It is now stated that tlie chief objection of the
British Government to the Hay- Pauncefote treaty as
amended by the~Senate is that while it authorizes the
United States to fortify the canal it requires " Great
Britain to guarantee its neutrality; and if the lan
guage be subject to any such, construction by dip
lomatists it would seem that Salisbury has certainly
a right to kick.
To the rest of the busy country it is merely a row
in the morgue between two fellows who are suspected
of knowing how the corpse came to be a corpse, and
each is abusing the oilier! But of what interest is it?
The country is glad the corpse is. on the slab, and
doesn't care which one made it a corpse.
This vision of blood rises red on the sight of the
Kentucky Major, but does not move the Nebraska
Colonel out of his tracks. The two gentlemen are of
less importance than the energy of their wordy quar
rel indicates they think they are.
The Major then lapses into history, abuses Cleve
land, and fears that the extremism of Colonel Bryan
"will prove our undoing if 'ever we are undone;
forcing into existence artificial " classes; arraying
these one against the other; the bigotry of ignorance,
the intolerance of hate, their presiding dieties; all
wisdom and patriotism drowned out by the brute
force of numbers on one side, Ihe roar of cannon on
the other. Mr. Bryan seems to me the archangel of
extremism of the present time as Mr. Yancey was
forty years ago. If his dominancy is to continue he
will lead the Democratic party, and maybe the coun
try, where Mr. Yancey led them.'\ •
Whereupon Major Watterson lays down his hand
and rejoins: "There you 'have it flat. This would
bar all revision, even all discussion. But Mr. Bryan
must be obeyed. Must a great party, three years in
advance of its next national convention, suspend all
effort to strengthen its lines, deny itself any and
every opportunity to take advantage of such circum
stances as may come to it, and submit itself unre
servedly and absolutely to the word as it issues from
Mr. Bryan's tongue or pen?"
This is supposed to refer to Tom Johnson, who re
sembles Tilden only in being a millionaire. But
Colonel Bryan scents in this the rankest of reorgani
zation, and, taking his pen in hand, remarks in his
weekly paper: "If a man is ready to retire from poli
tics he may safely- join the reorganizers; but the
men who are candidates, or expect to be, should re
member, first, that political success rests upon the
voters, and, second, they cannot allow their loyalty
to Democratic principles to be questioned. It is
necessary for every Democrat who aspires to leader
ship to let it be known that he has no sympathy with
this attempt to republicanize the Democratic party."
THE political peace has been broken by a -lively
scrap between Major Watterson and Colonel
Bryan. The Major declares for a new platform
and a new leader for the Democracy — "some Tilden
to come to the front in some one of the determinative
States, commanding, as Tilden did, the means to set
a national ticket in the field and able to divide, if
not to command, the independent vote."
BRYAN AND WATTERSON.
" CORONATJO TENT . CITY. Coronado Beach.
Cal., will b* th« popwlar F iummer resort thU
season. It became famous last year for corn
tort, entertainment and health. Its «pleaU«A
: Special information supplied dally to
business bouses and public men by tha
Press Clipping Bureau (Allen's), 510 Mont
gomery street. Telephone, Main 1042. •
/ Special Information supplied dally to
business houses . and public men by the
Press Clipping Bureau (Allen's), 510 Mont
gomery street. Telephone Main 1042. •
Cal. glace fruit 50c per 1b at Townsend's.*
Choice candles^ Townsend's, Palace Hotel*
"• BUILDED— Constant Reader, City it
Is proper to jise. the word ."bullded" in
speaking of houses or chips that have
been contructed. - ' - ; • , nave
GRANT- IN. SAN FRANCISCO— T W '
Kenilworth, Sonoma County,' CaL- General*
Grant arrived in" San- Francisco nt, twl
City; of Toklo,. September, 1STO. atkra
two years tour around the world. - >
• JOINtIoWNERSHIP-J.d/m West
side Cal. If twoparties own aa'inieSt
jointly and one wants to sell but ToTl
other does not.- then the party who wan ?t%
to. sell must commence a suit in partifton -
«. THE ARTICLE-H. S. G. Cltv -<t^
speaking.^ writing : or printing the choice
between "an'^and . ;'a,". which'are differ
ent forms of the same word it 'd.f.C.1 j
by sound. -Before a, voVll's^uS^w?^
used; as. for; instance. . "anTold Wo^? n « "
not Va old woman," and - befor*. *^^^'
nant i sound the ; Va^SfuSf'L*
stance,;"a foreigner,"- n6t""an'f«;lf£5. .1
Underjhat rulers proper^^^
ANSWERS TO CORBESPONDENTS.
• TWhat'a the matter with your part
ner? I tried to ¦ talk to him about the
margins of the book i want printed and
he hastily left me.* ,
"Oh, he was caught in the big stock
slump yesterday and his ¦ fctomach is a
little weak."— Cleveland Plain Dealer.
