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VOLUME LXXXVI- NO. 135.
SENSATIONAL REPORT ON CONDITIONS IN PHILIPPINES JUST FILED BY A SPECIAL GOVERNMENT AGENT A Commissioner Sent to the Islands Makes Startling Disclosures Regarding the Existing Conditions. SPANISH FRIARS SHOULD BE SHORN OF roWER ; In regard to the power of the churcn in the Islands, I have given the subject much attention and careful thought, and I conclude that the Spanish friars and the holy orders had in the past, and still have, more power than is good for the development of the Philippines. I have expressed to you and in the press my great admiration for the Catholic divines who accompanied our army as chaplains. I think th Catholic religion the best re ligion for the natives of the Philippines. But the insidious rule of the priests and friars is undoubtedly working an injury to the cause of advancement in the Phil ippine Islands. Again and again men of high degree and low In the Philippines assured me that they loved the Catholic church and were loyal to the Catholic faith, but hated the friars as the gates of hell. Of course, the power of the holy orders is sometimes overestimated. For exam ple, I learn that on farms near Manila, which these orders rented to the natives for three cents an acre per year, the peo ple complained, notwithstanding the rea sonable rent. f There are Americans going into Manila who do not represent even the average class of American citizens. Take some of the civilians. There is a Mr. Brown, whose name is Baran ski. and a Mr. Carmen, associated to gether in the American Commercial Company. I have it on the authority of Mr. Kaelin and Timothy W. Coak iey of ',„ c rmnppmes-American Com pany that Carmen and Brown sell tomatoes for $7 50 per case, whereas the duty on tomatoes is $8 per case. It is said that Carmen came to Manila six months ago a penniless man, and that to-day he has a monopoly of the nipa thatch and the cascos for trans portation on the Pasig River. Brown is often seen with American officers when these officers are intoxicated, taking them to his home. Everybody tries to get a saloon. General Otis will not give a license to an ex-sol dier. This is good as far as it goes, but it goes such a short way that it only irritates the ex-soldiers. The abuses referred to in the above paragraph are undoubtedly caused by the ■fact that we retain the Impractical du ties of the Spanish regime in force. The continuing of these Spanish laws, in my judgment, is an irri tant to the people, and only makes the wound opened by the war still deeper and more exasperating. The European resi dents who have lived in Manila for many years assert unlver- sally that taxes were Gene-a! Otis. J ereo grievous un- Jer the Spanish rule as they are now under our martial law. Of course, they under stand that it is war time, but to have martial law for more than a year ln a city of 900,000 inhabitants must work hardship to the vast mass of the people. I have often talked to Filipinos, and found they were brooding over these taxes and feel ing that it was a wrong and an outrage. You cannot convince them that it was a military necessity, and so one of the measures necessary to bring the war to a close keeps It going on. AGUINALDO HAS A GREAT DEAL OF POWER As far as the relation of one tribe i to another goes, the tribes will fight ! one another when they get out of a j job, but as a rule I think the Fili- ; pinos, especially the Tagalos and Visayans, are pretty much under the influence of Aguinaldo. I do not think they fear Aguinaldo, because i he really could not reach them in , Cebu or Iloilo; but I genuinely think ' the people in the islands generally would rather have an ' autonomous '■ Government under an American pro- j tectorate than anything like a colo- ; nial or annexation arrangement. It will be a great deal easier to restore j peace when you have 65,000 or 70,- i 000 soldiers in the islands; but that ' the rebels will ever give up their \ arms I do not believe. They will give j up those arms that the Americans ; corral and take from them; otherwise j 1 think they will hide away their ; Mausers for another revolution. It is j sometimes said that Aguinaldo has j very little power, but I think that he j has far more power than we are in clined to admit. His name is one to conjure with. I have never seen a Filipino who would not turn his ear and listen, if the magic name of j Aguinaldo was mentioned. This man must have some great traits of char acter- The San Francisco Call. At first I accepted the sayings about thej Filipinos and their leader^bu^fromin^ observation^ experiences^ among the natives.M by mis-H take being withinH the tr\--H ing the time to H th>.H people fromM the to theH am in-H dined to thatH their aspi-H are ver yl thanH people imagine. H looksM