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The San Francisco call. [volume] (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, July 03, 1898, Image 17

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Here is the story of Calixto
Garcia, the veteran of Cuban
revolutions, the man upon
vrhcm our troops now look
b admiration. His counsel
and his leadership will add
:nuck to the dignity of our
invading army. The story of
his life and adventures is one
of intense interest, and when
the history £>f the Spanish-
American War shall be writ
ten the :iajne c'f Garcia will
stand out in bold, letters. The
latest dispatches from the
seat. of war state' that Garcia's
work before Santiago, is to at
tend to the Spanish rainforce
nts that a*e ti'ying to re
lieve the ci^y. He has a force
cf 3000 Cuban insurgents un
der him. '■'.
Specl.V. Call-Herald War- Correspondence.
..■T" tt j. jiHN ". General! .Shaf ter, com
. WHEN GeneraX Shatter, com
manding the army of inva
. 171/ . . sion, with Admiral Sampson,
■ ; Xi Jt - landed in' a small boat near
.-■ ;••;. ;. ■■■ ■" ■■■ '. Santiago ' and -. met General
■ :;:; . .. Garcia- fur the" .first time,
Cubai-i.liistory. began a., new chapter.
■He is the iftah !...w miked of for Presi
dent Cuba-- '"' - : . •;'..' ; - ' -.."-'v
" : ;; : ;•.:' Richard '"Harding -Davis, in his mas
.." .'■■terly'descripti.on of .-the-- scene, as cabled
:.;;.■ to Toe Call-Herald, said 11 was a his
•., •;• torical, .moment for- the' "-great generals.
.-.' "Th"y ;are ■■ .&"roiipt : U together under a
•: ; ,ikti&:sp. hot "that it "burns the eyes, on
•..;■••• a .high •'•olift. overlooking a magnificent
:'"--:: '"--:- vrii:.-.y ■■■:{ royal palms, which meets mo
;■.. •' tiqnipSis.'a'-bTue sea, broken only by the
•>"".• liheS: of. white- breakers on the shore,
••■;■•'.■ end" -w-hiirb; further out. is broken again
'.' : - ■by the.' slaw 'moving "hu.lis '. of thirty
"■ /_ tra'n.s=j)o"rts;'ahd thirty ships of war.
• :.'..' .;'.''Tlie-; ; thro'e'cprrimanc!ers ore seated on
..'.;:. boxes, under- -the' palm leaf roof of an
'"„' open hut. : One of 'them has a blue print
: j map. t>s" his. knees, and before they roll
;-."..;.1t up-'ajgain'- the-. attack on Santiago will
:;.'.. "be.-d'ecided- upon and her fate sealed. '
\. .:-.. ?-Th;e':palm leaf hut where the confer
••"".• en^be..is taking place is open to the hot
.:•.'■ ' : .air, 'at-'bpth'. ends, -said on each, side and
'■;■..'..• Btinilfng about :it-"or: it-"or kneeling on the
-. v grouij(J--'in i>r<'.-:i to 'obtain, a better view
•,;:':'are"..t>ie;;stTan"gest gathering ■ f persona
;•./ . that, tiffs- war' has. thrown together.
•.••'.' -I^iO.lfliier John\Ja6eb .'Astur is crowded
•••.;• l.y a : ].■ ack giant; with only a guard belt
••-.■-. \;'tn-; .cpy».<r -his "naked -sboulde"rs t There
■:•;.: are aJssi General Xudlow of "the en
% y-/,yjt;^o£E If eatjire .of my administration j
\-. ".-[.y ■1.. ; r ».f ti?6. Nav.'y Department was
' ;^- J : 1 . -fiie.. contest >yer the battleship.