Kind old Brooklyn lady (visiting Sing
Sing, beamingly)— So. you convicts have a.
soda, club here in Sing Sing. How nice!
Jimmy, "The Rat" (proudly)— Yes'm.
."And do you belong?"
"Oh, yes'm— I'm a life- member."—To
ronto Mall. -
Miss Lafin — How strange!
Mr. Rand— Not at all. He wished to
break himself of smoking.— Stray Stories.
A' CHANCE TO SMILE.
Miss Lafln— What has become of Mr.
Mr. Rand— He has taken employment la
a powder mill for six months.
NEW YORK, June 6.— The .following
Calif ornians are In New York: From Saa
Francisco— F.Ullrlchy^at the Belvidere;
Mrs. J. C. Young. S. S. Young, at the
Grand Union: J.' H. Atkins, at the Vic
toria; A. Plummer, at the Bartholdl; J
B. Tompkins, at the New Amsterdam: P.
M. J.\ Vanderklen. at the Holland; W.
Bradford, at the Manhattan. From Los
Angeles— J.. A. Pine, at the Astor.
CALIFORNIAUS HI NEW YOBK.
Captain John K. Bulger, one of the
United States local inspectors of steam
vessels, returned yesterday from Los An
geles, where he had been on business con
nected with his office.
Mrs.- Stephen J. Field of "Washington,
D. C, widow of. the late Justice of th*
Supreme Court,, arrived ,here yesterday
and Is at the Palace.
The Right Rev. w. h. Moreland, Epis
copal Bishop of Sacramento, Is a guest at
the Occidental. He is accompanied by his
Hugh. Casey, a liquor merchant of Sac
ramento, is spending a few days in this
city and is registered at the Grand.
Peter Musto. the well-known merchant
of Stockton, is here on business and haa
made the Grand his headquarters. —
Dr. E. "W. Biddle, a prominent physician
of Healdsburg, is spending a few days at
the Palace. .
"W. F. Fisher, owner of* the CaUstoga
Hotel and a prominent fruit grower. Is at
the LJck. , : ;>. --C \
H. M. Reed of Reedly. one of the most
prominent oil men of the State, is at th«
Senator Thomas Flint of Ban Juan is at
Commander G. H. Peters, U. S. N., it
at tho Occidental. '
C. r>. "Wright, an extensive land owner
of San Jose, is a guest at the Uck.
H. Morgan Hill has just returned from
Paris. He is staying at the California.
¦ In a local. suit now on trial an engineer is credited
with an ability to see "through the ground. It is safe
to wager, however, that he is no better qualified than
the rest of us to see through a stone wall.
The counties of California are going to show visit
ing Epworth Leaguers with what bounty nature has
endowed the State. In a splendid show of natural
resources we must be . on our best behavior to illus
trate how well we have accepted our advantages for
something nature cannot give.
A WORD TO PESSIMISTS.
BISHOP DERRICK of the African Methodist
Episcopal Church has just proven Himself at
a -conference :r. Brooklyn to about as wise a
man as there is in this generation. It appears the
conference appointed a committee to report on the
condition of the country, and that the committee in
reviewing the field found many things in the Southern
States that are prejudicial to the welfare of the col
ored man. It was the intention of the committee to
report the evils and to condemn them, but Bishop
Derrick counseled otherwise. He said to them: "A
blank piece of paper is a good deal better than a lot
of inflammatory rubbish. Just report: . '"We have
examined into the condition of the country; and we
find that the United States is at peace with: all the
world.' That will do first rate."
Of course no one has a right to condemn the com
mittee that desired to "roast" the Tillmans and,Mor
gans and other blind leaders of the South who are
seeking by one means or another to deprive the negro
of his just rights. At this juncture, however, when
a number of persons are trying' to render the negro
discontented and dissatisfied with the United States
and are promoting all sorts of schemes, for. -an
exodus to Africa, it is just as well to. act upon the
advice of Bishop Derrick — keep cool and remember
that blank paper is better than an inflammatory ap
peal to passion.. . • .' -
The negroes are not the only people to whom the
wisdom of Bishop Derrick's philosophy may be com :
mended. The whole 'host of those who are forever
looking at. the evils', of , the time and the ; country
might well- profit by reflecting on >®Wh^ndeH^
should t not even Bryan, Altgeld and the rest of their
type take -notice' that the United, States- is at ; peace
with all the world, and let it go at that? Then there
A BRITISH ACADEMY OP LETTERS.
REPORTS from London are to the effect. that
the Royal Society, a-scientific body, has under
consideration a project for the establishment
of a British Academy of Letters.. It is believed the
King would cordially second the undertaking, and
that without any great difficulty it could be carried to
success. ... . ;
The chief motive of the promoters is said to be to
establish an authoritative body to fix the standard of
the English language, and decide upon all questions
of, grammar, spelling and correct usage of words and
phrases. In all bur multitude of grammars and dic
tionaries there are hardly any two that agree, and
consequently many points of spelling and of gram
matical construction in the English tongue are largely
matters' of dispute. The Royal Society, having a de
sire for scientific accuracy in language, hopes.to at
tain, it by establishing an academy with authority to
decide on every point on which scholars, grammarians
and dictionary-makers disagree.
