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"THE ALASKA FARMER IS THE COMING MAN." T B "-•HERE is probably no section of the United States where la- THERE more in demand than in j of the United States where la- ! bor is more in demand than in j j Alaska. Along the southwest- j s erly shore line the mines and j fisheries would afford perma- j nent occupation to a large pop ulation. We want men who will come with their families and make our land their permanent abode. When homes are established then will our future be assured. At present I scarce believe that the entire white resident popula tion of Alaska exceeds 10,000. But before there can be much immi gration to Alaska there must be an extension of the land laws. At present a purchaser can secure no title to property. The only deed is a quit claim. He'll get off and you set on. We have been living in this way for thirty years. The mining laws of the United States have been extended to Alaska, but not the land laws. Why, every man who cuts a stick of timber is a trespasser. The people realize that they are there on suffrage, and there is no attempt to cut timber for export out of the coun try. The poor man has an equal chance with the capitalist so far as mining in the southern s -tion is concerned. Of course, when it comes to outfitting, paying for transportation into the Yu kon district, the man of limited means is practically barred. But I believe that the rush into the Klondike will soon be diverted. As Governor I receive hundreds of letters seeking information regarding the country. I have noted that many of* these letters inquire about chances in the Copper River and Cooks Inlet dis tricts, showing that an increasing number of people are now turning their eyes in those directions, because they believe in their mineral wealth and because they are on American soil. We anticipate -I great rush there, and while it might be for a time a tran sient addition to the population of the country it will mean somewhat of a permanent settlement later on. At no distant day I believe there will be what may be termed "the Alaska farmer." As a result of my twenty years' experience in this northern country I have no hesitancy in saying that it possesses superior agricultural advantages to my old Indian stamping ground. I now raise fine garden truck, beef cattle, and am able to raise pigs with little difficulty. It is some trouble to get feed, but there is plenty of grass. The western islands and Cooks Inlet are covered with grass four feet high. Some day there will be a farming pop ulation in Cooks Inlet. The transition in Alaska will be from gold to coal and from coal to agricul ture. I have heard it said that the Yu kon Valley offers a field for barley un surpassed anywhere in the world, even though the soil one foot or eighteen inches below the surface is eternally frozen. The fish Industry is one of the great est interests in Alaska. The business last year amounted to $3,000,000, but it needs to be regulated by a commission. The cannery men should be called to gether in conference to decide the many questions which should be settled where a fierce rivalry exists. All sides could be heard, and more intelligent laws than those now governing would re sult. There are a number of instances I could give of the necessity of a com mission. '-*;% There is now an absence of Govern ment machinery, which makes lt Im possible for even constituted officials to enforce their authority. Think of the future of the fish Indus try! The grounds on the Atlantic coast are giving out,' while ours are un touched. Some day a majority of the fish consumed in the world will come from Alaska. ■ . ,% **? The fur industry has seen its best days. On the western islands foxes, blue and silver, are being cultivated, and I understand those interested in the venture are having good success. * I do not believe that Alaska has a large enough permanent population to warrant the creating of a Territory. I do, however, favor the appointment of a commission to visit Alaska and frame new laws for its government. The business men and officials of Alaska are concerned in effecting some change or amplification of the laws at present in force. They ought to confer and submit to Congress a prop osition to authorize the appointment of a commission which can consider on the ground the needs of Alaska My idea is that the commission should consist of a Senator, a Representative and three bona-fide Alaskans. If we are ever able to get such a commission something would be accomplished for the practical good of Alaska. Other wise the time devoted by Congress to Alaska will be frittered away in the consideration of numerous individual bills of.no benefit to the country as a whole. This man will want a right of way; that one certain privileges. Each bill will be lobbied and pushed, to the exclusion of more general mea sures, with the result that Alaska will stand where she , stood for the last \ thirty years. The ! work of Congress j will be fruitless I and the simple laws we need will remain unenacted. "I SHOULD VERY MUCH LIKE TO JOIN THESE EXCITED 'GOLD RUSHERS'." But even as she is to-day, nothing can stop the great development and growth of Alaska. JOHN G. BRADY, Governor of Alaska r- VERY now and then something happens which makes one L perately to be younger. Just now it is the rush to Klondike. Next sum- EVERY now and witnessed the most wonderful rush cf men desire des perately to be younger. Just now it is the rush to Klondike. Next sum mer there will be witnessed the most wonderful rush of men I and the most wonderful improvised city of frame house ' i-s. i-u- _,„«•■ *n*/-,*-,/*A-ft*i oa loons, e-nrnhline nlaces. Mini ilie uiu*>*. •-> *j».