passes the beauties of the scene are gradually unfolded. Arriving at "Double Bowknot," the grand old Pacific springs to view in the west. The panorama now expands, holding the attention as by a spell. Mountains appear to the view in the east and north; the shimmering waters of the bay catch the eye; scenes of unsur passed beauty and grand sublimity spring up at every point of the com pass. Presently the train reaches the tavern, 210 feet below the summit of nually, and doing it without complaint. THE STATE'S GROWTH. The growth of the State during re sent years is shown by statistics. In 1880 our population was but 900,000. Now it is 1,500,000. In 1574 California produced but 220 pounds of raisins. In twenty years the production has in the mountain. After a rest of a few minutes at this charming place the trip is resumed, and in a few minutes the tourist views from a height of 2592 feet a scene compared with which the vision of Mirza fades into insignificance. To the westward one sees sixty-five miles of ocean, the line of which extends from Point San Pedro in the south to Point Reyes in the north. San Francisco, to the south, appears to be a city of toy houses. The bay, with its noble islands and myriad shipping, presents a scene never to be forgotten. Far to the east one sees Mount Diablo and the snow-crowned summits of the Sierras, 155 miles away. The strangest sight of all, perhaps, Is the white sea of fog which frequently blots out the bay, cities and towns, its surface rolling in long undulations. Beneath this sea of vapor a busy world struggles, while above all Is peace and sunshine. The most wonderful spectacle to be viewed from the summit is the sunrise in a sea of red, orange and amber lights, which end in a splendid sunburst of yellow. These are a few of the noble sights which travelers over the scenic line are privileged to enjoy. Tickets can be bought of Thomas Cook & Son, 621 Market street, good for special day and train. Parties purchasing tickets at this address may be sure of transportation on Sundays and holidays. Tickets for the round trip from San Francisco to Mill Valley Begiooing tbe Clirrjb Up tr)e Mour-tain. are 40 cents and for the round trip from Mill Valley to the summit 51; children under 12 half fare. GREAT THOUGHTS BY GREAT MEN. INFLUENCE After Death: John Cummlng. . We die, but we leave an Influence behind us that survives. The sun sc behind the western hills; but the trail of light he leaves behind him guides the pilgrim to his distant home. The tree falls in the forest; but In the lapse of ages 'it is turned into coal, and our fire burns now the brighter be cause It grew and fell. We live and we die; but the good or evil we do lives after us, and is "not buried with our bones." Man's Hope for Immortality: Sir Humphrey Davy. The caterpillar, on being converted into an inert fecaly mass, does not ap creased to 74,000,000 pounds, more than one pound to every man, woman and child in these United States. During the same period the dried fruit of the State had increased from 548,227 pounds to over 82,000,000 pounds. In less than twenty years-following 1876 our citrus fruits increased from 2,000,000 pounds to more than 160,000,000 pounds, and our deciduous fruits during twenty-two years increasing from 1,832,310 pounds to 159,905,000 pounds. Since 1572 our canned goods have increased from less than 200.000 pounds to more than 55,000,000 pounds. In beet sugar, dairy produce and in lumber the increase has been equally great, / our dairy products in 1896 amounted to $12,331,067. In ISB6 we made only 600 tons of sugar, while the product in 1895 amounted to 30,000 tons. And figures furnished by Mr. John D. Spreckels show that next year the amount will exceed the consumption of this State, being estimated at 90,000 tons. At this rate we will soon be able to supply the Union. In 1889 our gold production amounted to but $11,212,913. In 1896 it was $17,181,562. In 1897 $19, --500,000, and soon will exceed the prod uct of the earlier days. In 1875 our total production of wine amounted to but 4,000,000 gallons, while in 1897 26, --000,000 gallons were . produced. This year our growing vines— wine, raisin and covered 157,000 acres, while the value of our viticultural interests is $85,000,000. We have growing 452,252 acres in fruit and nut trees, as against 224,152 In 1892. If prices have not been re munerative it is because we have not paid proper attention to creating a market for our products abroad. We' have expended large sums in studying and caring for their production, a very small fraction of which spent in market - making would have kept prices up and insured prosperity to the St-Ue— a. State that has in one year produced fruit enough to load a train of cars 500 miles in length, each car holdi.ig ten tons, and which has spent in the fifteen years following 1880 on viticultural and horticultural commis sions nearly $425,000. Now that the expense of supporting these commissions has been stopped $20,000 annually should be expended in maintaining exhibits in Europe and the East which would be of great benefit in extending our markets and establishing remunerative prices for our products. Notwithstanding our fine climate and our abundant productions we can not expect to reduce generally the cost of our many institutions unless we abolish needless ones and receive as pear to be fitting itself for an Inhab itant of the air, a*»d can have no con sciousness of the brilliancy of its fu ture being. We are masters of the earth, but perhaps we are the slaves of some great and unknown being. The fly that we crush with our finger or feed with our viands has no knowledge of man and no consciousness of his superiority. We suppose that we are acquainted with matter and all Its ele ments; yet we cannot even guess at the cause of electricity or explain the laws of the formation of stones that fall from meteors. There may be beings, thinking beings, near or surrounding us, which we do not perceive, which we cannot imagine. We know very little; but, in my opinion, we know enough to' hope for the immortality, the individ ual immorality, of the better part of man. The Certainty of Immortality: Caleb D. Bradlee. . I believe that there has been a tele phonic, telegraphic and electric influ ence ever since the days of Adam to the present hour by which all past his tory is present life, and every nation seemingly dead Is living again in Asia, Africa, Europe and America, so that the races of to-day are but the great grandchildren of the races of the past, and you and I have something in our bones and blood of Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, Judea, Phoenicia, India and Persia, so that nations never real ly die, but are changed, transmitted, reorganized, improved, by marriage, by birth, by intermingling of races, by time, by the grace of God, so that, in a