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3> speaking of the possibilities In th»
direction of a maximum temperature. For generating steam and running an engine ar.d for making light and storing heat a comparatively small apparatus can be used. A larger ore wiJl be necessary for the smelting of the more rebellious of the ores. With this heat which I generate from the rays of the sun I can and will accomplish many things which cannot bo done with ordinary fuel. Among others I fhall make a quality of glass far su perior to anything manufactured at pres ent. The cost of my apparatus will be repaid within the year by the- power and results obtained therefrom."- • The day was bitterly cold 'and the sun was partly obscured by a hazy cloud or miEt which hung ovt-r the city, .when the writer descended from the end of the North Capitol street car line and, ac cording to appointment, found Dr. Calver and several of the gentlemen interested in his enterprises. He accompanied the gentlemen to the laboratory, where Dr. Calver has labored off and on for the past twenty yearE. The first of the doc tor's experiments, it might be remarked, were carried on in the Territory of Ari zona. The party went behind a large mansion and entered an inclosure of considerable size. This was surrounded ,by a board fence so high as to exclude the possibil ity of any one gaining access except through permission. Within a Bight was presented such as cannot be duplicated on tbe face of the globe. It was novel and Interesting to a degree and had it not been somewhat anticipated the mean ing of the whole thing would have bewil dered and puzzled any of the greatest sci entific men. At the center of the inclosure etood a rrr.all square house, built roughly of wood and so elevated on posts as to somewhat resemble a water tank. From this, as the most familiar and friendly object, the eye of the stranger wanders around what finally appears to be a circular wooden track. And on this track are located mirror frames and mirrors. Of the frames there were, it appeared on count, only seven or eight. But of the mirrors— there appeared to be thousands of them. They were not great big burnished glasses with which 'one would naturally expect to catch the rays of the sun for fuel; but number less little fellows, four inches by Fix. Dr. Calver 6aid they were. These were set In rows one above another in a frame whose general structure was slightly convex. Opposite the entrance to the laboratory. which ceemed to bs about a half acre in extent, stood the largest of the mirror ly sun power.... Ir. the present machine, there are twenty-seven tows of thirty mirrors each, or SIO mirrors in all. These! glasses are common, ordinary flat inir- ) rors, which could be" manufactured for a few pennits' each, and are perhaps Chs most expensive par: of the appliance. They are set in rows, and by means of a Aimple gearing can all be concentrated oh one point "'at the same time-that is, they will all reflect the rays of the sun upon a single point out there in the yard, for example. "Now. as the eanh moves in the course of the day these mirrors would soon get out cf focuß. The remedy for this is elm- pie enough. I move my frame around on the circular trax-k. In practice it moves easily ai:d ore man can attend to an acre of glass per .day, keeping it all fo cused upon the same point. "You ask how we store the heat and keep it for use on rainy and cloudy day*. That is easy enough when you under stand tbe principle on which the reser voir works. This etores heat and keeps It for use jupt as ice 5s stored. The con centrated rays of the sun are thrown through two thicknesses of glass upon a dark inner 6lir£ace. The heat is caught, so to speak, and retained in the sub stance at the center, which may be stone, earth or anything likely to prove the cheapest and beet non-conductor of neat in the vicinity where the reservoir is be ing built- In the small reservoir there I have stored heat and kept the tempera ture within high enough to boil water at the end of a week. A larger reservoir would prove more efficient and Jess wasteful of heat than the one I have here. "There ar© ISO square feet of glass In this frame. That means the reflection of 130 feet of sunlight. The combined force of the other htliornotore in the yard about their commercial possibilities. That these gentlemen have before them a rle^d for exploitation that eur^asses the bounds of the human imagination every one know* who will contemplate for a. moment the far-reaching consequences of the unlver fcal introduction of any power which can be furnished in unlimited quantities at a nominal cost. In short, if their schemes are practicable, th- work of the world as known to-da* - wHI hereafter be performed by the giant Sirnpower gratis. And yet when one visits the laboratory which Dr. Calver has erected in the out skirts cf Washington, as the writer has done within the week, and views there the methods by which this harnessing of the pun's ray? Is to be brought about and has the scientific principlep on which the sun power machine has been constructed ex plained in detail the conviction in forced upon an i iiimg mind that this great question has been settled once and for all. Personally, Dr. Calver i* a man of quiet, retiring temperament and gentle manner. He Is cow past middle age, and hair and the past ffw centuries even approached a cc!ut:o.n el sufficient note to be worthy cf mere tbiaa pasting notice. Prcsfesfor l^angley of the Smithsonian Xrfciit'itfon has denominated th!« &.% cne f • r • ¦ vasjest . problems which remained fcr Kbf ttjitftfon cf mankind. He has said tna't-tbe jr.an of the future will be as de ;tj:ctri upon the direct rays of the cun to-fyrriii. 1 ! with light, heat and mo 56r ppwtr for the machinery— which will then rrlie-ve ii.m cf ail drudgery- — as he is r.»*r : G* : ;'.<-r.<J-er.:. tipen tajs use of coal and yrr6i.'. He. £ss written iri tawerful word! <itJ.'.i~.~ attention t-o the necessity for such. T:..