*j*-»-.»»» - > «= =* - dancing places, singing places, newspapers, churches, perhaps, that the world has ever seen. There was a rush to California in the old days. There was a / rush to Melbourne. I remember from time to • time running across men who had been to / the gold fields. None of them had broughf away any gold at all. What they did bring away was rheumatism, bent bodies, creak ing joints, torture and early death. And that, I think, in some form or other, will be the portion of most of the Klondike dig gers. The word has apparently been pass ed to "boom" Klondike in the interest of the American outfitters, who will reap all the harvest for themselves. If I were younger I would go to look at the place and the people. Alas! I cannot. It is no use recommending young novelists to go, because, no doubt, they are pre paring for a a start in March. There were three young novelists. They all I resolved— each thinking himself "the i first— go to Klondike, and there lay the scene of a novel certain to have a most enormous boom. They all thought they would start in March— this all hap pened next year. They went out by dif ferent boats; one by the Allan line, so as to get local color in Canada; one by the Cunard line, because they have never lost a passenger; and one by the White Star, because it was handy. They all got out West— far West, to British Columbia, where the start is made; on the morning of the start they met; face to face they met. Thej had come by different routes and they ' me on the same morning, face to face; every man T> had thought himself the first in the field. And grasped the situation in a moment; they broke Into hollow laughter; they shook hands with wooden smiles. "Going to Klondike?" said one. "So am I. V**! All on the same business, of course." They started, *-, anon they came to a tight place; two held aloof, hoping that the third would tumble over and break his neck. Noth- -() --: As a rule, when one goes to hear a celebrated lecturer one is so eager and expectant to hear and see the great man himself that little notice is tak en of the manner in which he is in troduced to theau dience by the chairman, though the method is oft en very amusing or curious, especially where the chair man Is a "self made" man or a local "big-wig," whose knowledge of literary, scienti fic, or theological subjectsisno greater than it should be. At a well-known mechanics* insti tute in the north of England the chair, at a recent lecture by a dis tinguished clergy man, was taken by an Alderman who had made most of his money and reputation in the grocery busi ness, and whose atta inments in theology had not soared above the Bible and church hymnal. Hence, when he announc ed that the Rev. would now de liver his lecture on "The Canon; Its Composition and Place In History," and went on to say that it was most important , nowadays, with our com mercial interests, that we should be quite up to date with all military and naval knowledge, etc., the audience was immensely tickled. Ing happened. On the third day one of , them, who had been quite silent and meditative all day, lay down at night beside the other two In the morning he had vanished. The other two looked at each other. There It Is not long ago that, when a great "gathering had assembled to hear the inimitable Mark Twain lecture, they found an empty platform before them almost up to the very moment of start ing. Then, just before the appointed hour, there came on the boards a rather simple-looking man who wan dered aimlessly about, surveying first the audience, then the empty stage, then the roof, then the people again, till they thought him demented. His remarks were not less amusing. "Very nice hall; very nice! Nice peo ple; very nice people!" And so on. Finally the _■ audience lost patience and some called to him to "vanish"! Then he came forward to the foot lights and said in a most seriou3 voice: THE SAN FRANCISCO CAUL, SUNDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1897. "Ladies and gentlemen, as I have to lecture to you to-night, I think we will now begin !"' It was Mark himself, who had chosen this amusing way for his introduction to them. \_;j,^x ''* Probably few introductions in Eng land are of the style a famous traveler experienced when lecturing in a back woods town on his travels. The chair man was a local desperado, who began the proceedings in this style, evidently thinking that his dignity in the chair demanded supporting: * "Gentlemen, this is Mr. , who is going to tell us what he's seen; and If any darned man contradicts or inter feres he's got me to reckon with arter it's all over." And, in acknowledgment, he placed a revolver on the table. The lecturer was not contradicted or interfered with. The famous composer of "The Mikado" tells a laughable story of how he had once to apologize at a meeting in the far West, where a great crowd of people appeared on learning that "Sullivan" would lecture on a certain day. It was only when he had to con front the audience that he discovered they had come expecting to hear J. L. Sullivan, the pugilist! The chairman and his supporters, in introducing the noted musician, had no small task in calming the disappointed "far-west ers. ALASKA HAS BIG PRIZES FOR THE WINNERS. THE eyes of the gold hunters of the world are on Alaska. With the coming year will begin one of the greatest gold rushes in the history of the world. It is safe to say that fully 100,000 adventurers will strain and struggle to be first in the mad race for the new El Dorado. Is there a chance for all? Will not hundreds