certain philosophical sense, I am not only an American but a Roman, a Gre cian, a Persian, a part of everybody and everything that ever has been, and a part, by transmission, century after century, of everybody and everything that ever will be; and thus there is an everlasting unity of flesh, and the unity of God and the unity of human ity are great and mighty and twin realities. Do not forget the prayer of Jesus— that those that were his might be one with him, as he was one with God. Once more, nature changes all the time. Yes; but nature never dies. Do those leaves that you tread under your feet on an October or a November day perish? Are they annihilated? Is their work done and is our farewell to them a finality? Oh, no! They will go into the hungry earth, and through many changes at last will fall Into your hands in the shape of a luscious peach or rosy apple or juicy pear, or else as a violet or rosebud or Japonica inmates such persons only as are ad mitted to similar institutions else where, all of which I took occasion to point out in my biennial message, as also that comparisons by per capita were idle, the elements of climate, production and methods varying so much. It being evident that no great saving can be made except by methods which Legislatures will not adopt, we should consider how else to equalize taxation. Some claim this would be done by exempting entirely money and bonds and railroads and streetcar lines and all kinds of personal property, and buildings and improvements, placing the entire burden on farming and other lands. I will frankly confess I have not studied this theory, which has as its advocates some of our ablest statesmen. My belief, of long stand ing, is that the true theory of State taxation consists in imposing on in comes," by a graduated scale, a proper tax, so that while exempting a suffi cient amount for maintenance, the per sons with the greater incomes and hence those most protected by laws, should proportionately bear the heav iest burdens. As was* said in my first biennial message: "The burden of taxation so easily falls upon the material and tangible things, the real and personal property of a community, that the- tendency is to levy upon such property-holding class an unjust share of taxation. Another numerous class of our people, in addi tion to such property, and almost ex clusive of it, are granted and enjoy under our laws an extremely valuable possession in the nature of corporate rights, privileges and immunities. Such corporate advantages are always bene ficial and often the source of great profit. "This class of property it is very dif ficult to assess or value, and it gene rally fails to contribute its just share of revenue for the support of that Government by the sanction of which alone it enjoys its existence. Our constitution-makers undoubtedly con templated that this class should be taxed for the benefit of the State." * * * This would "impose upon all corporations in this State doing busi ness for profit a graduated income tax, so .adjusted that they be required to pay only such sums as are strictly just and fair, and that equal justice be done among them." This desirable result can only fol low when the people unite In sending to the Legislature representatives pledged to the enactment of laws relieving us from unequal taxation and placing the burden where it belongs. will bless your eyes, cheer your heart, and somehow spiritually say: "We do not die, we have never perished; we are blessing the world forever and ever; and, like you, O mortals, 'we are immortal." BATTLE OF BIG SNAKES. I once witnessed a fight between two snakes which lasted three full hours, through the whole of which a reverend friend and I, two grave and gray and sober men, stood spellbound. It was in Australia and the fall of the year. My friend and I were return ing from a tour which had carried us far into the "bush." We were walking through a clearing when the unmis takable rattle of a snake arrested us, and in a few minutes we saw the be ginning of an encounter between two deadly enemies— a black snake and a rattler. War to the death is their un alterable law from generation to gen eration. The black snake is (as we know it there) much smaller than the rattle, but he is a terribly formidable foe, and, as science is superior to mere size and strength, he generally comes out of the fray the victor. On this occasion we did not see the black snake until he had leaped on the rattler's throat, nor could we make out how he had got so near without being seen. That power of stealthy, rapid movement gives the black fellow an Immense advantage. He got his grip on the throat, and there he held on like grim death. With a fury that was terrible the rattler wriggled, and shook, and reared, and rolled, and writhed. He leaped Into the air, twisted and tossed himself about, threw his assailant heavily down on the ground, rolled on him and over him, but all in vain. Blacky simply stuck. Thus for about an hour and a half the life and death game was kept up without a minute's intermission and without much sign of weakening on either side. Then the rattler's strength began, or seemed, to give way, and all of a sudden he colled himself up and lay still, as if to die. Blacky was not to be tricked. Down he lay by the side of his prostrate victim, but with h.s teeth still fir n.y set in the now torn ani crumpled throat. Then, after a quiet interval, the one-sided truce having come to an end, or the ruse having failed, the rat tler suddenly sprang up and resumed the unequal struggle on which his life depended; but all in vain. We began to see in him new signs of falling, but, notwithstanding increasing weakness, he struggled on, round after round, until, nearly three hours after the be ginning of the fight, the poor rattler gave up the contest and lay quiet, and in about ten minutes after the mute surrender yielded up the ghost. But even then blacky still hung on, and it was not until the corpse began to stiff en that he for the first time withdrew the nails which three hours before had been driven into the gullet of the vic tim. Then, with all possible staidness and straightforwardness, the hero pre pared for the celebration of his victory. He began by stretching! and straight ening out the lifeless body, smoothing out very crease and, every wrin kle. He seemed to have assumed the office of undertaker. Next we saw that he was licking the . body from end to end. ' This he continued for ten min utes or more. Having done this blacky rose, shook himself, and he took up his position at the head of his victim. Imagine our surprise, when we saw him open his wide mouth . to its ut most capacity and take into it the whole/ head of the defunct rattler. Then he gulped and swallowed; then another rest, another gulp, another swallow, until the end of him was reached. H. D. 3, 35