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The San Francisco call. [volume] (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, October 16, 1899, Image 11

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Hbe San $rancisco Calls" Home ■' Stub^ Circle.
This Specimen Sheet Contains the First Week's Installment of the Courses With Which the Autumn-Winter Term of the "Home Study Circle"
Opens. The Continuation Will Be Found in the Issues of THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, Beginning Monday, October 16.
Home Study Circle.
Director. .
Autumn- Winter Term: 1S!?9-1?00.
MONDAY . October 16
Mondays ar. 1 Thursdays:
I. Popular Studies ia sMespeare.
11. The WorldTSreat Artists.
111. Desk Studies or Girls.
IV. Shop and Trade Studies for Boys. !
Fridays: ...--.
Y. Great American Statesmen.
VI. Home SciencViousehold Economy.
VI. Home Sciencc-aoiiseiold Economy.
1. Love's Labor's Lost.
2. Comedy of Errors.
3. King R ; chard 111.
4. The Taming of the Shrew.
5. As You Like It.
6. Ot
7. Kin? Lear.
8. Corioianus.
Edward Dowden. Lit!. 0D„ D.C.L.. LL.D.
Professor of* English Literature, University of
William J. Rolfe, Lit:. D.
Editor cf Harper Bros. Shakespeare Editions
Kirani Corson. LL. D.
Professor of English Literature, Cornell Uni-
Hamilton Vf. Mabf?.
Associate Editor of The. Outlook.
Albert S. Cook. Ph. D., LL. D.
Professor of LlteratureJ Yale University.
Isaac N. Demmon, A. M.. LL. D.
Professor of Literature. University of Michi-
Ttie World's Great Artists.
— ..
This is a series of studies of great artists.
The series will include the following:
i. Tli'.aa. 8 Frans a's
i. Correggio. 9. Gainsborough.
3. on'atelloJ 10. Constable.
4. Yelasqjcz. 11. Sir Thomas lawrerce.
5. Purer. !2. Sir Edwin Landseer.
6. Hans Holbein. !.. Meissonier.
?. Van Dyke. 14. Gilbert Shuart.
The contributors to these studies will in-
clude the following distinguished writers:
John C. Van Dyke. L. H. D.
Lecturer en Art at Coiumbia, Harvard and
Russell Sturgis, Ph. D . F. A. I. A.
Art Critic for the Xew York Times.
A L Frcthingham ix.. Ph. D.
Professor of Art, Princeton University.
Arthur Hosber.
Art Critic of the Xew York Commercial Ad-
Frank Fowler.
Portrait Painter. Xew York City.
The contributors to this course are the most
■widely known writers on art in the United
States. The studies wiil be Generously illus-
trated with portraits of artists and conies of
famous lictur-'?.
Desk Studies for "GtflsT
This course has be-^n specially arranged for
itiris and young women who feel the need of a
more thorough knowledge of language, books
ar.d money affairs. The studies will be pre-
sented under the lollowing heads:
81. f_-s Words and How '_-. \7,_: Then.
2. Co:r'.o-_d'-:? End EnniwriUag
3- Seidiag C;a:»si tzi i. Girls' Library
i.- P«rsoail Aeeeunti and Money Affairs.
5. Writiag for ?üb!;:*i'.oa.
Shop and Trade Studies for
B:ys ar.d teniae men who are ambitious to
cdvance their positions will find that an even-
ine or two a week spent upon the studies of
this course will be of the largest value. The
work will be divided into five departments as
1 Arithmetic of ii Wo.-Kshop.
2 Z-Ti-r-.zg for • eca'-n SS.
i. Artthiaeti: of the Cocnte: f.i OSce
4. Msaey ?rot:?-ns and B^sico-a '-'-i:.s
5. Ilaeaia* Drawing jed Design.
Great American Statesmen.
The course in American History arranged for
the Auturn:i : \Vinter Term will include special
studies of the follow -tog -famous statesmen:
1. Eunael Adams. 9. John Jay.
2. Patrick Henry. 70. Join Marshall,
5. John H»atij]pi. 11. .albert Gallatin
4. Goaverne^ir Morris. 12. Andrew Jackson.
ft. Uecjanin rriaklia. 17 Jjtn C. Ciitoun.
0 Thjaias r.'on. 14. Henry Clay.
. J&icts Midisoa. 15. r.tc:»l Weastsr.
?.. Alexander Hamilton. 18. Charles Basaer.
The purpose of these studies is to set forth i
clearly what these men have stood for in the '.
progress and development of tliis country. Tlie |
following disti:i£Tdished writers will assist in
ti e work:
Professor of History^ Harvard University
Professor of American History, University of
• Pennsvivania.
Librarian of the Pratt Free Library, Baltimore.
University i.xter.sion Lecturer on American
History and Economics.
Pn?fe«sor of American History. Yale University.
