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"REVENGE AND RECOMPENSE IS MINE."
: V If 'FTER four hundred years Is '■'•.•■-'.' l\ rael's day of reckoning with : / \ Spain, its arch enem£ has ■'•jLx. corvn - Israel has suffered long and" patiently, has cherished a hope!..- almost against hope, that Borne day her bitter wrongs, Inflicted by pow . ••"Wrtul; overbearing, cruel Spain shall be avenged. The day is ri' h al hand. nay. jit is even come. Once proud Spain -,:' kneels .at the feet of the Jewish money kin*;-- for .the means to carry on the war against a powerful enemy. The de /-Jicendants'.of.'lha' ancient race, whose ancestors have been robbed and mal treated by her, have no ear for the ■ '■.pleadings of their tormentor, no com- Ibn for her sufferings, no Lelp to extend- to.' her. They turn a deaf ear to, all her entreaties. Israel's day of reckoning and of vengea c has come at last. Spain shall drink th,e bitter cup to ..the very dregs before the cruel wrong she has In 2 on the peo ple who wore her own Bhall be avenged. The Jews of every country, every na tionality and every clime arc- ranged upon one si > of the presert conflict, but not on the ,■:<'.•■• of Spain.- Their hearts, their swords, their wealth, their sympathies and prayers are with the Un ted States. The flower of Judah has enlisted among the lirsit volunteers un der the Stars and Stripes. From San Francisco aior.e 109 stal wart Jewish youths went to the front with the First Regiment, a number far in excess of their proportion to the general population. A similar quota may be found in he other arms of the service. The daughters of Esrael are among the most feager workers under the Red Cross, le<: by their ra.bbis. The aged orthodox Israelites, those "f the Old School, who hail f- m Russia, Rou mania and Eastern and Southeastern Europe, are too old and feeble to take up arms, but they offer up their con tributions, whatever little they can ■pare, U-r the comfort of those who have gone to the front, and their prayers morning and evening for the success of our arms and our victory over Spain. They still have faith in the . I prayer and believe that theso United States have been chosen by the Lord as his especial instrument to avenge the wrongs of his chosen peo ple v >on Spain. : . When Spain found that the United States would no longer tolerate her in human acts at our very door, and the Yankees might fight, her fin; agents approached the Rothschilds and Bassoons, the money kings, to negotiate terms for a loan. The financiers not be induced to float a loan foi upon any term?. -No. security Spain of fered would they a< <•. pt, neither her mines, lands nor future revenues suf ficed as pledges. The monarchs of finance simply shrugged their shoul ders, but remained obdurate, while Spanish securities went lower and low er on 'change. Quite a different scene was enacted this side of the Atlantic. When Presi dent McKinley saw that war was in evitable his trusted friend, Senator lianna. went to New York to see the Seligmans, the great financiers. The Seligmans had lots of money for Uncle Bam, which he could have as long as he wanted it, upon his own terms; no security required, except his evidence of indebtedness. And, in case their re sources should become exhausted, to provide for possible contingencies, the Seligmans cabled to their banking bouses In London, Paris, Frankfort and other money centers, and the reply from each source was that all the money the United States should need would be furnished on call at an inter est to be named by the Government. Thus the United States was enabled to equip an army, buy battle-ships, move Its troops, procure everything needed or desired, and send millions with every expedition, knowing that as many more millions were in reserve, while Spain could not raise enough money to repair her old ships and make them at least Beaworthy. Th^» Jewish youth of N»w York form ed one reg'ment and fully equipped it; Chicago furnished another regiment of bright, intelligent, patriotic young Jews, most of whom abandoned lucra tive business or positions to take up arms for the country. Six hundred young Russians from New Jersey, who had seen service under the Czar of Rus sia formed a cavalry regiment, and were mustered in. The National Coun cil of Jewish women held meetings In 1 Philadelphia and Baltimore and effect j ed an organization to give practical aid to the Government. The American Patriotic League of Russian Jews organized in Cincinnati on May 15, elected Rev. Dr. Isaac Wise, the jrrea* Jewish