perish in the race? Readers of those fascinating stories of glittering finds made on the Klon dike must not think for a moment that any one can go there and pick up gold. Far from it. The poor man who reaches there with a dollar in his pocket may, in the wild juggle of things, strike on everlasting fortune, but his chances are Infinitely smaller than those of the capitalist who goes there with sufficient means to permit him to carefully comb over the pros pects and select the offers of those com pelled by necessity to sacrifice their claims. The men who have made the big strikes to date went into the' coun- I try well supplied to battle with adverse I fortiine and bad weather. Had they j struck nothing they could have tided I were only themselves. The other man, therefore, had rolled over something I and broken his neck. They smiled, and went on. Then they came to the place of all; the most terrible road in the whole world, and in the night one of the two remaining novelists vanished. Assuredly he had gone over the precipice, too; he rhyming to the woods and fields outside, the seasons faithfully remembered, the little exiles of the flowerpot bear mute witness that the house ! wherein they live is a "building of God, a house not made by hands." over their bad luck and traveled safe ly out of the country. Don't go to Alaska unless you see your way clear to getting out, and bear in mind that in that rough, hard country you will win no prizes in gold or trade without a hard, stubborn struggle. Alaska is no place for a weakling in body or spirit. She has big prizes for the winners, but to gain them one must fight stoutly and steadfastly. Read the story of Alaska and you will find that only the stoutest hearted and most persistent have ever won for tunes from her. I wonder If the Impa tient adventurers have any notion of the extent of her vast domains. Her mountains, moss plains, ice fields, for ests and patches of flint, bushes, grass and waterways cover about 600,000 square miles, an area about as large as that part of the United States lying east of the Mississippi River. She has nearly three times as much coast line as the rest of the United States. Sev eral millions of men could lose them- A CHANCE FOR THE POOR MAN AND THE CAPITALIST. I selves within her lines. Robinson Cru soe cut more of a figure on his lonely island than do the 400 miners now scratching the frozen ground along a few iceclad streams. Of all this vast expanse practically nothing is known. For instance, take Baranoff Island, where Sitka, the capital, is situated. It is eighty miles long by forty broad, and has been settled for over 100 years. Yet no one has ever penetrated the mountains of the interior. Since Vitus Bering discovered the country in 1741, while cruising for the Russian Government, it has lain al most as quiet, unnoticed and undis turbed by hustling white men as the j interior of China. As usual in the de velopment of new lands commerce hunters first opened it up. But out side of furs and fish they discovered nothing for 150 years. But plain furs proved a giant bonanza for that big ■'•monopoly, the Russian-American Fur Company. On one cargo of 80,000 sea otter skins alone they received $40 per pelt. Those were the days when the nobles of the Orient paid fancy prices for rare and fine furs. Governor Bar anoff was the brains of the business. was no more. The third novelist went on -.vim us * light a heart as the perils and sufferings of that pass would allow. But the first who van ished was not killed; he simply thought he A would go home. On the way back he bought all the Klondike literature that he could find; he drew rough sketches; he drew pictures of houses, of mountains, \of gold waching; he took the train to New York; wrote all day 1 ong all the way across the Atlantic; he went up to London. * • * Six weeks later the . great Klondike novel came out. It had \ an enormous boom. A quarter of a \ million copies went off in the first \ month. All previous boomers lay \ down and died with envy. Then the second traveler arrived. He, too, had not perished, but he had made vp N his mind to go no further. Imagine his joy when he reached Liverpool to be offered the last edi tion — they came out six a week— of the great Klondike novel! No; his own was refused everywhere. There could not be two booms about the J washing; he took the train to Fork; wrote all day 1 ong all ay across the Atlantic; he went London. * • * Six weeks later the Klondike novel came out. It had mormous boom. A quarter of a on copies went off in the first ith. All previous boomers lay n and died with envy. Then the md traveler arrived. He, too, not perished, but he had made his mind to go no further, tgine his joy when he reached erpool to be offered the last cdi —they came out six a week — of great Klondike novel! No; his i was refused everywhere. There d not be two booms about the same place. Lastly, there came, two / months later, the man who had done it. / I believe they allowed him to produce a / "Journey to Klondike," which nobody /cared about, because by this time the papers were full of journeys to Klondike, life at Klondike, want at Klondike, and he rest of it. The moral of this is, of tat If you are a novelist you don't want to go to Klondike. At the same time I wish I r was younger because I should very much like to join these excited "gold rushers." p** r Flowers have no speech nor language, but they are living creatures, \ and, when transplanted, '^ '. from their own me haunts to ours, they claim the captive's due of tenderness, and they will reward love, like a child, with answering loveliness. In their religious