OCR Interpretation

The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, September 28, 1902, Image 13

Image and text provided by University of California, Riverside; Riverside, CA

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85066387/1902-09-28/ed-1/seq-13/

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«^-r GOOD many failures occur in ma!c
f I ing prints on the numerous papers
I I prepared for gaslight or lamp-
V» I light printing, because the worker
JL does not properly understand the
principles under which they should be
employed. It is very easy to operate
these gaslight papers if one will remem
ber that they are mace on the same
principle as the dry plates and are, in
fact, the same in all particulars, except
that they are less sensitive to the action
of light and consequently are slower.
They require to be develo'ped in just ths
same way, after which, like the plates,
they must be fixed, washed, hardened and
dried. Half an hour spent in carefully
readlng and understanding the directions
published with these papers will save
many failures.
In the handling of papers of this kind
they may safely be opened in a light
which would destroy a plate, and develop
ment goes on in the same light without
Injury to the paper. The time of ex
posure required, with negatives of or-*
dinary density, will be from one to two
minutes at a distance of from three to
six Inches away from an ordinary gas
light or kerosene lamp, and after ex
posure development should go on in a
strong developer, preferably of metol
amidol or metol-hydroquinone, as these
are less liable to stain than many of the
other agents.
The same formula that Is used for
plates works well with paper, and the
Image comes up very quickly under proper
conditions of exposure and strength of
developer. A very small amount of de
veloper only 'Is required, but it should be
of full strength and held back by a very
small quantity, not more than three or
four drops to the ounce, of a 10 per cent
bromide of potassium solution. The print
before being developed should be dipped
into a tray of water in order that the de
veloper may flow evenly over Its surface.
It should then be held by the two upper
corners and drawn quickly through the
developer, face downward, two or three
times in rapid succession. If the expos
ure, has been correct, development will
usually be effected with this number of
immersions. As soon as the proper depth
of color has been reached the print
should be immediately Immersed in a
tray of clean water and from that thrown
into the following fixing bath: Hyposul
phite of soda, 8 ounces; water, 32 ounces;
to which has been added sodium sulphite
No. 8, 1% ounces; powdered alum, one
half ounce; water, 5% ounces. The print
must be kept moving In this fixing bath
for a few seconds, after which it should
bo left for fifteen or twenty minutes and
thoroughly washed In running water.
If the beginner will adhere strictly to
these directions he will save 'himself much
annoyance and the loss of many prints.
The fall and winter work of the ama
teur offers a new set of conditions, differ
ing very considerably from those under
which work has been carried on in tha
summer, and the worker of experience al
most invariably devotes considerable at
tention just at this time of the year to
the preparation of darkroom shelves, bot
tles, etc., most of which have been In a
state of disuse during the preceding
months. Stock solutions should be re
newed, a supply of the most commonly
used chemicals laid in and. everything
prepared for comfortable and convenient
use during the long winter evenings about
to follow.
See to It that the darkroom, if an impro
vised one, is well ventilated, that the light
of the ruby lamp Is sufficient to illumi
nate well without fogging the plates, an<*
provide a shelf or other convenient placa
for developers and all bottles and gradu
ates most frequently used in darkroom
operations. Prepare a place for all these
things and i see that they are returned to
their proper places each time after use.
In this way one will soon learn to work
in the dark without difficulty, which U
one of the first and most important lea
sons to learn in photographic manipula
It is not necessary, as some suppose, to
prepare a fresh solution of hyphosulphlta
each time that a batch of plates Is to be
developed. A better plan, and one which
saves a great deal of labor, ia to have