savant, its president, Issued an appeal to all Israelites, urg ing them to organize in every city and community, raise funds, equip sol diers, buy a battle-ship, present it to the Government, and aid the Govern ment in every way in its present strug gle for human rights and human lib erty. "We have left the country of our birth," the appeal says, "because we hate tyranny, have come to this coun try because we love liberty. Let us give lasting testimony to this country how her adopted children value the privilege of living under the protection of the stars and stripes." The best' example of the intense i hatred against Spain harbored by the 1 old and orthodox Jew can be daily seen in the city of New York, in front of the offices of the four Jewish newspapers, where crowds of these people congre gate, eagerly scanning the bulletins WHAT THE CARTOONISTS THINK OF THE WAR. THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, SUNDAY, JULY 3, 1898. and giving expression to their feelings of joy over any ad\*antage reported in favor of this country by their violent gesticulations, shaking of their bodies and the curses they utter against Spain, the "accursed," as they designate it. The intensity of that feeling can be un derstood om.. by those who have learned through tradition and had im planted in their youthful hearts a re cital of the atrocities inflicted upon their kin by the cruel, inhuman Span iard. After the destruction of the second temple, the fall of the Jewish empire, the children of Israel became dismem bered, lost their nationality and went forth homeless wanderers among the savage tribes of Asia Minor, the north coast of Africa and wherever they found a foothold or temporary abiding place. Their natural trend was toward Spain, where many thousands of their brethren had settled many years be fore the destruction of the temple, founded colonies and prospered in all their pursuits. Many thousands of the nomads, in course of time, reached the shores of Spain, where they found rest from their years of wandering. They brought some civilization with them, had laws and maintained order. A thrifty, industrial, peace-loving people, they prospered and gained in influence until they controlled the principal in dustries of the land inhabited by an in dolent race. The sanitary and marriage laws which the Jews held sacred as God-given, divine institutions, were conducive of making theirs a healthy, sturdy race. In the knowledge of ag ricultural pursuits they w\?re in ad vance of the Spanish primitive peasant, whom they naturally outstripped. To fully appreciate the intense hatred of Jews against Spain, which has been nursed and has surviv d centuries, it is necessary to know the history of the Jews in Spain, as it has been handed down through books and tradition from one generation to the other among the children of Israel The chapter opens in a halo of glory, made more radiant by the sunshine of peace and pros perity, but closes with the recital of perfidy, tyranny, wholesale murder, pil lage and rapine at the hands of in furiated mobs. The fancied security of the Jews in Spain was of short duration. Just as they had reached the very zenith of influence and prosperity the storm of spoliation and persecution, whioh had devastated the Jewish quarters of France and Germany, broke over Spain, the stronghold of Jews of all Europe. That persecution changed the history of the Jews and turned the fortunes of Spain. Until that period Spain had been mistress of the world, on land and sea. The Mediterranean was to her as an inland" lake, her fleet cover ing and traversing it from end to end. All other countries were more or less dependent upon Spain in their foreign trade relations. While thus intoxi cated by her own glory and power, slowly but surely she encompassed her own downfall. It was near the close of the fourteenth century that fanat icism, bigotry, hatred and religious frenzy got the better of toleration and judgment. It arose in Seville. The new mon arch, Henry 111, a feeble boy of 11, treated the matter with indifference, until it became too late to stem the wild current. On March 15, 1391. Mar tinez deliberately incited the mob to riot and violence against the Jews. The passion of the multitude had become Inflamed and broke out in a wild up roar. The Jewish quarter was pillaged and many of its inhabitants met in stant death. The Governor, unable to restrain the m b, sent messengers to the King for assistance. \Y hen the mil itary arrived the knights, nobles and the better classes of Christians took sides