reasonable to m e___________________| that with a large and efficient army order can be restored and Aguinaldo's army captured or destroyed. General Lawton. CORRUPTION MD DISHONESTY COMMON IN THE ARMY Rumors of dishonesty and corrupt officialism in our army are so common in Manila that it seems to me that there must be some truth in them. Thus, we hear that an English con tractor sold 150 mules to the Govern- ment, but had to pay lj>6ooo to have his contract accepted. The truth of this transaction I cannot be certain of, but I feel quite certain about one thing which was told me by a most responsible person, Mrs. Br. Beer, chief of the Red Cross Society of Col orado. She said that a Chinese woman who contracted to sell vege tables, eggs, etc., to the American hospitals came to her and asked her to try to influence the proper officials to continue her contract. She said to Mrs. Beer that she had been paying the Americans 20 per cent commis sion on the goods she sold the Gov ernment, and they wanted 25 per cent, which was more than she could pay and make a reasonable profit. I think the impression was growing among the Spaniards and Filipinos, as well as our own people in Manila, when I left, that some of the Ameri can civilians and soldiers could give the Spaniards cards and spades and beat them at the game of theft. There is no use for any American civilian trvincr to tret into Luzon just now to start a business because if he takes in his merchandise honestly through the Custom house it would be impossible for him to make a living. These things are not pleasant to say, but when your own countrymen all through the city laugh and sneer at such things there must be some truth in them. I know that Aguinaid our soldiers aredescending from the poetry of history to the prose of shame. They oftentimes levy blackmail on the people of the city, going, for example, into a Chinaman's house and charging him $3 for the tax of his piano. So much is this carried on, that a day of two before I came away the walls of Manila were plastered with a proclamation of General Otis in Spanish, English and Tagah g, calling attention to the fact that no citi zen should pay taxes to any one except at the places established by the Govern ment. Of course, it is very difficult to see how these things can be helped. I am of the strong opinion that our officers are too strict on the men In relation to their conduct around the camp and in places where it conduces to the comfort or discomfort of the officers; but that they are not strict enough with them when they go out on the streets, or In other words, when their conduct conduces to the comfort or discomfort of the gen eral nubile. RED CROSS SUPPLIES STOLEN BY OFFICERS Then it will depend upon how justly the people we send there treat the Filipinos. Nobody could justly have the idea that either the Ameri can Government or people mean to oppress the inhabitants of the Phil ippines, but many of the agents sent there are undoubtedly cor rupt. For instance, I saw on the books of the Red Cross Society of California to-day an account of how two young fellows, one an army offi cer and the other a Red Cross officer, had stolen the supplies of the Red Cross Society and sold them, and have now gone into business and are now prosperous business men in Manila. As long as dishonesty and cruelty are possible with our soldiers and civilians I do not think thero will be any lasting peace in the Philip pines, but I do think that if the cam paign was given into the hands of one man who was competent to run the civil administration we could have peace; in other words, by send ing men above politics or bribes or flattery men of . large brain, whose honor is unstained and who, are hon est and sincere .without being affect-. SAN FRANCISCO, FRIDAY, OCTOBER 13, 1899. > _2^SS^BB-^22-«- *2^_B^_S-»-SS-^ _B^SS^__-^_i^- _3^SS^?S^_*-^ SB^_2^SS^_S^ _S^_2^JS-^SS^-?*-^sß^?*^_J^ __^_2^_S-^_2^ _B^-88^S8^_8^ • The Call gives below the most important and most sensational official report on the J 5 present condition of affairs in the Philippines ever filed with this Government. It was ? 5 made by a special agent of the War Department, who has been secretly investigating ? 