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APPARATUS USED AND PHOTO
GRAPHS OETAINED BY USE OF LENS OF BULLOCKS EYE. THE spring is backward, cold and destructive, frdm the Rocky Mountains to the great lakes. The fruit crop of all kinds in that vast region is much shortened, and in the most important centers of production destroyed, by freezing weather. This throws the burden of the supply on California, and our fruit-growers must prepare as best they can to meet the emergency. Last year several millions of dollars were lost to. this State through lack of labor to harvest and market the fruit. In the orchards and vineyards, next to white labor, the Chinese have always been the most reliable workers. But our rigid exclusion laws are rapidly reducing their numbers, and their places are being taken by the Japanese, who are far less reliable and desirable/yet they arc free to come and go, and no exclusion blocks their way. The fruit-growers will gladly seek any 'substitute for. them. By the time the harvest is well on it is probable. that at least 40,000 new immigrants from the East will be in the State, and that number will furnish many people who will want to earn some money, while looking about them for a location. In our orchards and vineyards they will not only have a chance to earn it, but also the opportunity to learn the way in which our rural industries are carried on, the differences in methods compelled by "the difference in seasons and climate, and so they will find a double profit in the opportunity that is open to them. The orchardists should at once organize to: get hold of this' form of labor. When the fruit is ripe it is too late to go searching for people to harvest it. 'They must be secured in advance. It will be well for. those interested to provide, now, the means of reaching this form of labor and prepare for taking care of it. Then, Eastern people are accustomed to, a different class of accomniodations from .those usually furnished on California ranches. Mostof them are family people and have wives and children with them. We hear of one fruit-planter at Acainpo who has a fruit -plantation of ncarlv a thousand acres, -who is prepared to shelter such laborers" in good tents, and to provide a good summer school for their children. Such facilities seem to us t# be the model which others should follow, for they will be very attractive to Eastern people and -Avill make the summer's \vork seem like a vacation to all the members of a family. Other large planters will adopt this \ plan to^their advantage. THE EASTERN FROSTS. "More Letter* of Charles Darwin." t>. Xf pie ton & Co., New York. Two volumes. Prte* 95 net. The discussion concerning the power of nature to "select" raised, of course. th» older problem of the extent to which ln telligtnt "design" is evident in nature. On that point Darwin wrote to Hooker: "Your conclusion . that all speculation about preordination is idle waste of .time, is the only wise one; but how difflcuTE it is not to speculate. My theology is a simple muddle; I cannot look at the uni verse as a result of blind chance, yet I can see no evidence of beneficent design, or Indeed of design of any kind In the details. As for each variation bavin* been preordained for a special end, I can no more believe In It than that the spot on which each raindrop falls has been specially ordained." To any one interested In the develop ment of science, every letter in the two volumes has something of instruction. Even casual readers will find a fund of entertainment In the familiar interchange of thought among men of such eminence and no one will have occasion to grudgs the time spent in reading what was writ ten either by Darwin or by his friend*.. beast was so large it could not enter the door of the ark, and yet such an expla nation was actually put forth by a mas of eminence as a means of combating what was called "T>arwinlsm." In Dar win's own family the doctrine of the sur vival of the fittest was soon familiar even to the children. A story is told of one of them saying' to his father: "If every one would kill adders they would come to sting less." Darwin replied :. "Of course they would, for there would be fewer." The child re-plied Indignantly: "I do not mean that: but the timid adders which would run away would be saved, and in time they would never sting at all." Darwin's use of the . phrase, "natural selection." gave rise to a good ' deal of confusion and put the supporters of his doctrine at a disadvantage In the con troversy with their opponents.' and Wal lace wrote urging him to adopt the term of Herbert Spencer, "the survival of the fittest." In advocating the change Wal lace wrote: "This term Is a plain ex pression of the fact. 