Professor cf History. University of Minnesota,
Professor of History, Adelbert College, Cleve-
Frofessor of History and Political Science,
Indiana University.
Professor of American History, University of
Home Science and Household
Leadinir Contributors:
The Gall has planned an unusually attractive
c-iurse in the "science of the home" to be pre-
sented during the Autumn-TVYnter term. The
very best talent in the United States has been
secured to give lan and direction to the -In-
struction, and many new and unique features
will be Introduced. :.: ... • „
The following outline wiil give some Idea of
the peneral character of t l.e. studies:
11. The Home Eealthfal as: Beautiful.
1. The Home Construction.
2. The Home Environment.
Z. The Home Furnishing.
4. The Home Decoration.
2. The Buying, Cooking »cd Serring of Food.
1. The Economic Buying cf Food.
2. The Chemistry of Cooking.-
S. Foods for Invalids and Children.
i. The Di&lns Room and Table -.-vice.
6. Carving and Serving Meats.
3. The Social Lift ef tbe Home. ■
I, Family Relations and Domestic Lift
2. Visiting nnd Entertaining.
3. Recreation and Amusement.
i. Women Waste-Earners of the Home.
5. The Home In Its Relation to the State.
I. Tat Care and Education of Children.
1. The- Children in Infancy.
2. The Kindergarten Age.
8.- The First Years at School.
4. The Boys and Girls of fixteen.
Pull particulars concerning the Home Study
Circle and the programme for the. Autumn-
tVlnter Term an: given in a 32-page booklet,
handsomely illustrated, which will be mailed
free of charge on request. Address
Manager Home Study Circle,
Call Building.-,' « • -San Francisco.
(Copyrighted, 1599. by Seymour Eaton.)
Contributors to this course: Dr. Edward
Dowden. Dr. William J. Rolfe, Dr. Hamilton
, \V. Millie. Dr. Albert S. Cook, Dr. Hiram Cor
son, Dr. Isaac N. Demmon, Dr. Vida D. Scud
der and others.
Let us suppose that one Is approaching
Shakespeare for the first time. if he feels
i himself at a loss to know what to do be
yond reading lch play through it is be
cause he. does not know what to look for.
•For that Is what study is. It is a -looking
for something and an endeavor to ascer
tain when one has found it. In arithmetic
and algebra it is a looking for. the answer
to a problem; or rather to the processes
lending to the discovery of the answer.
In history lt is a looking for the causes
which have made individuals or nation?
I great, and the reasons for their decline
lor overthrow. In chemistry it Is a look
ing for the elements of which a body is
composed and the proportions in which
those elements enter Into the constitution
of the body. In psychology it is a look
ing for the traits which go to make up-hu
man nature. In painting It is a looking
for the secrets of color, of beautiful line,
of atmosphere, of comr f " r :t'on, of. tone.
As a!! study Is a search. ■ the question.
How to study Shakespeare? Is best ap
proached through the question, What
shall we look for in Shakespeare?
1 shall, of course, not attempt to enum
erate all the things which one' may rea
sonably hope to And in the dramas which.
by common consent, stand at the summit
(The pretentious painting known as the Stratford portrait and presented In IPS? by W.
O. Hunt town clerk of Stratford, to the Birthplace Museum, where It Is very prominently
displayed, was probably [..aimed from the bust In the Stratford church late In the eight
eenth century.)
of England's literature. if not of the |
world's, but shall content myself with
mentioning a Tew of the more obvious. If j
at the same time they represent funda
mental aspects of the poet's work and are ,
profitable subjects for prolonged consid
eration. ;
1. It ls related by St. Augustine that,
upon the recitation In the theater of the
famous line of Terence, "I am a man. and
I consider naught that Is human beneath
my regard," the whole audience broke
out into thunderous acclamation. Shake
speare might have adopted the line as his i
motto. Beyond any other writer he has
exemplified Pope's sentiment: "The proper
stud* of mankind is man." He was a
hero worshiper when hero worship was
possible; when he could not approve he
vet loved, and when he could not love he
scrutinized, he analyzed, he revealed. THe j
individual soul is to him Infinite!: at
tractive—nay, engrossing; he is appreciat
ive of Its virtues and aspirations, tolerant
of its foibles and amused by its harmless
or delightful eccentricities; he sounds Its
deepest passions, comprehends the main
springs of its activity, ami. while watch
ing how It Is impelled by desire or precip
itated by circumstance toward an inescap
able future, he Is touched by its pathos
;md its tragedy, or exults, In Its attain
ment ed its |oy. Partake Shakespeare's
delight in life and in the play of life upon
life if you mid derive impulse and in
struction from the vast spectacle of man,
if you would fir.d a village rife with mo
mentous mystery nd -make the circle of
your acquaintance a theater replete with
the curious and the wonder; Begin this
study In any play of Shakespeare. Count
up its distinct characters; note their In
dividual traits; see to what types they
sevenallv belong and to what classes of
society;" observe how they behave in dif
ferent situations, and how they react one
upon another, and discover how far they
resemble the men and women that you
know or that you ha' read about. When
you have done this with half a dozen
dramas try to form some conception of
the range of Interest, the closeness of ob
servation and the quickness and versatil
ity of sympathy of the man who could
Imagine and create this world of human
beii-.^s. You will thus have begun to
study Shakespeare and perhaps to find a
new meaning in the world about you.