5 affairs on the islands for some time past, and who has just filed the startling result of his 5 ' labors with Assistant Secretary of War Meiklejohn. f It is a plain and exhaustive portrayal of the true condition of affairs in the Philip- J ' pines, and is made by a man backed by our Government and empowered to get at the very a I heart of official corruption. It tells plainly and directly of the jealousy, bickerings and dis- s? • honesty of certain officers in the army and navy, of the misinformation constantly sent out a 5 to the public, of the shameful treatment of the wives and daughters of the natives by some J '• of the American troops, of the gross incompetency of many political appointees and of the * s I heartless conspiracies on the part of men in public and private life there to rob both the na- & • fives and this Government. ♦ • For obvious reasons the administration has not yet made public this extraordinary ♦ ■ report. ♦ 5 The Call, through a very influential man, has been able to obtain a verbatim copy of £ 5 this sensational document and here makes it public for the first time. & > SS^-i^-S-^--*^ __-^_2^_2^«^ S2^_2^_2-^.2^-S2-^_2-^-S-^s2-^ SS^S2-^S2^.S^ ?2^S2^_2^Ss^-_*^_2^ J2^_2^ S2 -*" S3 -^ 52 -^ SS -»- JS^-J.^SS-^SS^O cd. The deepest danger in the Philip pines is that we have men in high offices there who are utterly incapable of studying the problem from a psy chological standpoint; who can do no governing but simply to damn and kick "niggers." ARMY OFFICERS JEALOUS OF ONE ANOTHER There is a good deal of Jealousy be ween the high officers of the army, and that makes it dlffl- ■uit to iorce matters o a focus with the Filipinos. Thus, for 'xample, when Law on went to San Isi- Iro Mac Arthur's di vision moved up the allway to San Fer .ando, driving the nemy before it and etting him escape icross the open ields, whereas it teemed to those who vere on the ground hat the only logical eason for Lawton's movement was, to get down fromArayatto Mexico, and from Mexico to San Fernan do, and thus flank Agulnaldo and hold him between Malolos and San Fernando. The military men and foreign attaches whom I have talked with about this maneuver all seemed to feel that we had accomplished absolutely, nothing by Law ton's expedition north and Mac Arthur's I General Hale HERE ARE A FEW OF THE IMPORTANT CONCLUSIONS THAT WERE REACHED BY THE GOVERNMENT'S AGENT. /]GUINALDO has more power than we are inclined to admit. His name is one to conjure with. v* It will be a good deal easier to restore peace when you have 65,000 or 70,000 soldiers in the Islands, but that the rebels will ever give up their arms I do not believe. It seems unfortunate to retain General Otis in command. He has entirely lost the confi dence of the soldiers and civilians in the Philippines. Many of the agents sent here are undoubtedly corrupt. Two young officers stole sup plies of the Red Cross, sold them, and are now prosperous business men in Manila. The deepest danger in the Philippines is that we have men In high offices who can do no governing but to simply damn and kick "niggers." Men like Funston could have taken command of the army, and men like Irving Hale would be very well suited for the civil government. The Filipino Peace Commissioners were sharper diplomatists than ours. The Tagals who are at the head of the revolution are the smartest, brightest and best of all the Filipinos. A silly decree was published, and, I believe upheld by General Otis, that all marriages that have thus far been performed in the Philippines by Protestant clergymen are null and void. While we have allowed our soldiers all to gamble, the Tagals watch us at cards and craps and fully realize that cockfights (which have been abolished) are no worse. I am surprised that John Barrett should state in the Review of Reviews that the people of Cebu asked our protection. The records show that Cebu was surrendered to the Americans under protest. * There Is a good deal of jealousy between the high officers of the army. If offices cannot be filled by men of merit it will be dangerous for the United States to hold the Philippines. movement on San Fernando. These operations, it is true, gave us ten or fif teen miles of railroad, but it left the enemy as secure and defiant as ever. RETENTION OF OTIS IS UNFORTUNATE I think it is absolutely necessary to give the command of the army to one strong man under the direction of one strong brain. If I may be al lowed to suggest, it seems unfortu nate to retain General Otis in com mand of the Philippines. He may have all the qualifications and have the confidence of the Gevernment, but inasmuch as he has entirely lost the confidence of the soldiers and civil ians in the Philippines I think you will find it more difficult to handle things with him as Governor General than you would if you had a new man a man like General Leonard Wood or ' General Irving Hale. The great qualities of some of the younger men in the Philippines, I feel sure, have been overlooked. Men like Fun ston could have taken full command of the army, and men like Irving Hale would be very well suited for the civil Government, There must be thousands of men in America who have great business capacity and who would accept for a brief time the Gov ernor Generalship. I have the utmost . respect personally for General Otis, and believe him to be a much ma ligned man. I feel sure that he is a man of great ability