After his death the company gradually went to pieces and the fur trade lan guished. In 1868 the Russian Govern ment was glad to sell the country to the United States for $7,000,000.' Under the Americans the fish trade was developed till it rivaled what was left of the fur seal trade. More than $6,000,000 is invested there now in sal mon fisheries alone. The golden period began in a modest way about twenty years ago by the dis covery of some placer mines near where the city of Juneau now stands. Quartz ledges were found later. The great Tread well mine was developed and put into successful operation. It produces about $1,000,000 per annum, and has a plant valued at $2,000,000. This suc cess led to the discovery and develop-j ment of other mining property throughout the territory, until South eastern Alaska produced about $3,000, --000 per annum. In 1886 came the discoveries fore shadowing the rich finds on the Klon BY GOVERNOR JOHN G. BRADY, BY EX-GOVERNOR JAMES SHEAKLEY THE KLONDIKE; A CHANCE FOR NOVELISTS, By Walter Besant. dike. First, gold was found on Stew art river, a tributary of the Yukon, and prospectors began to drift into that region. New mines were discovered slowly. What was then considered rich diggings came to light, and Alaska quietly and unostentatiously drifted toward competency and civilization. Last spring came the news of gold discoveries that set the world agog. And now expeditions are being form ed in all parts of the world to venture into this almost unknown region. So much for the past development of the country. Alaska Is entering upon an era of tremendous development and prosper ity in comparison with the past. These new conditions demand new regula tions and new laws for her government. Many new propositions will be present ed to the coming Congress and many of them will be wild and impracticable. The best and safest proposition fox the people of Alaska is to have Con gress pass an act allowing the President to appoint a commission of persons who have resided in Alaska and who are well acquainted with its needs and conditions, to draft a code of laws, both civil and criminal, and also to make such changes in the organic act and to establish such courts as may be necessary. From among the hardy, resourceful men who sprinkle gold rushes there will spring to the front brainy ones plenty capable of handling all local questions till the Government steps in. Alaska is in need of such people. They hustle around and force things into line. Alaska has hibernated so long that next spring's awakening will be something tremendous for her. The Indians have a saying: "White man heap fool; take gun and go out hunt bear. Indian take gun and go out and wait for bear." In a rough fashion that has been the character of the country to date. Those Indians are a queer lot to enterprising white men. I remember a mine on Kotzebue Sound; it is a very rich silver mine and the farthest north in this country, where the manager went to San Francisco for the long winter, leaving several natives to watch the plant and the six tunnel mules till spring. When Green got back In July he asked the boss native what kind of a winter they had had. "Oh, fine; heap fine," was the reply. "Heap plenty to eat. Everything heap plenty and fat." They had eaten the six mules. • Alaska is probably the most Inacces sible country on the globe. To pros pect the gold fields requires not only moral courage, but a great deal of physical strength and endurance. All its approaches are by water. Even the big part of the .summer traveling must be done by water, for there is not ten miles of Ie country on globe. To pros : the gold fields aires not only al courage, but rreat deal of sical strength endurance. All approaches are water. Even big part of the imer traveling »t be done by er, for there is ten miles of tlway in all of the 600,000 square miles of territory, Even the trails are wretched apol ogies for footwear. More cattle paths and rough roads were constructed last spring by the pioneer gold rush ers than were built by the pelt-hunt ers and fishers dur ing the preceding 150 years. The coast waters that the gold hunt ers will be -obliged to voyage are fre quently visited by sudden storms. The vessels select ed for the trips should be of the most stanch and seaworthy kind and should be com manded by experi enced and compe tent navigators. I would sound a Word of warning in regard to those old hulks and river boats that are be ing fitted up for the Alaska trade. I am satisfied that many of them will not reach their destination. If you go by Dyea and the Chilcoot Pass you will have 25 miles of land trav el over an eleva tion of 4000 feet high. If the trip is made in the early PRESIDENT McKINLEY ON ALASKA'S NEEDS __ HE Territory of Alaska requires SHE Territory of Alaska requires the prompt and early attention of •Ij Congress. The conditions now T-T- existing demand material changes in the laws relating to the Terri tory. The great influx of population during the past summer and fall, and the prospect of a still larger immigra tion in the spring will not permit us to longer neglect the extension of civil A general system of public surveys has not yet been extended to Alaska, and all entries thus far made in that district are upon special surveys. The act of Congress extending to Alaska the mining laws of the United States contained the reservation that it should not be construed to put In force the general land laws of the country. By. an act approved March 3, authority within the Territory 1891, authority was given for the entry of land for townsite purposes and also spring you must pass over on snow