In opposition to the movement it is argued that one
of the'advantages the English language has over other
great languages of the world is its freedom from' aca
demic control. By reason of that freedom our
tongue has a flexibility and a capacity, to adopt "new
words that is possessed by no other language; and,
moreover, since- neither in Great Britain nor in this
country have weaver had an academy ; to make a,dic
tionary, individual enterprise .from the. days of Dr.
Samuel Johnson_dpwn to ourtime has furnished each
generation; with much ¦ dictionaries .than are
possessed by any- other- people. ¦- . ;' - ' .• '
A' British: Academy of Letters could hardly accom
plish as much for our language as has been done for
that of France by the Academie Frahcaise, for its de
cisions' would hardly" receive the deference shown to
the French ltjstitutibn. The^establishment .of such an
institution/however; would serve to give personal dis
tinction,and titles to some forty or fifty men of.-'emi
nence in the world of letters, and perhaps. that alone
.may be a sufficient inducement to ithe promoters*: to
go. ahead with the Some time ago -there
was a 'good A deal of " discussi on 'in' the j East concerning
the I advisability , of establishing I an" American acad
emy, and if the" British establish one there will almost
certainly be ;'a revival-of'thejmovenient here. \ -The
subject* is therefore cne"that is likely to become of
general interest, for should such an academy be under
taken 7 ; there "would". be a lively; discussion over the
selection of the men to compose it ,
. Sometimes I the • town, crier served as a
night -.watch;" * and thete ¦ were also . paid
watchmen with stars and" lanterns, who
called the hours ; of the * night and the
weather, and in stirring, times of war | or
election any unusual item of public news
which chanced to arrive by night-messen
ger. J But ; police • arrangements .were .very
scant 5 and- defective; :¦ honest - folk 'and
timid folk made little use; of the ill-lighted
public streets by; night. In Philadelphia,
until -the - middle of • t the . ¦'< century, were
watchmen, -.usually aged 1 men, ? with ' cape
coats, /lanterns and rattles— very quaint
and •- primitive ¦ figures, v Each one ' had : ; a
shelter ;box; : one is , here 'shown. They
were • four or < five '. feet ,: In > diameter,* con
tai ned : a bench • f or • the . watchman to sit
on,; a few hooks for 'clothing and 'a shelf
for, hi* oil can and torch ; I for. he was usu
ally lamplighter a3 well as < watchman.
Sometimes on cold nights "Charley" crejpt
Ways of the Night Watchmen.
Though coal .was known of in- the eight
eenth century; it attracted little attention
till 1820. Several wagon-loads had' been
brought to Philadelphia' and exploited,*
but the public benefactor was . denounced
as a swindler. .. Coal wagons were scarce
ly a common sight even in. city streets
Brick-dust vendors passed with sand
men who sung "Sand your kitchens; sand
your floors.": No one to-day buys floor
sand,.' but" every.' one wanted It In 1801,
when there were more sanded floors than
carpeted ones. Milkmen carried • mllk
pails or neckyokes to supply customers;
and . bakers' boys delivered cakes and
bread from trays and baskets carried on
When the Town Crier Went About.
r The town crier with his bell. added his
voice and. clang to the other confused
sounds. He walked slowly, with, occa
sional stops, crying out lost and found
articles, -notices of articles for sale, , of
town meetings — In fact, such .local events
of temporary interest as would now be
advertised | in a newspaper. Sometimes
he cried them at the lecture or town
meeting. If a - stray domestic .- animal
was found; a cow or a horse, the finder
was required in early days to put about
its^neck as a sign "a wyth or wreath."