on hand a large glass jar holding one or
more gallons, into which a stock solution
of hypo is put at the beginning of tha
season's wo^k and from which enough
may be taken from time to time to fix
the plates as developed. After fixing tha
solution should be returned to the bottle,
first, however, being carefully filtered
through a wad of cotton or a piece of
filtering paper.
A fixing batn prepared In this way.
after any of the published formulas, will
keep for a long time If filtered after use,
and its action Is more perfect and even
than if a new lot Is prepared for each
lot of plates. The most convenient meth
od of fixing plates after development U
by the use of a grooved fixing bath, ob
tainable at any of the supply stores at
moderate cost. It is. of course, import
ant that enough of the hypo be put into
the bath to completely cover the plates
when on their edges In the grooves.
White Ink, useful in a great many waya
such as for titling negatives and lantern
slides, for writing addresses on the darh
shades of cover paper now so popular
and similar purposes, may be made by
combining sulphate of barium with a thin
solution of gum arable and mixing to %
consistency of cream. It may be applied
with a pen or a fine pointed brush.
Photographic Pointers
for Amateurs.
!y and fit for a king.
But before they get to the masher
think what hours it takes to pare them.
Twelve bushels a day— would you like
the job?
There is a regular (peeling squad that
does nothing but peel vegetables. When
It Isn't potatoes it's cucumbers: and
when it isn't cucumbers it's onions; and
then there are beans to string and corn
:o husk and peas to hull, for Buffalo
Bill's family doesn't get Its brawn out
of tin cans— not they.
Of course, there are prunes and prunes
»nd prunes, large tubs of them, but there
are puddings and pies, too, and fruits
md melons.
To cook all these things there is a range
that just fits inside ono of the big red
wagons— a range big enough for half a
dozen cooks to work over. Besides ther*
is a special stove for broiling steaks and
a campfire for boiling potatoes, making
soup and coffee.
When the coffee is made It goes into
a tank big enough to drown in, whil«
beside it stands one only slightly smaller
for tea. At breakfast time the thirty
five-gallon coffee tank is filled and emp
tied three times.
Once in a while by way of a treat thert
is milk to drink, and, for one meal it re
quires ninety gallons. The regular milk
order is fifty gallons a day.
It costs just $360 a day to feed this
family; and if all the food they eat in
a season could be piled together thers
would be a trainload of meat, another
trainload of bread and pastry, a moun
tain of vegetables and a lake of drink
put Into a mill, with milk enougn to make
them soft, a man turns' the crank, and
presto", out they come all' white and fluf-
In the evening It Is •different. Every
body Is there, evei/body is hungry, and
everybody makes a break for the grub
tent at once.
People are still standing In large
bunches at the street crossings, waving at
cars that slide past '.oaded to the last
Inch, when the dozen long tables in the
Krub tent are lined with hungry men, who
sit elbow to elbow on the narrow planks
that serve as chairs.
Wild "West Show, indeed. There Is noth
ing on the programme like it. Nowhere
else in the world are knees of so many
of their foundering on tne porterhouse
they get they are satisfied so long as they
l«jve six or seven helps, each as big as
two good fists.
It keeps one man busy all day cutting
meat, for the beef comes by, the quarter
and mutton and pork In whatever hap
pens to be the fashion <n butchering
sheep and hogs. Then there are whoie
hams and bacon and liver and sausages
by the mile, and when there Is fish on
the bill for dinner It takes 400 pounds.
The refrigerator wagon, where the meat
chest rides, is always the first wagon* on
the grounds, and then and there tha
butcher gets to work.
The baker who gets the^contract to sup
ply Buffalo Bill with bread has a big job
on his hands while It lasts. It takes 400
pounds a day, which means a good wagon,
Meat and bread are not the only things
consumed in magnificent quantities.
It takes twelve bushels of potatoes a
day. There-ls never a meal without po
tatoes. Sometimes baked, sometimes
fried, sometimes mashed, but always po
tatoes. To mash a tubful of potatoes and
have them creamy may seem something