2. Notwithstanding Shakespeare's ab
sorption in the individual soul, notwith
standing his sympathetic interpretation
Of the beggar, the serving man. the thief,
the drunkard, or the monster lower than
man — If any monster can be lower than
degraded man— yet he ls never at a loss
to exhibit a scale of values for his person- .
ages. They are not equal in spiritual
rank, and he never pretends they are. We j
feel with Caliban, as more righteous be- .
ings than ourselves would feel with Indi- ;
■ ans and other barbarians, when he Bays: i
Wan) thou earnest first
Thou strokrst me and ma much ■ of me, ,
wouldFt give me \- " ~7*/l
Water with berries ;.. 't. and toa'-li me how
To name the b!gg»r light, and how the less. j
That burn by day and night, and then 1 loved
thee -. ; ;
And showed th-" all the qualities o* the Isle—
The fresh springs, brine pits, barren place and
Cursed be I that did so; All the charms
Of Svcorax. toad**, beetles, bats, light on you!
For I am all tlie subjects that you have,
Which first was mine own king, and __ you
sty me
The rest i>' the island.
Yet though we resent the apparent Injust
ice which he suffers v,e never suppose
bim to" be the peer of Miranda or Pros
pero. We may make merry with Falstaff
and find his wit, his roguery and resource'
infinitely diverting, yet Shakespeare con
vinces us of his essential vileness and fu
tllltv, and even causes us in some meas
ure "to despise ourselves for our laughing
condonation of his vices, when Prince Hal,
now king indeed, touches him as with the
spear of tthuriel and causes him to appear
in his true aspect. (("2 Hen. IV." 51-74).
3. Shakespeare has the greatest respect
for the civic virtues, for those which hold
together the framework of society. It
follows that he brands with his abhor
rence all treachery, disloyalty and ingrat
itude, all ruthless and insolent tyranny
and all deliberate failure to co-operate in
the advancement of the common weal.
Aim. every one of the more serious
plays, and even some of the comedies, will
furnish Instances in proof. In "King
Lear" he stigmatizes filial ingratitude; in
"Macbeth" regicide and oppression; In
"The Tempest" treason; and these are but
specimens. . Now and again the whole
tempest of his eloquence is poured out in
a flood on the unsocial vices, on lawless
ness, anarchy and rift. A single example
may serve ("Timon of Athens/* iv, 1.):
Slaves and fools
Pluck the grave-wrinkled senate from the
And minister In their steads'.
kit. its, hold fast;
J Rather than render back, out with your knives
And cut your trusters' throats!
I •j.'> v f. Piety and fear.
Religion to the gods, peace, J oat lee. truth.
Domestic awe, night-rest and neighborhood.
Instruction, manners, mysteries and trades.
Degreed, observances, customs and laws,
Defcllhe 1 to your confounding contraries.
And let confusion live! BOH
It will be observed that piety and re
ligion are conceived quite in the old Ro
man spirit, primarily as the bonds which
knit up the social fabric and preserve It
from ruinous disintegration. Another tin.,
passage, which every good citizen should
meditate at least ice a year, is "Troilus
and- 'Oressida," 1. lii, S5-124. Compare
"Lear." I. ii. H5-S; 11. I. 49-s<>: '•Measure
For Measure." I, ;' ! . 30-31. etc. It musv
be admitted that Shakespeare was no be
liever in democracy. He is everywhere
contemptuous of the rabble, the vulgar,
the people, as he terms them. Thus ("2
Hen. IV." 1. lii, 89-90):
An habitation giddy and unsure
Hath he that buildeth on the vulgar heart.
Again! "Antony and Cleopatra," I, 11,
Our slippery people.
Whose love Is never linked to the deserver
Till his deserts are past.
From such passages it is clear that
Shakespeare empties the vials of his scorn
upon instability and Infirmity of purpose
with relation to the discharge of civic du
ties, and that, like Dante, he regards
vacillation as only one degree less despic
able than overt an i flagrant iniquity. .