Thus bedecked with green branches, the
cow was turned over to. the pound-keeper
while It was cried. ¦. ¦ ¦ . .<
'The crier had a vast amount of busi
ness in announcing lottery drawings,* and
auctions or vendues, which were such a
feature of modes of trade at the begin
ning of the century. Some tradesmen had
private criers.* Here is a notice from a
Boston newspaper: • ; . ,
'As the method, lately practiced by the . Sub
scriber, in having a Person at j his Door, to
Invite , Gentlemen • and others ; to his Public
Sales,* has given .dissatisfaction to some (Gen
tleman Shopkeepers - In Particular), to avoid
glvine Offense for the : future he shall ¦ desist
from that Practice, • and pursue ¦ one (as J fol
lows) which ' he flatters . himself cannot . fail
giving universal Satisfaction,' 'as -'he sincere-
ly wishes so to do. " The Publloare- most-ear
nestly requested 1 to j remember . (for their \ own
advantage) that, for the future. Notice will
be j siven, by sounding a Bell,'.";whlch, he' has
purthaped for that * Purpose, which is .erected
over the Auction . Room , Door, near • the ' Mar-'
ket, . where I constant .-'attendance -:1s
given both ; early . and late, ", to receive - the "¦ fa
vors of all ¦¦ such ¦ who are pleased ¦ to ' confer
on their Much Obliged and Very Humble Ser
vant/M. Bicker. ; . ,.-. '¦¦. ; ¦ v ; • i -;;'._Y- - •¦¦"¦» _
.'The humble and offense-avoiding Bicker
certainly, belied his name.;- ¦¦} ¦;.;¦- v ..;¦ .•
So also have the great loads of "cord
wood" which were delivered in long 16gs in
front of houses, and were sawed • up on
the edge of the sidewalk, even in crowded
city streets. The wood-sawyer . sawed the
logs and sticks into shoft billets, which,
when grown to an armful, were thrown
down a cellarway with the cry, "Way,
piler," to a comrade In. the cellar, who
was making the woodpile. A brawny.fel
low walking past would have a huge ax
over his shoulder and two jingling iron
wedges hanging from it; his cry was
"Spll-l-t wood!" He split the billets Into
kindling wood, a work the sawyer never
shared nor interfered with.
In -the Days of the Woodpile.
' His loud horn became a nuisance and
was prohibited and he triumphantly sub
stituted a great bell. "Sweep-ohs" were
frequent; a few still linger; an old sweep
still passes my Brooklyn house, slnglns
loudly every week during the spring, but
the boy sweeps have vanished. Soft-soap
men passed with wheelbarrows and bar
rels of soft soap, and city housekeepers
who could not conveniently make soft
soap were glad to buy from them. They
still are seen In New England towns,
where they still buy Boap fat from house
keepers; but the accompanying commod
ity, "hickory ashes," has vanished with
wood ftres. •
¦ The streets were noisy, but it was -with
human sounds, the cries of. various arti
sans and vendors; there were none of the
clanging metallic sounds of our modern
machines of travel and transportation, our
whistles, bells and gongs, the puffing rat
tle and banging of our trolley cars, our
cable cars, our elevated roads and en
gines, our bicycles and automobiles. There
were sounds of birds and beasts, for hogs
ranged the sheets unchecked, as public
scavengers, and well-to-do citizens • kept
pigeons and poultry in their town yards;
and at morn and night lowing cattle went
from their homes in town stables to out-:
lying pastures, and thence returned.
The "charcoal man" was a regular city
street vendor, who is not yet extinct, with
his lpng. narrow black wagon, his sinister
countenance and a mournful cry. In Phil
adelphia a popular member of this calling
was 'Jimmy Charcoal," who went
through the city blowing a horn and sing-,
Charcoal by the bushel,. ....
Charcoal by the peck.
Charcoal by the fryingpan.
- • Or any way you leek. • . " ,
Noises in the Streets.
New York was but a small place. The
majority of the inhabitants lived below
Cortlandt street and Maiden lane. . ; So
doubtful did It seem that there ever
would be many residents above Chambers
street that when the City Hall was built
In the first years of the century it was
decided that the bad* wall should be of
common red stone instead of granite, for
"who would see It?" The City Hotel was
an important edifice, -where now • stands
the Boreal building. It was the first build
ing in the city to be covered with slate
(in 1S0O) instead of old Dutch tile. There
were public gardens; the Indian Queen
and Tyler's, and away uptown was Kip's
Farm. The Battery was set out pro
fusely with" Lombardy poplars.
The stroller along the city streets saw
little in 1801 to Indicate what any Amer
ican city of to-day would be or, indeed,
to show what any of our smaller towns
would be. For every village to-day has
brick houses, and nearly all have one or
two three-story brick blocks. Boston In
1801. was a city of wooden houses "seldom
enlivened with paint." There was but one
brick house in Tremont street. Mrs.Quln
cy wrote: "The ranges of wooden build
ings, all situated with one end toward
the street, and the numerous chaises
drawn -by one horse, the driver placed on
a low seat in front, appeared to me *very
singular." Beacon street In 1802 had but
four houses. In 1804 the father of Wen
dell Phillips built a brick house there.
There were then in -the town fourteen
churches. The rent of houses was high.
There were no brick sidewalks. in Boston
except in Washington street, near • the
Old South Church. The streets were, as
the saying was, "pitched with pebbles,"
and Mrs. Quincy said every one walked
in the middle of the street because there
the pavements were the smoothest.