'■'y-r-y JT.. .1. h^'Men/under the impression
-■'•. '.'. '■'. .-. : that the '.object' .of '-naval vessels
: : .f:: .';-/; to- be.proi>are^l to fight if it
:-?/vV'"V-?: -?/vV'"V-? - V-waa:-; ' necessary. ' But the mere
0 ?..M)k«^tlon ; that. we-.-wer.fe getting ready
■;;; : v-nlKillrijtlng'v -nlKillrijtlng' [the possibility that .we
Jnight'De thinking: of fighting some one
; ■•^•"broUgjtt protests fr6m peace societies
:.'.'■'. .(..:.ht.<r. ■ organizations all-over the
. • Then" Boutelle cattle to the
':'■] : '.troche; -'/I never .forget the service
"j;.i\he.irc.ndpre - d. ..'the. • department in that
V : 'ue'-tnV-j-<r;'iK-v: .He..catted them "coast de
r.;:f*.rise.::UattfeEhl]>s'' =and under that. name
-.:;\.tfe'P"y.\yie.re authorised by' Congress; Two
•■:;. 'Gt'-..i^rfa-^-ihf'. Indiana and " Massachu
;■,-•.-" B6tts— : \vexe built at Cramp's and the
.rtVh.irrT-. jthe .Oreeori; ' at the' Union Iron
/•• : -/^Vorks.af- Jlr.vScott In San Francisco.
;•/{•'. •■.-TheseVthFe'e. battleship are : the most
%■■": powerful, in- the 'world: I don't believe
„; f ? ither>;. ! Js anything:' in "existence. that can
•". ; .':v;'h};p. vfhetn'. '.Thef.e are- some Italian
!-h ins. .which are not to be. considered se
• - ■rfiflrsly-- -which" .'■ carry :i6-inch guns;, but
;.;— iwit;)i.;Uiiit;'e>c-c.eption no other ship in the
. : -. .world. -.carries more- than 12-inch guns.
..;• ;\ -These" tnr.ee ships i carry 13-inch guns.
"'_ • The 'strength of .the Oregon and her
••1 -.-/Bfst-e.r ships >'.as partly accident and
•"••partly;- design. ".We planned to make
"• " .their armament heavy and to give
.;• them -only thirteen feet of freeboard,
.. but when- we desig'ned-them we expect
• ed that th-ey' w'cnijd be armored with
. eighteen i: has' of nickel-steel. The
. ". Harvey process had not been brought
to perfection, then. It . happened that
before ; the ships were ready for their
" armor the Harvey process was per-
gineers, General Costello and Lieuten
ant Mlley and Admirul Sampson."
At that moment Cervera at Santiago
and General Blanco at Havana were
the most deeply concerned Spaniards in
all Cuba. The fate of Spain was being
decided. The chief factor in the coun
cil of war, so far as the Cuban cause
was concerned, was General Garcia. A
great change had come to him since
he « ;is a hunted fugitive in the dark
days of the revolution. Those who
know him best ackno%vledge his lofty
courage and commanding ability.
Richard Harding Davis described him
as bidding good-by to the American
generals, "looking, with his beard and
mustache of the Third Empire, like a
marshal of France."
What is the life history of this de
voted patriot— this intrepid hero of
Cuba's war for liberty?
General Calixto Garcia, by birth a
Cuban, formerly a resident of New
fork, is about 59 years old, decidedly
fected, and ?o the three battleships
were armored with Harveyized steel.
There are no ships afloat having the
defensive strength of these three bat
tleships with their eighteen inches of
Harveyized armor.
We were much exercised over the
question of the freeboard of the new
ships. After the design had been ac
cepted, the department received a pho
tograph of an English ship with only
two feet less of freeboard, which was
submerged like a monitor when at sea.
We were very anxious until the first
battleship had had her trial as to
whether they would be "dry ships" or
so wet as to greatly mar their useful
ness at sea. They proved to be dry and
excellent sea-going ahips. Before the
character of the Oregon class had been
determined the lowa was designed, and
she was called a sea-going battleship
with a much lighter freeboard. Stand
ing as far out at the water as she does,
she is a much larger target, and the
necessity of building the turrets for her
big guns so much higher Increased her
weight greatly.