4. While It is thus true that Shakespeare
has for his characters a scaieof values and
recognizes a pantheon of virtues, It must
be said, on the other hand, that there is
an excellence for which he has but scant
and conventional appreciation. 1 refer to
the virtue which has primary reference to
God, as those already mentioned have to
man or the state. Though he can at times
manifest tenderness and reverence In his
allusions to sacred things (as, c. -g., "1
Hen. IV. I. i. IS-27; "Hamlet/ I. i. 15S-164;
"All's Well." 11. i. I^9-144), yet for rever
ence, for worship, for holiness of life, he
in general has but Blight regard. The
amiable friar in "Romeo and Juliet" by no
means Inspires unqualified reverence; the
ambitious Gloucester, not yet become
King Richard Hi. is willingly supported
ln his young .hypocrisy by two bishops,
and the saintly seeming Angelo in "Meas
ure for Measure" has but stolen the livery
of the court of heaven to serve the devil
in. It Is true that in this same play we
have mention of
Prayers from preserved souls.
From fasting maids; whose minds are dedicate
To nothing temporal.
but the character of Isabella must be re
garded as a quite exceptional one. and
Shakespeare could hardly have sympa
thised with the sentiment of Milton ("Par
adise Lost," 11, 603-6):
Judge not what is best
By pleasure, though to nature seeming meet,
Created as thou art to nobler end.
Holy and pure, conformity divine.
Shakespeare came between the earlier
ages of faith, with their exaltation of re
ligion, and the puritanism of the seven
teenth century. He finds the middle ages
picturesque and despises the Puritans; he
himself Is a child of the renaissance, and
his kingdom Is a kingdom of this world.
5. While Shakespeare's prime Interest is
In humanity he yet has an open eye for
the terror, the majesty and the beauty of
the physical universe and for the aspect
of all things visible. Take but two Illus
trations—the one of the sun ("Richard
II," 111, ii. 41-2*. when
From under the terrestrial hall
, He fires the proud tops of the eastern pines;
the other of the winds ("2 Hen. IV, 111,
1, 2^-4-:
, Who take the ruffian billows by,.tho tops.
Curling their monstrous heads and hanging;
f. -.-■ them '*;-..;
I With deafening clamor In the slippery clouds;
I or, if you wish another, add the picture
of a navy afloat ("Henry V, 111, prof. 7
-14).. But in any case note how be person
ifies—how .he makes nature alive with
0.- Shakespeare has deiinite views con
cerning poetry, its nature and processes.
iThus he proclaims th" office of poetry to
i soften and re-tine ("Two Gentlemen of
Verona," HI, ii, "2 fl.):
■ Much is the force of heaven-bred poesy.
For Orpheus' lute was strung with poets'
sinews . ./:■:"-.
Whose golden touch could soften steel and
Make tigers tame and huge leviathans
Forsake unsounded deeps to dance on sands.
Again, he tells us what is the poet's mas
ter faculty ("Midsummer Night's Dream,"
V, i, 12-17;:
The poet's eye..in a fine frenzy rolling, . .7. .'
i Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth
' to heaven; "
; And, as Imagination bodies forth
The forms of things-unknown, the poet's pen
, Turns them to shapes and gives to airy nothing
1 A local habitation and a name.
He affirms a deep and hard truth ("As
. You Like It,'!. Hi. iii. 19): "The truest
: , poetry Is the most feigning." He perceives
thut art may surpass nature ("Venus and
Adonis," 253 ff.):
• | Look when: a painter would surpass the'life,
i ' -In limning out a well-proportioned steed.
j His art with nature's workmanship of strife,
i As '.' the dead the living should exceed.
L So did this horse excel a common one
. In shape, in courage, color, pace and bone.
' And in the perplexed- question concerning
. the relative superiority of art and nature

| (Continued in Column Seven, Page Two.)
(Copyrighted.- 1599. by Seymour Eaton.)
JR., PH. D.
There Is very little mystery In Titian's
life and practical unanimity as. to his art.
He was the most finished embodiment of
the sensuous aspect of the developed ren
aissance of Italy. He was also, on account
of his life of 99 years, a living history of
Venetian painting in its whole period of
bloom. He witnessed both the dawn and
the decline of the golden age of the ren
Titian's surroundings made him what he
was. Before his day Venetian art had not
come into line with other Italian schools.
The 'Id. diplomatic, mercantile Venetians
had loved the gorgeous side of the ancient
art of the Byzantine empire; they had not
felt the religious emotions that accom
panied and made possible the Giottesque
art of the rest of Italy. Superb color and
lack « of Inner life characterized their
school of painting until the middle of the
fifteenth century, only a generation before
Titian's birth. It was then that the Bel
lini family imported into Venice some of
the results of the study of the antique, of
the science of perspective and of the hu
man form and character, that had. been
transforming the Tuscan school of the
early renaissance. Still, even under Bel
lini, the Venetian school maintained a dis
tinct individuality, due to the character of
the people and the atmosphere of the la-
goons; lt still relied upon color rather
than upon drawing; on an appeal to the
senses rather than to the intellect; on
texture rather than action. But the Bel
lini were still essentially devoted to reli
gious or historic art. They »were not
destined to be frankly psychological and
to embody in paint the dreaminess of the j
sea haze, the intangible phases of the
landscape, the sensuous delight of drift
ing on the lagoons by night, the content
that comes from ignoring the conscience
and opening the arms to all physical de
lights. This was reserved for their suc
cessors. :;V. t ' ,
Titian was born in 1477 of the noble Ve
celli family, at Pleve dl ("adore, in the
Alpine region north of Venice.. At the age
of 9 or 10 he was brought to Venice to
study painting, first in the studio of the
Mosaicist Zuccato, and later under the
gentle Bellini. He finally appears to have
passed Into the extensive workshop of
Giovanni Bellini, who for many years had
been and was long after to remain the
supreme ruler of Venetian painting..