'Natural selection' is a metaphorical expression of it. and to a certain degree indirect ' and > incor rect, since, even personifying nature, she does not so much select special variations as exterminate the most unfavorabls ones." In reply Darwin stated that had he received Wallace's argument on th« point earlier he would have mads use of Spencer's phrase, but the revised edition of his book was then ready for publi cation and it was too late to alter it. Ha then went on to say: "As in time tha term must grow intelligible, the objec tions to its use will become weaker and weaker." CARNEGIE'S gift of $1,500,000 for the erection of a courthouse and library, a temple of peace, as a permanent home of the Hague High Court of Arbitration, will doubtless have the effect of giving the court a permanent existence as an international institution. There is a certain force in property that tends to conservatism. Mankind does not" willingly .let anything die that has a stately and enduring hefrne. A noble building impresses the imagination and the memory. Residents of the locality take a pride in it. Visitors delight to inspect it and to talk of it when they return to their homes. . ]n that way the building adds to the fame and dignity of the organization that maintains it. and so tends to increase at once its prestige and its vitality. It is a foregone conclusion that when once the Temple- of Peace is completed it will be one of the most noted show places in Europe. The possession of a famous home will moreover incline the members of the Hague Court to hold assemblies more frequently Jhan they would otherwise do, and accordingly the court will be more prominently before the public and exert a more constant and a Called into existence by a Czar representing the mightiest of the surviving despotisms of the earth, and gifted with a magnificent palace home by the generosity of a man who represents the democracy of American labor, opportunity and law, the High Court will go down to future genera tions as fairly representative of the age that created it and of the forces now in operation. America and Russia stand as its sponsors. Despotism and democracy have united to uphold it. A vast field of work lies before it, and it is not impossible it may grow to be an institution of first-class power in the world of the future. >Vj*& By the forces of steam and electricity the nations of the earth have been drawn so closely to gether and their relations' Jiave been so interwoven in a common warp and woof that to-day the affairs of far-off Manchuria in the wilds of Northeastern Asia are matters of public and popular con cern to both Europe and America. So also the industrial and commercial conquest of South America and of. Africa is bringing far separated nations into alliances 'or agreements for joint action. These problems of international relations will increase in frequency as the commercial conquest goes on. The higher interests of humanity will not admit of their settlement by war, for that would mean the beginning of an era of conflict that would not terminate until the globe had been brought under the virtuaf*dominatioii of a single power. By one means or another. solution for most' of the conflicting interests of. the nations will have to be arranged by negotiation, and in that work the Hague Court, if properly directed, will have an ever increasing authority and power. It is therefore probable that the Temple of Peace will become something like- an international capital — a building in which all the world will have an interest. Great questions will be debated "within its walls and mighty issues settled by the judgment of the best statesmanship of the time. Mr. Carnegie then has bestowed wisely this gift out of his vast fortune, for it has larger opportunities for growth and usefulness than any other institution he has yet endowed. THE TEMPLE OF PEACE. FRONTISPIECE OF NEW VOL UME, "MORE LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN." Perhaps the roost remarkable bridges in the world are the kettle bridges In Russia and Siberia, of which Cossack sol diers are expert builders. They are built up of the soldiers' lances and cooklmr kettles. Seven or eight lances are placed under the handles of a number of ket tles and fastened by means of ropes to form a raft. Each of- these rafts 'will bear the weight of half a ton.— Exchange. Townsend's CaL .glace fruits, 715 ¦ Mrkt* •Townsend's California glace fruit and candies. 60c a pound, in artistic fire-etched boxes. A nice present for Eastern friend* Moved from Palace Hotel building to 715 Market St.; two doors above Call building.* Special Information supplied daily to business houses - and ! public men by •" the Press Clipping Bureau (Allen's), 230 Cali fornia street. Telephone Main 1012. * Strangest Bridges in the* World. What is this wonderful substance called radium that science is talking so much about? "We only know it, as we know all other matter, by its manifestations. According to its discoverer and Sir Wil liam Crookes, it is a substance which ra diates heat indefinitely. But it is so val uable that a ton of it would pay the whole national debt of Great Britain. A bit as big as a grain of sand sends out rays enough to blister the skin. ' Radium is supposed in some mysterious way to govern the motions of the uni verse. It has been isolated in minute quantles with the most wonderful results. It is the latest scientific puzzle. But it is found in such small quantities that it cannot be cornered for profit It will never- be quoted in the Stock Ex change. Let us be thankful.