Horsemen who galloped in the streets
were fined. There were few street lamps;
there was no gas till 1834. . ¦*
A memorable trial was that of the sev
en Cuban pirates of the ship Panda who
robbed the ship Mexican of Salem ' and
fired her after fastening all the crew be
low. Luckily one skylight of the cabin
proved movable and one of the crew
crawled out and released the others, who
put out the fire, but } kept up a great
smoke till the Panda was out of slehL
The trial was carried on In the Masonic
Temple In Boston, as the court house was
far too small to accommodate the crowd
The pirates were all hanged save one "of
historic name, De Soto. who was nar
doned by the President for a humane ac
tion rendered early In his life to a
wrecked American vessel. He was said
to have been the handsomest man evpr
seen, perfect Iiuface and figure, with sup
erb eyes and eyelashes over an inch long
and the sweetest, gentlest, most lovable
expression ever seen on a human counten
ance.- - . • ¦¦
On the ocean property was most inse
cure," for the high seas were still Infested
with pirates. Merchant ships sailed heav
ily armed and the crews were trained to
fight like men-of-war's men. In 1789 a
friend of the Empress Josephine, sailing
from France to the island of Martinique
was captured by pirates and sold to the
Sultan of Turkey, and became the mother
of the next Sultan. Theodosia Burr Als
ton, the daughter of Aaron Burr, i was
doubtless a later victim of the Barbary
pirates. Hundreds of Americans were
captured ¦ before .the, bands of . the Medi
terranean and Caribbean seas were exter
minated, the brave Decatur having aided
vastly in this great work.
Provisions for the care of the poor have
varied comparatively little. Pauper chil
dren were usually "bound out" In pri
vate^ families ; after an interval of time,
in the midcentury, during which such
bound - service fell into disrepute, it Is
again our custom to-day, and is the best
treatment we now know for infant pau
pers. There were workhouses for pau
pers, and adult, active paupers could be
sola, for a term of service, the purchaser
paying a sum to the town or State In
fi rm and aged Paupers were "vendued"
for the. smallest sum for which any one
would, agree to give them their "keep":
this sum was paid by the town to the
keeper. Paupers— men and women -still
are sold in this way In this country. ,
» • Piracy, on the. Seas.
Caring for the Poor.
To all our Kind Benefactors: Wt poor unfor
tunate Prisoners, of the City Hail of New
lork now humbly beg Leave to return to you
our most grateful Thanks, for your Benevo
lence which we . have received ' to our ereat
Comfort m this our Necessity.
Received we have, Firing, Meat and Pence;
May others follow your. Benevolence.
\v hen we in Prison were, you came to see
What was our Want, and sad Extremity.
We cold and hungry, sick and naked were.
But you us Comfort gave while we were there-
Take your reward, which is Eternal Bliss,
For you reliov'd us when in great Distress.
For this our Thanks to you we freely owe
Pray God may on you double blessings flow.
He that unto the Poor doth freely give-
His double-fold shall of the Lord receive.
I hope Prosperity * may never fall ye;
I am, your Humble Servant. Edward Dally.
- It is pleasant to know that this appeal
met with ready response and kindness. In
a t- new ?. pap . er dat ed a week later appears
To all charitable Gentlemen ¦ and Ladles*
We poor, unfortunate Prisoners In the City
Hall of New York, humbly be* Leave to ac
quaint you, that we, . besides our Misfortunes
or Confinement, are under great Necessity for
want of Firing, not having at this Time, one
Stick to burn, nor have had for several days,
and the «rrea test Part of us Intlre Strangers
in the Country, so that w« are Quite desti
tute of Friends, as well as all the Necessaries
of Life, and unless we are rellev'd by some
Charitably Dlsuos'd Persons, we must unavoid
ably perish in this Place. Such Persons . as
will relieve us of this our great Necessity of
* irlnff, etc., we shall, as in Duty bound,
nopo that our Misfortunes, may be 'Doubled in
Blesslng« on you and yours. I am for Self
and rest of my Fellow-Prisoners. Gentlemen
and Ladles, your most obedient, humble aer
vant. ¦• . EDWARD DAILY.
Imprisonment for Debt.
Imprisonment for debt 'was a common
practice everywhere. As men could not,
of course, earn money while in prison to
pay their debts, their releases seemed
well-nigh impossible. They bad miserable
cells and wretched food, and their lives
were most pitiable; they begged from
every one who visited the jail and even
called out to passers by from the doors
and windows of their cells. They also ap
pealed through the public' press. Such
notices as this from the New York Gazette
were common: * •
"Hark, from the tombs a doleful sound,?
was indeed a true . view of funerals in
1801. Articles In the house of death, such
as mirrors, vases, pictures, etc., were
shrouded in black or white cloth. The
windows of the house were closed, in some
cases for several months. In Philadel
phia the shutters were tied together with
black bands. Mourning was donned even
for distant relatives and worn long. Every
one went to everybody else's funeral.
Black scarfs and gloves were given to
friends and relatives and bells were tolled.
The dead were usually carried to the
grave by bearers and had to be borne
slowly through -the main streets and past
the Town Hall - and the streets were
blocked, with a rabble of curious citizens,
old . and young, that followed the mourn
ers. Men were appointed by, the Select
men to keep free passages In the streets.
Funerals were forbidden to be held on
Sunday, for such vast crowds followed the
coffin that they became disorderly. Sar
gent, in his "Dealings with the Dead,"
writes at length on this subject. In New
York a "funeral inviter" went from house
to house of friends giving the hour of the
funeral and invitations to it. Gentlemen
walked from the house of mourning to the
grave; women seldom attended funerals
and never were present at the Interment.