But the Impress that young Titian re
ceived from these last representatives of
the early renaissance was neither strong
nor lusting, for his spirit was that of the
new age and his fellowship with the young
men waiting, like himself, for a leader to
appear. Such a leader came ln Giorgione.
the sensuous poet-painter, the dreamer of
Idyls; no older than Titian, but with the
spark of intuition, of genius, which he
lacked. The two young men became close
associates under Giorgione's material as
well as Ideal guidance. It is at times as
difficult to distinguish the contemporary
works of these two young artists as those
of the famous Greek sculptors, Scopas
and Praxiteles, so deeply had Titian be
come impregnated from the stronger
spirit. The association lasted until Gior
gione's death; the artistic dependence
never quite ended. ;
Titian was slow in attaining fame. Not
until h'.s thirtieth year, in 1507, when he
assisted Giorglonc In decorating the pal
ace called Fondaco del Tedeechl, does he
seem to have acquired an independent
reputation. On Gltȣglone's premature
death, in 1510. Titian completed a number
of his friend's unfinished pictures. Almost
Immediately he received his tirst Impor
tant Independent commission, for a se
ries or sixteen frescoes n the Scuola del
Santo at Padua. He filled to show in
them any special proficiency ln the style
of grand composition. J
A glance at what is known of Titian's
pictures up to this time shows but few
landmarks. The "M^.n of Sorrows" (S.
Bocco, Venice) typifies his study under
Bellini; the "Zlngarella" Virgin (Vienna),
the beginning of Giorgione's influence in
about 1500, with the added earthiness that
was Titian's, while the "Pope Alexander
VI Presenting a Bishop to St. Peter"
(Antwerp), painted toward 1502, shows
that Giorgione's influence was not yet
complete and also marks the first step in
his series of great portraits. All Titian's
works up to about 1505 are religious sub
jects, not varying fundamentally from the
Bellini and Cima type. but. soon after,
Titian, under Giorgione's guidance, enter
ed the enchanted sphere of poetic alle
gory, where, unlike religious art. there
was no tradition to prevent a completely
original treatment. HoweVer graceful are
Titian's worlfc at this time, such as the
"Baptism of Christ" in Rome (Capitol),
he is not yet a master. He "finds" him
self, though still in a Glorgione garb, in
the two allegories called "The' Three
Ages" and the famous "Sacred and Pro
fane Love," probably painted just before
Giorgione's death. Even in his early
treatment of these themes the aroma of
Giorgione's poetry has evaporated.. It is
true that the sensuousness has not vet, as
it will later, lapse Into complete sensual
ity, but Titian already shows in the "Pro
fane Love" his delight in the splendors of
the female form. • .' -
. After his . Paduan work Titian signal
ized his return to Venice by a superb "St.
Mark Enthroned' Among Saints" (1512),
and then, aspiring; to a more public rec
ognition of his position, hp began, in 1613
an attempt to dispossess of his monopoly
the aged monarch. Giovanni Bellini. Ti
tian's appointment as state painter help
. (i to procure him the favor of. his first
great art patron, Alfonso d'Este, Juke of.
Kerrara, for whom he painted, religious,
allegorical and mythological subjects, as
well as portraits. : for many years. The
famous "Christ and the Tribute Money"
in Dresden was painted for him. Titian's
male portraits at this time still had the
gentle, poetic melancholy of Giorgione,
i without the sensuality that had crept Into
his female figures. The bearded man In
Munich, and especially the superb
i "Young Man With the Glove" (Louvre),
! are the most exquisite of this class, the
most sympathetic of all the master's por
traits. The famous "Flora" (Ufflzl) still
| retains, with all its sensuousness', some of
i the poetry of the past.
Titian soon substituted for the Glor
gionesque repose great- vehemence of
1 action and luxuriance of form. He shows
it in his Bacchanalian series for the Duke
: of Ferrara, especially in the superja "Bac
i chus and Ariadne" (National gallery), and
. in his great religious pictures, notably
I his great altar piece in the Bell' Arti, the
"Assumption of the Virgin" where action
runs riot. The rather theatrical tendency
: of these years (1518-30) is shown In his
painting. ""St. Sebastian" (1522). which
Titian himself regarded at the time as his
I masterpiece; it reached Its climax in his
i "Martyrdom of St. Peter Martyr" (1530),
which was quite universally thought to
i be his greatest picture, and the first In
stance where the human figures were
l made subordinate to the landscape.