Ship for ship our navy is the equal of
any navy in the world, although in
some respects we have not kept pace
with the rest of the world in recent
years. We originated the armorel
ciuiser. Do you know the difference
betweer a protected cruiser and an ar
military in pose and manner; his con
versation vivacious, but always to the
point and always brilliant. By profes
sion a lawyer, he Impresses one as born
to command — a man of big affairs, who
would carry out any enterprise with
honor a:ul success. Among his follow
ers his word is law and his counsel is
always sought and followed in grave
He was one of the organizers of that
first Cuban revolution of 18t>8. He met
with his friends nightly at a farm
owned by Donato Marmol, near the
town of Holguln. The Cubans were al
ready in revolt under Cespedes, and
within two days Marmol and Garcia
took up arms with 150 resolute follow
ers. Extraordinary success attended
them. Town after town surrendered,
first Santa Rita, then Juguanl, after
hard fighting, with its 20,000 population.
For his bravery Garcia was promoted
brigadier general under Gomez.
moreJ cruiser? A protected cruiser has
a protective deck beginning below the
water line and arching over the ma
cliin«iy. With a bulkhead at each enC
it forms v steel box around the machin
ery. A shell striking this deck on either
side would likely be deflected. But a
shell might strike the arch perpendic
ularly and pass through.
The armored cruiser has the protec
tive deck and has also a belt of armor
on the outside of the ship beginning be
low the water line and extending up to
the level of the protective deck, so that
a shell which would strike either a di
rect blow would strike the other at an
angle and so be deflected. The New
York Is of that type and I believe she
is the first armored cruiser ever built.
Other nations have coDied the typo and
improved on it. We ourselves made a
better ship when we built the Brooklyn.
Since that time other nations have beon
going ahead and we have been stand
ing still. To-f.ay Spain has six armored
cruisers which are stronger than ours.
Spain's cruisers carry two 11-inch guns,
while the New York carries six and the
Brooklyn eight 8-inch guns.
And yet I don't know that I should
be afraid to have the Brooklyn meet
any of the Spanish ships. There is the
difference in -he men, of course; and
our ships would have eight large guns
against the Span. aid's two, thus hav
ing four chances to one to make a hit,
and several hits with the 8-lnch gun
would be likely to settle the business
for the Spanish vesse' The power of
Later, when the provisional govern
ment for some reason not clearly ex
plained, removed Gomez, Garcia suc
ceeded him. Finding that Juguant had,
meanwhile, been retaken by the Span
iards, he proceeded to capture It again.
He next took Holguin, the town where
the revolution was originally organ
ized. Other victories rapidly followed.
At the obstinate all day battle of
Santa Maria, in 18G9, he followed Yon
Moltke's tactics at Sedan — surrounded
the enemy's urmy and forced the sur
render of General VingUQS and his men.
They were well treated and given free
So grateful were they for the unex
pected clemency that one of the offi
cers. General Resales, on returning t«/
Spain, issued a pamphlet extolling the
generosity of Garcia. But victory did
not always follow the Cuban eagles.
September, 1873, brought reverses.
In the absence of. his main forces,
By General Tracy, ex-Secretary of the Navy.
the big guns has beeen greatly In
creased since I was Secretary of the
I believe the 10-inch gun to-day is as
effective as the 13-inch gun was when
we built the Oregon in all but one par
ticular, and that is in the explosive
force of the shell. But either shell, if it
exploded in a ship, would be terribly
destructive and no ship could stand
many such explosions.
I look for a large increase of the navy
in the immediate future, because I be
lieve the war has given the people of
the country an object lesson in the
value of the navy which will create
public sentiment in favor of large na
val appropriations.
Our navy must be greatly increased.