Everywhere liquors were given to all who
attended the funeral, whether the dead
person were a man of wealth or a pauper.
Funerals of Former Days.
into his box for a few minutes' shelter
and would sometimes snatch a forbidden
nap. Woe to him if some prowling rogue
or roystering blades -discovered him;, for
they -would fasten the door on the outside
and; call "Watch! Watch!" in tones of
distress; sometimes they upsetthe watch
box with the watchman in it; for it was
not heavy, and was not attached. to side
walk or fence. The streets were lighted
by heavy oil lanterns, which hung over
the middle of the, roadway on ropes or
wires stretched across from wall to wall
or between posts. These lanterns were at
tached to a pulley which enabled the
watchman to draw them I to I the posts
which he would ascend by means of his
ladder, and thus refill the lanterns with
There is nothing essentially new in the statements
of the ex-Minister, but none the less it is well to
have the old truths restated at this time by men who,
like Mr. Denby, speak with the authority of per
sonal experience and high character. The peace of
China has been disturbed not so much by the Box
ers as by the European aggressions that provoked the
Boxers, and .the sooner that fact is understood the
sooner we are likely to have once_more the peace
ful China of the. past. "
That among these various organizations there exist
sojne whose members are hostile to foreigners is not
to be denied. Intolerance of alien ideas and prejudice
against persons of other lands are feelings that can
be found among all races. Moreover, the excellence
of the institutions of China is marred to a great de
gree by the corruption of the higher ,ofncials, and it
is not denied there is urgent need of reform. Con
ceding the truth, therefore, of many of the charges
made against China, Mr. Denby denies that she has
forfeited the right to self-government, and goes on
to ask: "How- is it that without protest, let or hin
drance she has become the prey of European powers?
By what right was opium forced uopn her, defenseless
people? Why are her provinces parceled out as
'spheres of influence' for any power which chooses to
arrogate to itself dominion over them? Why to-day
is the ominous shadow of partition resting on her
broad domains?" v
To that free and easy system of government China
adds a high respect for education, giving it the fore
most place in the state. Of the mutual helpfulness
of the Chinese Mr. Denby says: "China is full of
all kinds of clubs and associations. * * * There
are burial clubs, temperance societies, mutual insur
ance clubs, societies to aid the needy of all ages and
sexes. There are guilds for every branch of business.
The Emperor clothes all the beggars in Peking once
a year,' and issues rations to them all through the
winter months. Rich men give largely to charity.
Schools for boys and girls exist all over China. In
Canton alone there are thirty colleges."
Of their government Mr., Denby. says that while it
is "in frame and shape autocratic, it is the most
democratic in the world." It governs less, perhaps,
than any other government. Its taxation is small,
and its interference~with the people nominal. * * *
There are no political parties, and politics are not dis
cussed in the tea shops. The city furnishes all the
freedom of the rural districts, while in the village the
head man is the only authority. There the villagers on
suitable occasions cuff the magistrate, drag him from
his seat and pull off his official boots— the acme of
insult. When he appeals to the Government it says
to him that if he cannot get along with the people
he had better retire, which he does." -
GHARLES DENBY. who for many years was
United States Minister to China, has contrib
uted to the Philadelphia Record an elaborate
review of the salient characteristics • of the Chinese
and their government," and in so doing has once more
pointed out that the Chinese are by no means so bar
barous as a good many Americans and Europeans
imagine. In fact, it appears their government and
their entire T social polity are for them much better
than anything a European power could substitute.
CHINA AND HER QUESTIONS.
Again the' English Derby has been won by an
American, the triumphant horse. being piloted by an
American jockey. It might nst be unwise for our
English friends, to take a few days off and tell us
really what they can do .successfully in the field of
Such work will be a great object lesson to the
States and to the owners of private forests, and it
should be entered upon at once, or the reservations,
made to preserve the forests, will become the most
potent agency of their destruction.
We have a closed season for certain fish and game.
The deer that range in the forest are protected by law.
The bucks may be shot only at certain seasons, and
does and. fawns must not be killed at all. But when
the large interests of mankind are considered what
is the extermination of deer compared with the de
struction of the forests in which they find cover?
Not only must the States take up this subject on lines
far more extreme than the excellent beginning made
in North Carolina, but the Federal Government must
speedily enter upon the'proper foresting of its timber
reservations, or they will be destroyed by fire. The
duff and dead wood are rapidly accumulating in those
reservations, and their destruction is certain unless
they are carefully forested. The Government has a
bureau of animal industry and distributes lymph to
cure swine plague and black leg. But the forests
cannot be renewed as rapidly as hogs and cattle.
Why not employ a proper force of trained foresters,
graduates of the Pinchot School at Yale and. of the
New York Forestry School at Cornell, to take
charge of all these reservations and superintend the
clearing of their floor, to prevent the spread of fire?