In 1523 Titian secured a second powerful
patron. Federigo Gonzaga. Duke of Man
! tua, for whom he produced the masterly
"Entombment" (Louvre), the portraits of
; the Duke and Duchess, the superb "Bel
! la" (Pltti) and the "Venus" of the Ufflzl,
working steadily for the Duke until his
death in 1540. He increased his popularity
at home by the spectacular altar piece at
the Frarl (1525) called the "Madonna dl
i <'..<;} Pesaro."
In 1527 a new period in Titian's life and
I art commenced through his association
with the notorious Pietro Aretino, the
most corrupt man of a corrupt age, and
with all his high connections and wealth
the champion blackmailer of history.
During his stay In Venice, he found Ti
tian's talents useful and so helped him to
the favor of various Italian potentates,
and especially of Charles V of Spain. - Ti
tian was- perniciously and . permanently
affected by Aretino ln his art and charac
ter, learning to fawn on the great and to
worship money in a way unworthy of the
dignity of a great artist, and learning es
pecially to prostitute his art. During this
period of his middle life Titian painted
little more than . portraits, often flatter
ing, and alluring nudes for his princely
patrons. He showed himself willing to
paint without seeing his model, as in his
portrait of Francis 1., and to give to a
woman of 50 the semblance of SO, as In
the case of Eleanora Gonzaga. Prominent
at this time is his portrait of "Hyppolito
de Medici" il'ittii. when Titian's own ex
periences helped him to portray the un
scrupulous, cruel, shifty type. A worthy
mate to it is the portrait of "Pietro Are
tino" (Pltti) himself.
Ten years after the "St. Peter Martyr"
Titian produced another great religious
picture, the "Presentation of the Virgin
in the Temple," which In its harmonious
and spectacular composition served with
the "Ecce Homo" as a model to other
Venetian masters, such as Tintoretto, and
was never surpassed by them. The prince
ly house of Farneso succeeded (1542) the
Gonzagas as Titian's patrons, and as Pope
Paul 111 was a Farnese. Titian was thus
for the first time brought Into close con
nection with the papal court. The painter
finally, when nearly 70 years old, trav
eled beyond the limits of Northern Italy
and went to Rome. There he met the
Titian Michelangelo. The two artists rep
resented not merely an artistic opposition
of design versus color— but an opposition
of character. Michelangelo was typically
strong, independent, puritanic; Titian was
supple, fawning, luxurious. There could
be no sympathy or understanding. From
the earlier Florentine masters with whom
Titian then became a little better ac
quainted, he received something; at least.
it appears as if Verrocchio were not for
eign to his "John the Baptist" (Venice)
nor Raphael to his celling picture of
"Wisdom" (S. Marco), nor even Michelan
gelo to his "Adam and Eve" (Madrid), all
of which he painted after his visit to
Rome and Florence.
Not long after Titian made an even
greater Journey, to the court of Charles
V at Augsburg, where he painted one of
his most consummate masterpieces, the
equestrian portrait of "Charles V at the
Battle of Muhlberg" (Madrid). Titian had
now for several years reached the summit
of his ambitions. He was the favorite of
popes and emperors and reared no rival.
Yet he never ceased from nagging for
money and from sending unordered pic
tures In hopes of being well paid. After
the death of Charles V Titian was in high
favor with Philip 11. whom he had more
than once painted while he was yet prince.
Perhaps it was the influence of Spanish
fanaticism gradually creeping over him,
perhaps It was the advance of old age. but
whatever the reason may be we see Titian
gradually returning to religious scenes
and treating them with less- triviality and
less brutality. At the same time he does
not so often treat nude figures and myth
ological scenes. Aretino was dead; neo
cathollcism was supreme. The "Christ
Crowned With Thorns" (Munich) and the
"Pieta" (Venice. Bell' Arti), on which the
master was engaged at the time of his
death, are good examples of this kind of
pseudo-religious hysteria that formed
quite a lengthy prelude to his death in
1576. during the great plague.
The significance of Titian's art lies not
in drawing or composition, but In color
ing. His drawing was indifferent, though
Michelangelo regarded <t as defective. His
ability to compose, at first decidedly sec
ond-rate, became excellent, but his large
compositions never were his most char
acteristic pieces— as • compositions. Neith
er is Titian suggestive and inspiring in
the theme or the inner life of his pic
tures, as are so many other great Italian
artists. The delight he does give us—
often but not always— ls almost purely
through the color sense; in the landscape,
the atmosphere, the combinations and
gradations of tone, the play of light, the
inwardness of color. Pie shows extreme
reticence for a Venetian in producing his
(Continued in Column Seven, Page Two.)