The present Congress should not ad
journ without appropriating $100,000, 0U0
to the construction of the new navy.
We need strong and faster battle-ships,
and we need many more fast and
strong armored cruisers. Indeed, I
think the distinction between the ar
mored cruiser and the battle-ship will
practically disappear in the near fu
ture. The crying need of our navy to
day is faster battle-ships. The advance
in construction since the Oregon and
her sister ships were designed has prac
t! ally rendered the 16-knot battle
ship obsolete, except for two purposes —
to defend home ports when attacked or
to attack the land fortifications of an
enemy. But for service upon the open
ocean the faster ships of other nations
have rendered them practically use
Garcia with his guard o£ twenty men
was surrounded by 500 Spaniards and,
when at the last moment capture was
inevitable, rather than surrender and
die of torture, Garcia fired his pistol
into his m >uth, and fell among his dead
comrades. The Spaniards carried him
to Manzanillo in triumph, also thinking
him dead. To the amazement of Span
ish doctors and geiierals, Garcia re
vived, although the bul'.et had pene
trated his palate, following the line of
his nose and emerging from his fore
It seemed a miracle that the general
lived. Then it was equally surprising
that, recovering, he escaped execution.
But he was spared and imprisoned at
Valencia and Santona, in Spain.
Fortunately for Garcia, General Cam
pos, Governor General of Havana, was
not vindictive, for when peace was de
clared in 1577, Premier Canovas freed
him at the cabled request of Campos.
It Is folly to send a slxteen-knot ship
to cruise in the open sea in search of a
twenty-knot ship. All other nations
are. now builuing eighteen and twenty
knot battle-ships. And yet I regret to
observe that It Is proposed that we
shall continue to build the slxteen-knot
battle-ship. In building the Indiana
and Oregon class we built the strong
est battle-ships known to the world.
Other nations changed the strategy
by building battle-ships strong In of
fensive and defensive power, but which
could outrun them. We go on building
the same old ship.
The need of the hour is a new type of
battle-ship — one which In Its combi
nation of speed with offensive and de
fensive power will surpass anything
yet designed. It is not enough that we
have strong ships or fast ships. We
must have a ship which is both fa^t
and strong. This other nations have
and we have not. Of course if we build
a battle-ship with twenty-one knots of
speed we must sacrifice something of
armor and armament. But still such
a vessel, as an all-around righting ma
chine, would be greatly superior to any
thing we have in our navy to-day.
The new ship should be of 12,000 or
13,000 tons. It shoi'M have not over
twelve inches of armor. Few ships of
other nations have heavier armor than
this now. It should have large coal ca
pacity to give it a wide radius of ac
tion. It should be able to steam twen
ty-one knots an hour, and it should be
armed with eight 10-inch gruns. Not
This explains why Martinez Oampos
has always been respected and admired
by the insurgents.
Notwithstanding he was free, Garcia
did not fully believe in the sincerity of
the peace treaty, and he came to New
York to await further developments. It
soon transpired that the Spaniards,
were not keeping their promises in good
faith, and bitter dissatisfaction pre
vailed. Hostilities continued, and Gen
eral Maceo continued to hold his
ground against great odds. The cour
age and patriotism of the heroic mu
latto general fired Garcia's heart anew,
and again he appeared in the field dur
ing what was known as the "Little
War." until he was defeated and again
taken prisoner.
For the second time his life was
spared. He was sent to Madrid, how
ever, where he was allowed lfmited
freedom and not permitted to leave the
country. Being a man of education.
only is the 10-inch gun sufficiently ef
fective against any armor, but it can
be operated in case of necessity by
hand. We have yet to- learn whether a
heavy shot striking the turret of the
13-inch gun would not put the mechan
ism by which it is operated out of or
der and disable the ship to that extent.
If this happened to the 10-inch gun, as
I said, it could be worked by hand; the
18-inch gun could not.