with the Jews in an effort to sup press mob violence. By their com bined efforts they succeeded in quelling the riots, but not until many Jews had been killed and much property looted or destroyed. Three months later, June 6, 1391, the rabble again attacked and set fire to the Jewish quarter, resuming its "holy" massacre with increased fury. Of a community of 7000 families, estimated at about 30,000 souls, 4000 were killed outright, women and children were sold into Mohammeian slavery and the rest permitted themselves to be baptized to escape death or a worse fate. The syn agogues were converted into churches, and the once wealthy and important Jewish community of Seville was a thing of the past. The horrible scenes enacted at Seville were the beginning of the period of carnage which spread to all cities of Spain and over the entire peninsula, growing in fury as it progressed, until every Jew had been either murdered, baptized or banished, and Spain was at the mercy of the lawless, bloodthirsty mob. The craving for plunder and the worst animal passions drew to the rioters' ranks the very worst elements from all classes, who masqueraded un der religious fervor, while the persecu tion swept like a raging torrent over Spain, leaving death and devastation in its path. Riot and rebellion were rampant throughout the kingdom. Armed mobs patrolled the streets, defy ing the authorities. Men took to arms for the lust of spoils, murder and ra pine. They lost all human feelings and turned to vultures. The rioters, steadily augmented In number, and crazed from excesses, at tacked Cordova, the parent community of the peninsula, murdering all Jews who refused baptism. Toledo, the cap ital, contained the largest community. Here the mob rose on June 20, a Jewish fast day, and slaughtered the steadfast adherents to the ancient faith. At the approach of the merciless mob, when escape seemed impossible, many of the most prominent Jews put to death mothers, wives, daughters and sisters to save them from the worse fate of falling into the hands of the inhuman rioters, and killed themselves. Seventy communities were made the victims of that terrible violence, which traveled like the black scourge. At Ascalona not a single Jew remained alive. Three weeks after the outbreak at Toledo the inhabitants of Valencia ros? agafcist the Jews. Of the 5000 Jews in that city not one remained. About 250 were mur dered at the first attack, some fled and all the rest embraced Christianity. Throughout the kingdom the Jews were attacked with fire and sword. On August 5, the massacre of the Jews began in Barcelona, the proudest home of Jewish intelligence and wealth. The great fortunes which the Jews of that place had acquired by their ex tensive maritime commerce excited the envy of the rabble. In the first on slaught nearly 2500 victims fell. A large portion of the Jewish .commun ity found shelter in the citadel, where they were defended by the Governor of the town and the nobility. The rab ble attacked the stronghold in superior numbers and' set fire to the building. The Jews saw that there was no chance for escape and that their presence en dangered the lives of their protectors. The braver ones went forth to meet their persecutors In the open and they fell in honorable combat. The remain der either put an end to their misera ble existence, or were put to death, as soon as the rabble laid hands upon them. Eleven thousand Jews were baptized in Barcelona on that occa sion; few escaped, but not one Jew re mained in Barcelona. In Catalonia and in Aragon the wealthy Jews were spared, having secured protection in exchange for their fortunes. The closing scene in this dreadful drama, marking a dark page in the his tory of civilization, came in 1492, when the sovereigns of Spain issued an edict expelling all Jews from CasUie. Ara gon, Sicily and Sardinia, and that if one were found within the proscribed territory after four months from that day he should be put to death without trial. They were not allowed to take with them any gold, silver, money, or forbidden articles of export, which was equal to sending them forth desti tute and penniless from the land in which their forefathers had dwelt for fifteen centuries, toward whose great ness, wealth and culture they had so largely contributed. An immense sum wc.s offered the crown to recall the cruel edict, and the King was about to yield, when Tor quemada again interfered, threatened and cajoled, until he carried his point, against the earnest advice of the King's councilors. The Jews could