shoes and take the risk of being caught in the blizzards which dur ing that season visit the summits. To me it is a matter of regret that so many people are determined to try to get into this inhospitable country during the coming spring and summer. Thousands of them are going without proper preparation and a sufficient amount of means. There is no ques tion but that many of them will meet disappointment, suffering and death. It will take years to properly (de velop the broad Alaskan gold fields.l I earnestly advise those who J<ft^e planned to go and who have not ade- . quate means for a year's camp there to patiently wait until better and cheaper facilities for reaching the Yukon basin are supplied. Companies have been formed to build railroad^ into the interior from different points on the coast. Several of these com panies will no doubt have a railway constructed within the coming year. There is no danger of the crop of mines becoming exhausted within the next twenty-five years. I came to the California mines in 1852. I left in 1854 thinking the mines were worked out. I returned here forty-two years after ward and found that gold-mining in California was only in its infancy; more gold was produced this year than will be produced in all Alaska and British Columbia within the next two years. Once in the gold fields, what are the chances for the poor man and the rich man? Briefly, then, without a proper outfit and supplies, it is absolutely hopeless for any one to tempt fortune by pros pecting. The seasons are so shot"t. liv ing so dear and traveling so difficult that to work for wages practically cuts a man ! off from aiming at anything higher. With from $500 to $1000 ,in his pocket,' however, a man may reason ably try his chances with the best of the prospectors. Consider some of the difficulties of mining there and you will see why this is so. As far as any one has dug down the ground is solidly frozen. One miner told me he had sunk a shaft forty-five feet and the ground was icebound ahead of him. Wood cannot be got for less than $20 a cord. The ground must be thawed with fire before It can be picked out. WJ*uere wages are $10 a day it costs about §_ J 0 __\ a foot to sink a hole. The poor 1 W*\\\m\\ can calculate how long he can hold P*- to sink a shaft on his prospect a* (ditch figures. But capital is going into the country No doubt it . will give em ployment to a large number of poor men, both in working the older mines I and in prospecting for new ones. The gold field is very extensive. I be lieve that good mires will be discov ered north of the Yukon, and that b*-^* fore many years ships will be trans- 1 porting miners and supplies through:, Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean and landing them at the mouth of the Coquille River for the purpose of work ing the mines en that and other streams which flow into the northern ocean. Outside of .finding employment in the mines the poor man has practically no chance of earning a living. There is no country on earth where he can starve to death quicker. The cold temperature of almost eight months of the year makes it imperative that he 'shall have a proper amount of food and good clothing. True, the rush of adventurers will develop lines of busi ness that must furnish supplies to the mines, but a limited number of men will fill all such billets. The fish and fur trades already have all the men they can handle. The lumber business, cuts but a small figure on acccount of the scarcity of good timber. Agricul ture and grazing will always be very limited. Supplies will always have to come from abroad, and only wealthy/ companies will be able to handle thejw j in the present rough and expensive | conditions of transportation. '* One point these gold-rushers should I bear In mind: In prospecting the prac tical miner has very little or no advan tage over the novice. In that country" no person can figure on surface indi cations while prospecting. Many of ; the big finds of this last year were in what you might call marshes. No practical miner would have dreamed 1 of looking in such places for gold indi cations. There is an old saying: "Silver, lies in veins and gold is where you <>>*^ it." Six thousand years of experience-' has proved the truth of this saying. The chief \ advantage the practical miner will have over the novice will be in working and developing claims. : . J .'No man should set foot in the Yukon! gold fields without at least $500 in his pocket. That will keep him till he gets] work, and in case of a mishap or ill fortune he will have enough to carry,' him out of the country, for he might as well be shipwrecked on an iceberg in! the northern ocean as stranded in the. interior of Alaska without supplies. £ JAMES SHEAKLEY. 1 for the purchase of not exceeding 160 i* acres, then or thereafter occupied for purposes of trade and manufacture. ] I concur with the Secretary of War in his suggestions as to' the necessity-* for a military force in the Territory ! of Alaska for the protection of persons and property. Already a small force, X consisting of twenty-five men, vjfth 1 two officers, under command of,L;'/u- I tenant-Colonel Randall of the Eis-ftnh j Infantry, has been sent -to St. Michael to establish a military post. As it is to the interest of the Govern- ■ ment to encourage the development and settlement of the country and its -J 2 duty to follow up the citizens there T^ with the benefits of legal machinery, | I earnestly urge upon the Congress the 1 establishment of a system of govern- i ment of such flexibility as will enable I it to adjust itself in the future areas of I greatest population.