The recent act of Congress authoriz
ing the construction of monitors of 14
knots speed, not to exceed $2,500,000 in
cost, is greatly to be regretted. To
build these ships having 14 knots of
speed will compel the department to
build single turreted monitors. As a
monitor is designed for harbor defense,
the qu?stion of speed ts of secondary
consideration. Eight knots is just as
effective in a harbor as 14. And yet the
extra cost of the machinery to give this
I extra 6 knots of unnecessary speed
compels the construction of a single
turreted monitor when at 8 knots of
speed there could be constructed a
double-turreted monitor which would
be just twice as effective. These mon- !
itors are not worth $1,250,000 and their j
construction le a waste of money.
It will not be necessary for us to
adopt a naval policy like Great Brit
j am's rnder any conditions that may
j arise. ngland's situation is different.
| Her life depends on preventing inva
sion of her territory. England is only
an Island. With the vast expanse of
our territory ye have no permanent in
1 Jury to fear from the invasion of a for
refinement and- Indomitable -wnl ;.h©;.
Boon made .a- : career .fpr .Jibnse?f..in.^ : .
Sble way;, and ■ earned- maney, by-;
teaching French and English-: He. lived.;
a quiet, retired iife.; but was always un
dfXrS^S:^ February,
1894 broke out he- was. anxious-^.leave^ .
Madrid, but the- eye of the- Governments
was ever upon him. .Then-he ..brought;
his intellect into play: . He. .gaye;it qu|,
that he should spend the remaining :
years of Ms life in Spain, 'This lul^d,
the suspicions .o.f,th* ; police;. until : sud- -..-.
denly he disappeared af midnight- Be-.;,
fore the' authorities were a,wa^.x)f ; it,h.e,: ;
h fta^hiS?New^K early
tumn of .1895, he prepared- to -go -to .the
assistance of. : his ■ countrymen,- : but he .
was not immediately . successful.. ;He < |
organized, and led.. the- \^^^V :
kins expedition in January, 1896^, and , ;
fitted out the steamer -Bermuda, thefv}-,
■ lowing month. -/But '. the.^Va&hingt.Qn. .. ..
Government- interfered. ..Garcia .m
arrested, and' held for triaV under-. |
b °Before the day s&^r-ittoe -trial: Wj ■'...
arrived he forfeited his- bail.-., and .-this,
time succeeded: -in/: getting/ away with.,
an expedition, for Cuba; ■"••.-. ... . : , .......;
• Since then he has become a .-d.lstl.n-.:;.
euished leader) proyihg..hims.elf.;W'.<i.vhy v
to share th.e. •la-ureia.-of .; victory. .vAVith-
Gomez, Cuba's greate-st Cuban; .gene.raL v ,.
Garcia's.mcst:impqrtaßti:ach-ie.yeme:nt;. ; f,
so far as direct results .are- concerned,:, ••■
•was the '■ capture' • of ■.■•Guai-rnaro,; ip r .p;e. 7 |
cember, ' 1896: , After .a: siege. . of twelve .
days he captured sixteen : forts, , on;a .-.
after another,: finally forcing., .the -sur.- ,
render of : the : garrisori. .who tppk-.ref u-ge ,
in a large 5 stone .church.. in the : center.,
of the .town:, .lie opened on them |
a couple' of field pieces .and ...speedily,,
captured : ' .the -.forces,, -.amounting, "to
nearly 300 men and -officers..: was; \
much booty, .consisting. .of Spanish;. gold,.:,
Mauser rifles-, 200,<j00 rounds, of aniraUnl- ' ;
tion, with machetes. and a large: supply -.
of clothing. • The- prisoners were- :We ; lI;-..