of a problem to the woman | who cooks
for a family of five or two, but it's easy '¦*¦
When you know how.' The potatoes ate
' ' - • ¦'¦¦ ' .'V'--' "
DINNER with Buffalo Bill and his
family is worth the price of ad
mission, and then some more.
Buffalo Bill has a family of six
hundred, and the only petticoats
there are the snake charmer— for she
floes wear petticoats at table if she
doesn't on the billboards— the long-haired
lady, the Lilliputian and four Sioux
Six hundred men. Big, brawny fellows
they are, too, for they are men of the
Western prairie, men of the desert. East
and West, men of the Russian steppes,
red men. black men, white men, brown
Don't think for a minute that the white
men are really white. There Isn't a man
In the COO that the most contemptuous
cf Indians could call a paleface. The
American cowboy, the British soldier, the
Mexican vaquero. the Bedouin, the Cos
sack — all have the bronze the sun gives
whether it beats down straight on tropic
deserts or slants across wind-swept plains
or frozen steppes.
Broad-shouldored, full-chested, slim
waisted. straight-legged to a man. Not
one with an ounce more of flesh than if
he were trained for a footrace or prize
As they swarm into the grub tent at
dinner time— this hungry, husky herd of
male kin«3— they are a sight to make the
gods of the ancients climb right down off
their pedestals and weep for very envy.
And such appetites.
There is r.o need of a call to dinner.
Dinner comes right after the afternoon
show; and while the cowboy band is jig
ging out the last tune, and the monster
tent is disgorging its thousands the mem
bers cf the congress of the rough rid
ers cf the world and all the Canvas men
and hostlers and roustaboutft are trick
ling through the crowd In titfr direction
of the tent whence sundry faSors have
carried their battle for supremacy into
the open. •
At breakfast and lunch titt^ the men
straggle along to their meats. In the
morning those who have nothing else to
do prefer to sleep. At noon those who
are knocking around town prefer to eat
¦wherever they happen to be and get back
to the show grounds with barely time
to step Into a saddle and become part of
the kaleidoscopic grand entry.
different nationalities gathered under one"
table — or one uozen tables, under one tent.
And at the head of one of the tables sits
Buffalo Bill himself, the hardest worked
man in the world (to hear him tell it),
and certainly the best paid for his work.
Nobody takes off his hat. He hasn't
time. He has come to eat and ni3 only
concern is to get his order to the cook's
ears as quickly as possible.
"Who'll have some of the black stuff?"
shouts the waiters as they pass up and
down the line with big pots of coffee.
Every bowl is raised high in the air—
bowls, not cups.
"Coffee or Oriental lemonade?" says the
boy. Some take coffee and some tea.
Then comes the soup. None of your
thin, shadowy stuff that Is served on
tables where there are flowers and candles
and ribbons, but soup that is thick and
rich and savory. After the soup there is
meat and vegetables and after these des
It doesn't last long, this dinner, and
when it's over every man's plate looks
as if Fido had cleaned It.
To feed this family of Buffalo Bill it
takes half a dozen cooks, half a hundred
table boys, half a ton of meat and every
thing else in proportion.
A caterer has the job by the year and
he has charge of all the cooks and flunk
ies, the dishwashers, woodcutters, butcher
—in short, he owns the cook tent and all
that in it. is. •
Hand and glove with the caterer is the
purchasing agent, with a task Herculean.
At 4 o'clock of the morning the show
strikes town, breadman, milkman, meat
man and grocer must be on the ground
with nis wares, or it isn't pleasant to
think what might happen to the purchas
ing agent if 600 men woke up hungry and
had nothing for breakfast.
Meat, says the man who does the mar
keting for this family. Is the one thing
they must have. Twelve to sixteen hun
dred pounds of It a day, according to the
weather; fo/ there are days when the
wind is chill and the work hard, and a
man's plate goes back many times for
meat. More than one man is good for his
eighteen eggs for breakfast, and there's
not a man among them but would scorn
less than five for a starter.
As for the Indians, they eat little else
tut meat, and while there Is no danger

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