But it is ( not so with a forest. Under the condi
tions in California, so favorable to coniferous trees,
thirty years are required to produce a merchantable
tree. . Then why not protect the young timber as well
as the young fish and immature veal?
The State of California regulates the age at which
calves may be slaughtered for veal, and punishes se
verely the taking of food fishes below a certain size.
The dealer caught in possession of immature veal
or undersized fish suffers confiscation of the prop
erty, is fined and may be imprisoned. But, consid
ered as a crop, veal and fish are quick growing and
the crop is rapidly renewed, so that the loss by im
proper utilization of either is soon repaired.
It is difficult to conceive of greater injury to others
than is wrought by the extermination of forests.
Wherever it is done the climate is unfavorably af
fected, the fertility of the soil is injured, and all the
future suffers damage. This being so, it is hardly
a doubtful legal experiment for a State to regulate
the cutting of timber en lands in private ownership,
so as not to interrupt the oncoming growth of forest.
If North Carolina can limit ihe area of forest that a
corporation may acquire, she may also regulate the
amount of timber that may be cut on such tract
and the method by which it is to be taken. Instead
of permitting trees to be cut down to eight or six
inches in diameter, such trees may be protected and
left standing until they have reached a larger diame
ter, and- when they are cut the operation must not
destroy the growing crop.
This law is a mild protective measure that will for
a time arrest the wholesale slaughter of the forests.
But it is by no means all that is required. Each State
under its* police powers probably has the right to
regulate the harvesting of timber. States regulate
various industrial operations. They direct how coal
measures shall be timbered and mined, and how
manufactures shall be carried on. The mines, manu
factures and industries so regulated belong to their
owners and operators, who are only using their own.
But the law permits the use of one's own only in
such way as does not injure another.
North Carolina had, probably, the greatest variety
of valuable forest trees found in the South. The
News and Courier has information from Raleigh, in.
that State, of legislation intended to preserve the for
ests. It says that great quantities of pine, as well as
spruce, walnut, chestnut, hickory, maple and other
forest, have been bought up of late years, sometimes
thousands of acres in a lot, and the timber, upward
of one hundred million feet annually, has been
shipped in logs to mills outside the State. To stop
this a law was passed by the last Legislature provid
ing that no corporation shall be allowed to hold or
lease more than 300 acres of timber land unless it
maintains' a mill within the-State at which the lum
ber it cuts shall be manufactured, and no corporation,
unless created under the laws of North Carolina and
having its principal place of business in . the State,
shall hold more 'than 300 acres of timber land. Vio
lation of the law works escheat' of -the timber land
to the State.
THE Charleston's. C.) - News and Courier,
noting approvingly The Call's warning against
the coming timber famine, repeats it for the
benefit of. the Southern States, where the forests of
pine, oak, hickory and walnut are rapidly dis
alsodo well to accept the Bishop's counsel the next
time they are called upon ; ; to make a;: report, and,
finally, there is the whole] multitude of pessimists. In
short, the people at this' particular juncture do not
care to hear the complaints or the ragings of any
class of. persons who believe -that tilings' are going
wrong, and accordingly almost all committees ap
pointed to report on the- condition • of the- country
can hardly do. better than to r'epdrt: '"We find the
United. States is at peace with all the world." The
country is all. right, and most folks are satisfied.
PRESERVING THE FORESTS.-
is a mass of reformers: of various kinds that might
A volume that will appeal to lovers of
romantic and legendary stories will be
issued before the month is out by Messrs.
S. H. Bonxneld. It is written and illus
trated by Allan Fea. and is entitled "Se
cret Chambers and Hiding Places of
Great Britain." Now. a secret chamber
has always been a favorite subject of
the novelist. It was Lytton who -wrote,
"How could I help writing romances aft
er living among the secret panels and
hiding places of our dear old home?" The
history of the secret panel, opening 1 in a
picture which concealed a stairway, has
peen associated with many strange
events. Country houses dating back two
or three centuries generally contain "hid
ing holes," as they used to be called. Mr.
Fea's book promises to be interesting.
Here Is news, indeed! The famous de
tective. Sherlock Holmes, is not dead,
after all. He has only been resting and
did not end his career over that terrible
precipice in Switzerland, for his creator,
Dr. Conan Doyle, will shortly resume tha
story of the marvelous feats of the de
The two Misses Fowler are absolutely
unspoiled by their very considerable suc
cess in the world of literature. Their
father. Sir Henry Fowler, it is said, is
considerably more interested in their lit
erary efforts than in his own work of the
political world and reads every notice of
their books with the keenest interest. Hi*
stories of bygone Methodism greatly help
ed his daughters, adding a lifelike Inter
est to their books.