in many ways, but somehow the popular pulse does not beat his way. I am sorry I have to differ somewhat from the opinions of Dr. Sehurman, as they have been published in the dis patches. Perhaps these are not his opin ions, but I think he is very right if he believes that the people of the towns and provinces are practically able to run their own affairs. I did not think this way at first, but study and observation have con vinced me that the Filipinos have a good deal of latent intelligence. I do not agree, however, with Dr. Sehurman if he thinks that the sphere of hostility to America is a small one. In fact, the gruff behavior of our people, especially in Manila, Is very of fensive to the people of the Islands. I am upheld in this belief by men unbiased' like the French, German and Russian corre spondents, men who really like the Amer icans. Most of the unprejudiced Ameri cans think the same way. We are too free and easy in some jeneral Funston cases and too strict and rough with the people in some other cases. It needs wise, c^lm and disinterested mci: -to rep resent us in the islands. Whether they are right or not I do not presume to say, but the natives of all the islands I visit ed, Cebu, Negros, Panay, Sulu and Lu zon, all seemed to feel that we are the aggressors; except the people of Jolo, who do not believe that we are going to es tablish a very firm government over them or one distinctively American. PEOPLE OF CEBU DID NOT ASK OUR PROTECTION I am surprised that John Barrett should state in the Review of Re views that . the people of Cebu asked our protection. On the con trary, I have read the records of the American occupation of Cebu in the diary of the German Vice Consul, who is a Scotchman, a British citizen and the only foreigner I found enthu siastic for American rule in the Phil ippines. Mr. Cummings made an en try like this: "Cebu was surrendered to the Americans, under protest, by the in fluence of Majie and Llorente, the two ablest Filipinos in Cebu. "The young men of Cebu advised to burn the town, but wiser counsels prevailed. Majie said to the com mander of the Petrel that, finding ing themselves abandoned by Spain, they had joined the Filipino Repub lic. They had no orders from Aguin aldo, but would yield only under pro ,test, owing to the greater force of the Americans. At 9:40 the Americans landed forty sailors, who raised the Stars and Stripes amid a sullen and angry populace who wanted to attack the Americans." This is quoted to show you what a vast amount of misinformation there has been regarding the Philippines, and to show you how absolutely necessary it is to send only the best heart and brains of the country to try and establish a govern ment which shall satisfy these people. A large part of our army openly sympa thizes with many of the Filipino conten tions. This is especially marked in the volunteer regiments and is also very marked among the older men of the reg ular army. Even here in California, which of all States will benefit most from the trade of the Philippines, opinion is much divided. Toward the end of July in Manila the soldiers seemed to degenerate. The war began to assume the^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ugly a raceM new regi-M ments do haveM the menl the volunteers M They are moreH to cuffM the LangleyM Jones the Assocl-M assuresM me he saw onl Escolta, from hisH room the EnglishM a hun-H unjustiflableM by Am er! I cans Filipinos, _________________! Dr. Sehurman. 1 1 can believe it, for I had my servant man assaulted and beaten three times on the journey from my room. No. 15 Plaza Santa, to the steamship Sherman in Ma nila harbor. The second day after the first negro regiment landed in Manila I saw a negro soldier take the money belt off a China man in front of Major Devol's office amid the laughter of our own people, civilians and soldiers. Corporal Harvey of Major Devol's office threw a Filipino on the paving stones just because he was in the way. An assistant clerk in the same office struck a Filipino standing beside me on the stomach. On being remonstrated with he exclaimed, "He is only a damned nigger." ? INFAMOUS TREATMENT OF THE NATIVE WOMEN An American chaplain in Malabon, whose name I withhold, told me that in his first parish work he had been told by the natives of Malabo., that their wives and daughters had been raped by our soldiers. He could authenticate only five cases. The pa pers of that date (September 15) say that two men in Manila have been condemned to death for maltreating native women. I saw again and again the brothels of Manila crowded to the doors by our soldiers, and the saloons also. All these things may be ; un avoidable at times. They show how necessary it is to have the right dis cipline, i General Hughes kept Manila in the best order. A Boston lawyer ; told me that he had many cases come Report Promptly Pigeonholed, but The Call Secures Impor tant Extracts, Which Are i_t r_ _ _ Now Revealed. ■ '--■ - . ■■.