not realize on their lands, houses, goods and chattels. They could not take any with them, owing to the restrictions, nor could they obtain any bills of ex change, as all the commerce was in the hands of Marranos, who would not risk being seen peaking to a Jew or having any business with him. A palatial residence was bartered away for an ass and a magnificent country seat was exchanged for a bolt of cloth or linen. Torquemada forbade all Christians to have intercourse with the Jews under penalty of excommun ication. The Jews made ready to go, knowing that to linger meant certain death. Over 300.000 Jews, who had re fused baptism, left Spain one day to become homeless wanderers of the globe, not knowing whither they were going, nor *Lat fate awaited them, carrying with them memories of grief and misery, torture and persecution. Professor Graetz, the eminent histor ian, writes of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and its consequence in the following words: "The expulsion of the Jews from the Pyrenean Peninsula, un wise as it was inhuman, forms in.vari ous ways a well marked turning point In the general -history 'of. ,..=J£wisn race. It involved no* only- -the;, exiles, •'•.: but the -whole .'Jeiyj&h^pebpje,.- in'. <ar*' reaching and mostly "■djsas'trou.&.-ejons'e- : quences. The glory- of the,- Jew.was-exy tinguished, theii\'pnd«;"htfnVble&-. their center displaced, the" "s.t'rQrig.'.-'- pillar against which' they- had. hitherto leaned . broken. The. grief- c.aused-15-y ••th'-is 1 . event was shared by j.ewao'f. ey.e'ry country -which, had -news - : of", .ft," ..-Tjbey all felt as if '-the ;; temple had Vß^elj de- : . -,' stroye'd for a' third ""time;.. risaf-itn^on-s;. • of Zion'had far atliird.time, .b^e^-'-cqn-; • demned to exile .a.nd".niiser.y.v.^V.he.fhe'r. . from fancy or pride-., it. rvvas- supposed -., • that the Spanish,- the :Seirhar&ic>Je>ys;. • were the posterity "of t-he : :nobie.s-.t-tFit)ei' i and included- among' tHem xbese'e&d&itfS- " . in a direct line." fjoW -living..;.; David: hence the Jews looked -upon- -them;, kind of Jewish not/iltt-'y"... : , -new " these exalted ones' had; been-.'/viaitgd- fitf" the severest affliction. ■''•■"'.'•'•••.••'-.,'!• v.. :.': .' * "The remnant wandered '■.ibou't-' -Jike.. ■ specters, hunted rom one : "c6iiTit : iry-'.t'6 . another, and. pfijjces "among ■.Jew's,. -It-hiay .-. were compelled to" knock, as' beggars, at" the doors of their breth'refi. Shinty . millions of ducats wh-k-tv, at : .'.th.:e •■lpwe'st computation^ the Spanish; ■Jew:s' : -.po.ST, sessed oh their expulsion.;, had:, melted. . away in their hands'," arid. •they ■• \y ere thus left denuded *>-f •ev£rythi..ng ; 'in : .'a; hostile world,, which- valued' "the. 'J^vs • at their moneys worth .only. - ' pa : lf a . century after, the banishment- 'of;'.. .the . Jews from Spain. th : e- . fugitive? :'. ■ \\:eF.e • still on their travels'; -.here': 'a..g roup, •' there a family, or s< lita.ry stragglers... : "It was a kind of e'xodu'. pn.-'a-'sipaU scale, moving eastward cntefly,:to..Tu"r-. key, as if the Jews- 'w'epe-- to. approach •' " their original, homo. ' -But 'theirv'yery; . wanderings, until they :agtii.n-. reached.- • secure dwelling places, in. kiiji'e'as-^ ure were settled, weTe.-. heartren'di-n'g, ' through the- calamities . of- : . evgry. . de-.' scription, the hurhiUatiohs.-.t'he '•■ -eo,n.-.- . tamely, sufferings .worse. thari*» death;- ;•. that they encountered!"'. ■■'•■'.'■.■•.•.■•"..'••'■: The story, of Israel's sufferings at. the °' hands of cruel, .'inhuman ...s;p..aiir..".wf ll • never be forgotten -by /children, Israel. It is among' its. cherished 'y-ef saddest traditions. ..The Je w,. will' ever remember Spain: he' imbibes-- '-Jhev ha- v tred at .mother's breast ;..T ; hp'ugh';it -.' has never been -written, 'the': rn'o.ther . teaches it to her .child, from iip lo'lear'. Listen to the-luliaioV of mothers • in, . Israel, as you enter"theirhom.es;;. ■ the Baltic to' the" Mediterranean., from . • the Atlantic to the Behng.;S.ea',.' in' .the twilight of the waning, holy .Sabbath-.; you will hear the- orthodox. : .'.]paoth«f ' chant in soft and plaintive tones to h-er-"'" offspring of Israel's departed glory. anii . the coming of the Messiah- to lead -them. • back to the promised-la.nd...Slip-sTngs the unwritten verses -.'•in the;- . Jewish jargon— the refrain of every: stanza 13. = ' "Accursed Spain." . ' : ; "... ■■' .' ;' .'..- , . . TC>. M IMETRQ." . ' Silver money 250.' years o'.ldis'BtiH in • circulation in some parts.'of. -Spa-ih.'. ; : ' : " 25