- hurr.i.n mind prasps great things iVtxfiy: The ci&n:pl*s of Galileo and of i.vi'ju:! BS Indicate that rr.en of too great Dt^iTsaHty. rr.'jft E-jfTer for the temerity cf t v <r groJue. : Morse and Bel! peddled tfielr ir.TtntScrs iiroiir.d until they were . «(Lnd poV there hae corse forward within tiie tss-i -two weeks a man of science mho hsv bees- working far nearly thirty years en the vai'.ert of e-I1 material problems — a T>r. William " Calver. noiv residing in VTsr rjr.«rtcn— who ciairr.s that he has in v»r:'^ a 1a 1 method whereby he can utilize •Ac rz;f of tbe fin no cheaply that he can ¦itiy cerspeiltipa with a.!! kir.ds of fuel : - i vse. lie dates that he can fur r.'t-r. r.^ax 5.r.6 power at the mouth of the '- - ; tet or. tbe edge of the forert at a titS* rf tin* edit of tri^r-"? up the coal BS6 Cf '. vttir.g d^rr. the wood- Tfcat ttese ci&:=a d I>r. C*2Ter*a ax« THE -SUNDAY- CALL.- 11 Are Steam and Electricity Doomed to Fall Before Concentrated Sunpower? .have accomplished in thirty busy year*. 'I am afraid to tell all that I see for to* human race in my invention. The. thlngm which I am firml-- convinced 'will be brought about by It and the changes In our society are so radical that If I hinted at them I migm t>e set down by the un thinking as a madman. The, world has been prep.irir.s for twenty centuries for this discovery, and now that it has*been made it wlli take people pome time to realize that the expected has happened. "But as to what it is and what It •can do. By methods and machinery the acme of cheapness and simplicity, I havef de vised a plan whereby the heat from, the rays of the tun can be collected, .'and stored. There Is absolutely n» limit , : tp the amount of the gun's rays tbUV can be collected by my apparatus. no_rl»J»* there 1 any limit to the intensity of the'rrCHVthar can be generated thereby.] In-'«n*. % spot I can generate a heat which surpasses that on the face of the s-un itself— a' heat which win me!', and burn any substance' l^nowa to man; which is more fierce than that of the e'.ectric arc— a heat • which/. If thrown asoinst a "mountain ' Bide*, ywould caufe it to Urn like a volcano.. "Kor commercial purposes so great a beat wo'Jld not be necessary. I was. mere- V 7OR upward cf twenty-five centuries Lf scientists have been striving to I V..flnd a method for utilizing com- I xncrclally -the .rays of the sun for fuel. Archimedes first turned his attention to this problem and partly Kolved.-5t by. means of burning glasses. With these' he Erected the rays of tha sun against the chip* of an enemy's fleet an<! *o\ it afire. Uut Since the time of the tnof. ancient and the greatest of the Greek; physicist*, although , men" have worked and; r fudied and experimented and have devoted -the l>est labors of great lives to this problem, they have not until within genuine is attested by the fact that he lias taken out on the various portions of his Inventions as well as upon the Inven tion as a whole no lefs than eleven pat ents.' These have been granted simulta neously In this country, England, Ger many and France. Moreover, a company of substantial business men has already been formed in Washington for the utili zation of Dr. Calver'i Invention* la all beard are plentifully streaked with gray. In speaking of his invention 1 ? he is not boastful, although full of confidence. His manner 13 rather that of a man who feels that now that he has allowed his discov eries to be announced to the world, suc cess 13 assured. "You ask me to describe my Inventions briefly ," said he In answer to a question. "That Is. impossible. Perhaps It would be unwise, for 1 cannot expect people to grasp in one reading the work which I frames. To this Dr. Calver led the party, and with the frame in front of him ex plained the methods of construction and the results that could be obtained from It. -. / • . "I cannot," said he, "go into the his tory either of my own work or that of those who have preceded .me In this line. Suffice It to say that none of my prede cessors has ever been able to obtain a reflector whlch< at all times of the day wpuld concentrate upon a single point any Considerable amount of sunlight; concave .mirrors, great burning glasses and an enormous funnel all failed them' for this purpose, as they failed me before I hit upon the present appliance. "The apparatus here is named the 'he- Uomblor,' which translated means mere* equals this. With these I have welded the hardest metals In the dead of winter. I have bturned a brick half way through l , in half an hour, and by concentrating all| the heat on one spot I have made th* eurfaceof the brick so hard that It scratched steel. The heat which ran bt collected from this big hellomotor— l speak of It comparatively, for It was only' built for experimental purposes— is equal In the course of a twelvemonth to that furnished by the combustion of forty tons of the best coal. With two of these small contrivances In the back yard a man could have all his water pumped Into fcii housa, all oi his cooking and hutting "done and hay* power left over. A few of them would run a factory." : Dr. Calver picked up a frozen «tick. con centrated from one of the small heliomo tors the rays of the sickly winter : sun on the corner of the reservoir and collected them with a hand reflector on the frozen wood. In a moment It burst In a fierce flame. 'With a small experi mental hellomotor he made water boll In a few mlnut7S and performed many «x perlrnents. showing the great degree of heat which- could be concentrated with his experimental tr>o!e. When asked In conclusion what ho be lieved the effect of his Invention will be on bujpanlty and what it will do for man- kind. Dr. Calr#r said:. "Among the fa* good friends who knew me »nd my work and. sympathized with my alms was the late Senator Leland Stanford. Once In talking with me of my invention. ho »aid: "If you. perfect It. Calv«r. it will do more for humanity- thart ail we have at pr*** ent.' I have seen the. beginning of. the steam -engine and If we should los/j It now half the people of the world would have to die. ' The : steam engine made a, great revolution and th.'s will make an other and a create?/ ... : .", "I have little to add. to what my friend has said." concluded Dr. Calver. "but that my Invention Is completed now." " ¦::.-. JAMES M. THOMSON.