-V 1 .--- ■ ■f. i -;"~--V--J.V - to his office on the Escolta of natives who had been maltreated. These peo ple said: "Your soldiers who came into the towns first are very bad men, but those who come later are very kind men." I can explain this to you. The men often got ahead of their offi cers and committed outrages until the officers came up. General Lawton told me that he had hard work to stop looting. He was very good on this. One of the Kansas boys told me "Funston is hard nuts on _nn keyin' with the dead; the boys burned the wooden Christs and stole the brass Jesuses off the crucifixes." Jean Hess of the Figaro is practically correct in his notes on the campaign, but he does not understand the Americans. The Filipino peace commissioners were sharper diplo matists than ours. I Interviewed Dr. Sehur man for the Associated Press. He was a good, strong man, and fair-minded, but he did not see so much of the Filipino question as the reporters. These men who signed the round-robin against censorship are to my certain knowledge reliable men. Bass and Collins are especially conserva tive. THE CONCLUSIONS REACHED. In conclusion let me sum up. First, we need to study the question psychological ly. These people are not as our people. Our very voices rasp them. Individual Americans, civilians and soldiers, treat them arrogantly, as if already they were our slaves. The Filipinos never forget: they never forgive; they are highly sensi tive, easy to flatter, but impossible to fool; they are very bitter, very brave, very per sistent. We need on our side great tact, absolute discipline, stainless honor, in corruptible — otherwise a legacy of hate and bloodshed. This is as certain as the decrees of God. - Secondly — For the Philippines we must have civil service. There are instances all over of incompetency. Captain Hanna, captain of the port of Iloilo, is not fit for the place. I saw him behave in a very ungentle manly way to a Spanish captain. Many other things show that he is no man for the place. There are doz ens of such men, and they are polit ical appointees, and are no good in such positions, but do us lots of harm. If the offices cannot be filled by men of merit it will be dangerous for the United States to hold the Philippines. Third— Martial law in Manila ought to be abolished as soon as possible. There seems to be no rea sonable ground for it at present. The Span ish taxes ought to be recast at once, if fur ther trouble, both with Americans and foreigners, is to be avoided. Absolutely strict discipline of our soldiers in their relation to the na tives, especially to the women, is neces sary. I note, in the newspaper dis- General Mac Arthur patches that two soldiers have been sentenced to death for maltreating women. If this be true, you will see the ground for my remark. Fourth Our Congress ought to be called at once to give the Filipinos some promise of government. It is claimed by men familiar with the subject in Luzon that our Govern ment has not promised them any thing except the most attenuated generalities. The Chino-Tagals, who are the leaders in the movement, are among the shrewdest men on earth. They know the difference between an absolute statement and a diplomatic evasion, and unless some promise is made of a very definite character, in my judgment ' the war will . not cease with the conquest of Aguinaldo. LEADERS OF REVOLUTION BEST OF FILIPINOS Fifth— The Tagals who are at the head SPECULATION AS TO THE CHARTER DECISION Supreme Court Will Adjourn the Session in Los Angeles Mon day and Come Here. LOS ANGELES, Oct. 12.— Attaches in and about the Supreme Court chambers have been bothered all day with inquiries as to when the decision upon the San Francisco charter may be expected. Hun dreds of inquiries have been pouring in on the subject during the past twenty-four hours. There has been no official intima tion anywhere, so far as can be learned, that the decision is to be delivered while the court is in session here. San Fran cisco, however, is evidently of that opin ion. The Supreme Court will conclude its labors here to-morrow evening, and most of the members will arrive in San Fran cisco on' the owl train Saturday morning. CAPTAIN WHITING'S POST. WASHINGTON, Oct. 12.