(Copyrighted, 1599. by Seymour Eaton.)
Keep a common writing pad on your
desk. When you hear a new word which
Interests you or when you come across
one In your reading jot it down. Take time
to look up Its meaning. Frame sentences
in which this word is used correctly. In
corporate it into your own vocabulary by
using it in your conversation the very
first chance you get, not in an affected
way, but as part of your everyday speech.
You must learn to distinguish between
words suitable for conversation and words
which are better adapted to the printed
page. Conversational speech has soul and
feeling. Written speech may be technical,
scientific, exact; the meaning Is conveyed
wholly by the words, while in conversation
the meaning is conveyed In part by the
gesture, the voice, and the personality of
the speaker. Take the following twelve
words for your first lesson and add a
dozen more of your own choosing during
the,' week:' •
Resume— This Is a French word which has
come Into common use. It Is pronounced ray
zsu-may. with accent upon tirst and last syl
lables. It means a summary, a summing, up.
a condensed account. We may say that a par
ticular magazine or paper gives a good resume
of current events.
Connoisseur— Pronounced con-i-seur.' with the
accent upon the last syllable. A connoisseur
ls a critical judge, or rather a person who Is
competent to pass critical judgment upon any
thingl! The word Is most commonly used In
speaking of a person thoroughly competent to
pass judgment upon the work of son:., par
ticular department of art. A man who la mak
ing a specialty of collecting rare water colors
and who is considered from long experience
competent to pass upon a picture offered is
said, to be a connoisseur In water colors.
Altruistic— This word is now very commonly
used. The noun Is altruism. It Is opposed to
selfishness. Any movement having for its chief
end the good of others may I"' termed al
truistic. Note this word in your newspaper
and magazine reading. You are- sure to meet
Ghetto— name Ghetto Is given to the pur:
of a city or town formerly set apart for tlv-
Jews. as In Rome or Frankfort-on-the-Rhlm
At present this name is a synonym for "Jew
is): quarter."
Radical — Measures are radical when they ai •
extreme or directly opposed to conventional
or commonplace methods. A man is radical
when he is the opposite of conservative in
his ideas and methods in political, religious
and social affairs. The radical breaks away
from all traditions and established customs.
Salon— Pronounced sah-long. with the second
syllable accented. An apartment in which a
company is to receive: hence, [ a fashionable
reception or gathering. The name salon is
specifically applied to periodic social reunions
In Paris. The name ls also applied to the an
nual exhibition in Paris of works of living
' Bohemian— A person, especially an artist or
literary man, who leads a free life, having
little regard to what society he frequents and
despising the conventional. One who prefers
adventure and speculation to settle, Industry
and who doeS net work well in the harness of
ordinary life. This word is pretty generally
used in America as the opposite of conven
tional. The bohemian's dress and habits and
dinners and pleasures are not always in har
mony with the rules or customs of society.
Personality— A man's personality Is that
SHOP. ■*.<
Note— Boys and young men beginning the
work of this. course should have a knowledge
of elementary arithmetic as far as common
fractions, including tables known as long,
square and cubic measures.
Lesson No. 1.
Lengths or distances are measured by
the foot, yard or mile. Land is measured
by the chain, which consists of 100 links
and is 22 yards long. Areas are measured
by the square foot, square yard or square
mile. Solids are measured by the cubic
inch, cubic foot or cubic yard.
A foot of lumber is a solm containing
144 cubic inches. A piece of board a foot
square and an inch thick is said to be a
board foot. If cut Into four equal pieces
and these are placed on top of each other
so as to make a block 6 inches square and
4 inches thick it is still a board foot. To
find the solid contents of such a block we
multiply the length and breadth and
thickness together, that is HxH.\4. which
gives us 144. The student will note. then,
that a foot of lumber is 144 cubic inches
of lumber, no matter what shape the wood
may be.
In the following exercises only flat sur
faces are considered. All the boards may
be taken as only one Inch thick:
1. How many i" feet of lumber in an inch
board 8 feet long by 6 Inches wide?
.2. A floor Is the shape of the above diagram.
AB is 42 feet and AC 36 feet. It has an ele
vator shaft 8 feet by 10 feet in the center.
Find the cost at 5 cents a foot of the Inch
lumber necessary to cover the remainder of
the floor.-
3. How many feet of lumber In a board
feet 6 Inches long by 16 inches wide?
_. A tight board fence 6 feet high is to b-
Home Study Instruction Course
Will prove of interest and benefit
to people . in all; walks of life.