• treated arid, soon; allowed to, go o.n;,
parole. Again Garcta's -humane: gener- . : •
' alship won him ■ . plaudits/., from- . „ ;
enemy. • ... ' '■■'. ■ '::.■'■:■ '■'■■'.'-.•; .\ •■;■-•..•
Garcia's original . profession was Jayr,^ .
and his calm and dignified discussion, ;'•
speaking' always: Impartially /and • with-:; .•
out prejudice, won :him .many • ■friends. I*.}1 *.}
among the Spanish. men- of note. -and in
fluence. Hence there, was a lack -; of.. ;■
Yindictiveness. toward him on the- .part". ;
of two Spanish geheralsW-BIahco : ; and: |
Martinez Campos:. . ■. ' : .:. ''■■... ■' -."'.•'.■ '.;*:
These are some of the. qualifications'. .
that po to make up the character of the.". .
• Cuban leader who has already wOri; the.
confidence and respect of;- . Shaf ter,: : ' :
Sampson and the other /high.' represent;
tatives of the American .Government;..
The old erroneous belief, is passing •
away— the Cuban insurgents -i^e-a. ,
. band of ignorant half -breeds,- with- fa
natical leaders,- who might, -possibly : .-'
figure in civilized life • as/ . succ^sfiil •••
cigar dealers and ' managers; of -GubanV •
barber shops.. The deeds. .of-.vGpFne?, : -. .
of Marti, of Maced, ' Garcia... and~ : th'.eir;.'
illustrious brother : patriots—^d'ead- .'.or-. .
alive — will hot .be' forgo.tten' .when th-e"'.
history, of the great' Cuban; war -.cA;. ■ : .'
revolution comes', to- be : . • .impartially
writtem- . '. ... ..•' ; .-•.-.;.; ; : ;i:' .!..' : .
eign'foe. ■ "••; ••' '.V -. ;.::" ":•' '/'• •"' :
We shall need a very .l arge. ..nayy'lf ;,
we keep the Philippines; .aiidwe are pfq.- ."
ing to keep the' PhiH.ppineg: .'I- /speak-, '•
from no know Ledge -such as- any- other .-.' ,
man may not possess. Biit .1. say. that',
we shall keep • the Philippines: .■;R^-fl|-:
destiny. It is. the first, step in- the'.o'pe-n- " .
ing of a new and great de.stin.y for.. tlii3 .
nation. . . . .'• '; ' "i .'.;-,';. .-■'■-.'. ;=.■. "..•
We began this war : "witjbout :• any ■
thought- qf acquiring territory; 'and tha •
first thing that -happened Avas.th^t' the •
Philippines fell into' o-ur hands/ .1 Say i;
It is destiny. -.And..! • believe' no.l o-niy
that we should keep the.m, : .but thatwe
should take everything .""pain -has In
the Pacific Ocean.. K. we. are to.be;.. a
commercial nation we have- got" to .go- ..
out after trade. It Is riot goih-jj to'cora'a.
to us. . • ' .'■.■.■' ;",
We must do as the other nations of.
the world do. Where is, but trade with
China? We hold it. oh. the su.iTe.ra no j- of '
Russia, France, Germany and England. ','
From England's policy we.-have/nothi
ng to fear, but we can't leave England
to fight our battles for usi'.We can't lie .
a mendicant or we shall get ariiendi
cant's share— the' crumbs from the ta
ble. ■ •"■-'..' ... • ,
The Philippine Islands are wonder- ..
fully productive, and I believe th.eir
mineral products alone would pay us
handsomely: anyway, what can -we do
but keep them? We can't give. them •
back to Spain. They are the 'only in
demnity she can give us for the -war..
SI:- has no money. We cannot .put
them up at auction. What nation ever
did that with conquered territory?
We cannot turn them over to any other
nation even in exchange for something
else that we . want, for- the powers
will not let us do It. 'Do you think Rus- "
sia would be willing to see them- turn
ed over to England, or that Japan
would acquiesce in giving them fro-Rus
sia? No, we shall find it much easier
to keep them than to give them away.
We shall hold them as security for an
indemnity which Spain, can. never pay.

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