-The Navy De partment has assigned Captain William H. Whiting to the post of commander of the Norfolk Navy Yard in place of Cap" tain Rockwell. The place was given to Captain Greene, but that officer, being disposed to retire next spring, declined the assignment. Captain Whiting is now at Honolulu, whither he was called by t__ illness ox his wild- PRICE FIVE CENTS. of the revolution are the smartest, brightest and best of all the Filipinos. They have great power with their tribes. It is not true that this power is gained through terrorism. It is gained because there is a spirit of nationality abroad In the Philippines to-day. This is what made it so easy for Aguinaldo's emissar ies to gain control in Panay, Cebu, South Luzon and Mindanao. Of the final dis position of the Philippines I have no sug gestion to make. That lies with the peo ple of the United States. At present the zone of hostility to the United States authority is very wide in the islands. owing in part, I think, to our lack of success in dealing with the people. Hatred of Americans has developed and increased as we have advanced in our occupation. The abolition of cock-fight ing and the retaining of taxes has griev ously offended the Filipinos. While we have allowed our soldiers all to gamble, the Tagals watch us at our cards and "craps" and fully realize that cock-fight ing is no worse. AUTONOMOUS GOVERNMENT WITH AMERICAN PROTECTORATE Sixth— For the present I think an autonomous government with an Amerl ■?an protectorate yould satisfy the >eople. We might ar ange for a conven ion at the end of ten ears to determine >y a public vote of he Filipinos what erm of government hey wanted. If, in he eyes of the civil zed world, the Fill >inos at the end of en years were unfit or self-government. ; :<■•£«_;;:, ■*-«... . i --;,*"r^'. v by thet,timft,mpjtte?i»^ ~ Hon. John Barrett. will > have developed so that both we and they should have our minds made up as to what our permanent relations should be. The manner of dealing with the peo . pie of Sulu is, I believe, the proper one •in dealing with the Filipinos, although opponents of the administration will say, with some degree of justice, that we should not have encouraged the Datto Mundi, the Mohammedan, to take venge ance on the Christians of Mindanao. This will undoubtedly be used by the hostile press. Moreover, to send Indians to the Philippines will be apt to have a reactionary effect upon the people of the country, because it was one of the ob jections made by William Pitt in the House of Commons that England intro duced into her warfare with the Americans the "scalping knife and the tomahawk of the savage." REPLACE THE FRIARS WITH AMERICAN PRIESTS Seventh — The Spanish friars should go home to Spain and American priests take their places, granting to the Filipino "padres'' the full rights of priesthood, which they have never had under Spain. Religion should be let alone or wisely guided. Catholi cism is best suited for them at the present time. Protestants should have the same rights as Catholics all through the islands. A silly decree was published (and, I believe, upheld by General Otis) that all marriages that have thus far been performed in the Philippines by Protestant clergy men are null and void. It caused a great deal of unfavorable sentiment among the Americans, who would not tolerate such a measure. These are my opinions and ob servations. They are given with out fear and without favor and I hope they will be of use to you in considering the question. If I am wrong time will very soon show it, and if I am right there is no use sending you flattering words which only take up your time and throw . no light on the question. I hope for the President and his Cabinet all success in dealing with -the Philippine problem, and have no doubt that j their painstaking work will in the end : bring good results, although at times, they may be criticized by an ungrateful public. Respectfully submitted, SKELETON OF A MAN FOUND ON THE DESERT Belief Expressed That the Bleached Bones Are Those of Murderer James Daniels. PHOENIX. Ariz., Oct. 12.— The skeleton of a man was found on the desert near Phoenix yesterday by a Mexioan. The discovery was made nine miles from the Phoenix mine in a canyon where Jack Ford was killed in April by Jim Daniels. Daniels was never caught and it is be lieved by the officers here that he re turned to the spot where the killing oc curred and ended his life and the skele ton found is his remains. Coroner John stone will go to the place where the bones were found to-morrow. May Contest a Will. SANTA CRUZ, Oct. 12.— John Doyle, re cently deceased, left an estate to R. Jones and wife, at whose house he had stayed. In his will he stipulated that none of his relatives should receive any share of the property, valued at $5000. He had not had anything to do with his rela tives for many years. A contest is now in prospect, as to-day Rose Doyle of Springfield, Mass., through her attorneys, announced her appearance in the matter of a petition to probate the will. She is a niece of the deceased. Some years ago. through inquiries made for Doyle's rela tives in Ireland, she learned that he re sided in this country. She is the only jiving relative.