Bankers, Lawyers, Merchants, Mechanics, Educators, Students
Are all equally interested. Please
interest your friends in the Home
Study Circle.
which pertains to his person, the things which
: characterize him. the impression made by his
| person. Personality differs from address. A
; man of good address is a man who is well
dressed and of courteous, free and gentlemanly
I speech. A man of pleasing personality Is a
. man the goodness of whose character impresses
: one immediately. A man of strong personality
< is a man with strong and effective power of
Will. : -; .-
Bourgeois— Pronounced boor-zhwah. This
word Is commonly used in the sense of unre
fined or uncultured. In France the name bour
geoisie (boor-zhwah-ze) Is used to designate the
middle or artisan class as distinguished from
the aristocracy.
Stilted Elevated and stiff as If on stilts;
hence the word Is used in the sense of mechan
ical or unnatural: a*. a lilted walk: a stilted
letter: a stilted style: a stilted speech.
Diplomacy— The art and practice of conduct
ing negotiations between nations, The name Is
applied generally In the sense of tact, or nf
dexterity and skill in the management of men.
We say that a man Is diplomatic when he ex
ercises keen Judgment and a cautious policy
in securing the co-operation of other men. Ths
word politic is very similar In meaning, but
refers more to careful personal relations
Renaissance— jPronour.ccil ren-nay-sahns. This
word means a new birth, a revival or resur
rection, and Is applied specially to the period
of awakening in arts and letters during the last
centuries of the dark ages. The renaissance
Li-iran in Italy In the fourteenth century and
snread gradually over Western Europe. The
name Is applied also to the art and architec
ture which belonged to that period of history,
.1- "The renaissance style of building and
decoration succeeded th» gothlc and sought
to reproduce the forms of classical ornamen
This series will be continued next week.
Let us turn now to a few suggestions and
cautions which will aid us In our written
When we speak of pure air, pure water
or pure gold we mean air. gold or water
that has been cleared of all extraneous
matter. Similarly, when we speak of pure
language we mean language that had been
cleared of all extraneous words' and
phrases. The dross of language consists
of vulgarisms, words and phrases that
should be avoided even In conversation—
■ ii'h as "kid" for child, "kick the bucket."
"you bet," etc.; colloquialisms, words and
ohrases admissible in conversation, but
•^r.t suitable for written composition, such
.; "jiffy" for Instant, "sat upon" for cen
sured, etc. Colloquialisms when used at
the proper time and place may give force
and Best to conversation. A colloquial
ism' which may be quite proper In the
s-.peech of one person may be wholly out
of place in the speech of another; provin
cialisms, words confined to some particu
lar province or locality; obsolete words,
foreign words which have not been incor
porated into our language; newly coined
words. We must not rid our speech of all
its spice and ginger and snap, but It must
be remembered that these qualities cannot
be introduced by words merely. Lan
guage is simply the wire which carries the
message. - - - - •
Propriety of language means the using
of words (1) in their proper senses, (2) in
proper connections. Any sense or connec
tion of words may be considered proper
that has the concurrent authority of
standard writers who have lived near
enough to our own time to be regarded as
safe guides for present usage. We shall
take up for our lesson next week a few
common improprieties of speech.
built around a field SO rods by 40 rods. How
much lumber will It take? (Note— 'od is
iti'-. feet.)
5. How many square inches are there on the
two sides of a board which is 7 feet 3 Inches
long by 2 feet 2 inches wide?
_6. A square yard is cut from^sr -board tS-feet
Tong md 18 Inches wide. Find the length of
the remainder.
7. A board platform 18 feet wide is to be
built around a railway station M feet by RO
feet. If the lumber is to be 1 lncb thick how
many feet it will take?
8. An advertising sign 100 feet long by 20 feet
high is made of Inch- lumber costing $30 a,
thousand .feet. Find the value of ' the lum
ber in the sign.
9. A walnut board is 10 feet long by IS Inches
wide. How many feet and inches of the length
must be cut off to make 4 I 2 board feet?
10. Find the value of the . Inch lumber at 64
cents a foot in a platform of the shape shown
in the diagram, considering that each arm of
the cross (AB or CD) Is 18 feet long and 6
feet wide. ,
Lesson Xo. 1. (1) 4 feet. The board Is 96
inches by 6 Inches. 06xfi divided by. 144 equals
4. (2) $7160. The area of the whole floor id
"12 square feet and the area of the elevator
space Is SO square feet. There are therefore
. !?.2 feet to be covered and each square foot
•presents a board foot. (3) IS feet. -'(4) 19,810
* ft. (5) 4324 square inches. (6) 12 feet. A
;-quare yard contains 9 times 144, or 1296 square
inches. This divided by IS Inches (the breadth*
gives 72 Inches (the length). If 6 feet' are cut
off 12 feet will remain. (7) 4176 feet. The
platform In a straight line would be 232 feet
long by IS feet wide. (S) $60. (9) 3 feet. It
is necessary to cut off 64S square inches. {4' a
square feet). A surface 36 inches long by IS
inches wide equals C4S square inches. (10;
ill 70.
Note— Lessons In drawing, office arith
metic and business records will follow the
lessons In "Arithmetic of the Workshop."

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