It Is not perhaps very generally known
that Miss Edith Fowler wrote books be
fore her sister, Ellen Thorneycroft Fow
ler, had made her name with "Isabel Car
naby." Miss -Edith Fowler had already
written "The Professor's Children" and
"The -Young Pretenders." The sisters,
says Malnlv- About People, criticize each
other's work very freely and, unlike many
sisters, • take the advice of one another.
The younger of the two recently pub
lished another book, the scene of which
is laid in Devonshire, and a serial story
of hers which will shortly appear In book
form, entitled "The World and "Winslow,"
is now running through one of the mag
Such a volume, however, is about to be
published by Messrs. Chatto & Wlndus.
It is the life story of a well-known man
of letters. The title is "The Lover's Prog
ress. Told by Himself." He dedicates it
to all who love. There is a good deal
said about the -war of 1S70, besides many
stories of Napoleon III., the present Em
peror of Austria, Bismarck, Count An
drassy, Johann Strauss, Qffenbacbv Howe,
the medium, and Dumas tils. There ara
numerous anecdotes relating to Bohemian
life In London twenty. years ago.
Messrs. Fisher-Unwin have in prepara
tion a large book • of reminiscences by
Harry Furniss, forming his autobio
graphy. There will be two volumes of
more than 300 pictures, many made spe
cially for the occasion. The. author tells
of hia early days, his arrival In London
and his experiences until hia appointment
to the staff of Punch. He also describes
his Parliamentary career, his tours In
Australia and America, the latter of
which included experiences of a Presi
An anonymous autobiography is not
often' met, with In literature.
Cavallere Slndici's visit to London, quit©
apart from his lecture before the Dante
Society, has some public interest.
Readers. of the human documents writ
ten in revolt by his daughter under the
pen name of "Kassandra .Vlbarla"- may
be interested to know that he was her
delighted guest, .now that she la settled
In London as Mrs: Heihemann.
Very different was the fat© foreshad
owed for her ."in the circular which her
publisher, who is now her husband. Issued
when "Via Lucia" was published. Her
destination was therein described as the
convent cell, which no echo of the world s
praise or blame was " to reach either to
exhilarate or to ruffle. > -
The peerage given to Sir Alfred Milner
will -fcause delay In the publication of the
book written about him by E. B. Iwan
Muller. The volume was to have been
called "Sir Alfred Milner and His Work."
but the honor ' conferred on him by the
King will entail typographical alterations
on nearly every page. Iwan Mailer was
a friend of Milner before went to
Oxford. Curiously enough, the names
stand next to each other in the alpha
betical order, in the first class of the clas
sical "greats" for December, 1876. The
book will open with an account of Lord
Milner's early career, up to his appoint
ment as High , Commissioner for South
Africa, and will contain a review of South
- (COPYRIGHT, 1901.)
. ¦ •
XVI.— STREET . SCENES.
AND DRINKERS," ETC.
By -c\.lio© Mors© Earl©.
AUTHOR OF "STAGE COACH AND TAVERN DAYS," "OLD-TIME DRINKS
Strange Sounds and Scenes Which Enliv
ened the Streets of American
Cities of a Century Ago.
H The San Francisco Call ;
PAPERS ON CURRENT TOPICS.
THE SAN FRAN€ISCO CALL, FRIDAY- -JUNE £7, 1901.
FRIDAY........... ............. JUNE 7, iQQi
¦ JOHN D. SFRECKELS, Proprietor.
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BHAK CH OFFICES-— 537 Montgomery, corner of Clay, open
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corner Twenty ¦second and Kentucky, open until 9 o'clock.
2300 FUlznore. open until • p. m.
Local citizens who have served as trial jurors in
criminal cases are again clamoring for their pay from
the municipality: They should join forces with the
unpaid merchants* and contribute what they did not
receive to our rapidly increasing fund of patriotism.
Grand Oper»-l»otJBe — "Zm. To»ea.* #
CaHfornta— "A Colonial GlrL~
Central— "Old Glory."
TtToll— "The Toy Maker."
Orpbemn — Vaudeville. ..
Columbia — ""Gudfireons.**
Alnexxr — *Tor Bonnie Prince Charlie."
OJympia, corner Mason and Eddy streets— Specialties.
Chutes. Zoo and Theater— Vaudeville every afternoon and
F'lscher' s — Vandevme.
Recreation Park — Baseban.
Sutra Baths— Swiimning.
Plenle— At Shell Mound Park to-morrow.
Rnieryvtlle Racetrack— Races to-day. •
By Wm- G. Laynr — This day, at 11 o'clock. Trottlns
Horses, at Itl Howard street-
By Fred H. Chase & Co.— This day. Horses, at 1732 Market
10 SUBSCRIBERS LEAYKG TOWI FOR THE SDIMER.
Call ¦nbacrtbera ceotemplattnc a chanc* *f
Kaideaec daring; the rammer montha can ham
«Wtr paper forwarded by mall to their mew
midreMea by notifying The Call Bnalneu Office.
Tkla paper will also be on iale at all nmiut
¦vaorts and la represented by s local ageat in
all town «n th* coast.
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