-Boston Globe. What Radium Is. Another extraordinary property of ra dium is to throw off rays rot only of heat, but of light like those of the "glowworm or firefly. Indeed, the light rays of ra dium are so powerful that It has been sug gested by French . scientists that in this rnyeteriouB metal may some day.be found a means of lighting cities without loss of energy or waste of force. The ray« of It alto emits ray* that have the quali ties of the X-ray and of cathodlc rays, and is as active in vacuum as in the open air. Its rays are analagous to those of thorium and uranium, but incomparably more intense. Its rays penetrate through certain opaque bod<es, and act on sensi tive filmg inclosed "*ln wooden boxes to take impressions of metallic objects inter posed as in case of the Roentgen rays. The radiations from radium also react chemically and physically on certain oth er bodies, changing oxygen into ozon», for instance, and the colors of glass or por celain to dark violet or brown. They found, further, -that radium main tains its own temperature at a point 1.5 degrees centigrade above its surround 4nge, which is equivalent to saying that the actual quantity of luat evolved is such that the pure radium salt will melt more than its own weight of Ice every hour, and helf'a pound of radium will evolve in one hour heat equal to that pro duced by burning one-third of a cubic foot of hydrogen gas. Yet despite this constant activity the salt remains at the end of months just as potent as ever. The newly discovered metal, radium, continues to be the subject of interesting study and experiment on the part of both chemists and physicists. Professor Curie and Mme. Curie, the discoverer. In a late communication to the French Academy «if Sciences, stated that radium possesses the extraordinary property of continuous ly emitting heat without any chemical charge of any kind, and without any change in Its molecular structure, which remains spectrcscoplcally identical afier many months. This multiple image, with the magnified imaEC of a portion of the beetle's eye usfd in making it. is given with his arti cle, also full directions for taking the picture and developing the plates. The picture of the apparatus used in making the above experiments is given herewith. Bfiflfi When first removed the crystalline tens of a bullock's eye is a beautiful, clear double convex lens about three-quarters of an inch in diameter. It is soft end delicate and must be handled with great care to prevent its being injured. The method of handling, mounting and using the lene in photographic work is fully set forth in the article. Stress Is laid on the fact that the lens must be kept moistened, as the cornea of the living eye is kept moistened by the eyelid, and that the aymous humor of the eye was found Ltst suited for that purpose. The cornea^ lenses of an insect's eye, being very minute, were found quite diffi cult to use in photography, but neverthe less Professor Watson succeeded in get ting some very clear and remarkable re sUts therewith. The eyes of a single btetle of some species have as many as 21.000 lenses, and each lens produces a separate image of the object, making therefore as many images as there are lenses. Mr. Watson took a very small w,iCtJon of a beetle's eye and mounting it q-& his instrument as he describes got a multiple image reproduction of a man's head of over one hundred figures. •". UNDER the UUe "Photographic Ex periments With Nature's Lenees" a recent Scientific American has a very interesting article describing the methods pursued in making photographs with the crystalline lenses of bullocks' and beetles' eyes, together with a number of illustrations, some of which are here reproduced. The eyes of animals possess various dc i-ices for the refraction of light and the 'ormation of images on the retina, the rrystalline lens and the cornea appearing to be the most important of these. With the crystalline lens from a bul lock's eye mounted in a pasteboard pill box pierced with holes top and bottom to serve as diaphragms Mr. Watson macic a number of photographs which would pass n-lth credit for the work of a good K'.ass lens. Two of these pictures are here reproduced, one of a wasp and the other of a flea. "Physicists do not doubt that the phe nomenon observed by the Curies, ha3 a cause and the investigation of that cause is regarded as being full of promise for the future." Two German physicists. Runge and Precht. have been studying the relations of radium to the other elements with a view to determining to what chemical group i» belongs and what is its position h. the so-called "periodic system," into which all the elements have been ar ranged. . They have already found that the most intense lines of the spark spectrum of ra dium are exactly analogous to the strong est lines of barium and to the correspond ing lines of its congeners, magnesium, calcium and strontium. The atomic weight of radium is now given at 257.8, a much greater value than that assigned by its discoverer, Mme. Curie. radium dash and explode like minute ar tillery projectiles upon sensitive surfaces, and their phosphorescent properties are astounding. The most puzzling property of radium is that, as far as has yet been ascertained, its properties of emitting heat and light are inexhaustible. The great mystery is how and where the am bient forces needed to produce heat and light are absorbed by radium. According to the laws of the conservation and cor relation of forces, heat, light and motion are convertible, and neither Professor nor Mme. Curie, nor Sir William Crookes, nor any of the scientists of France, England or Germany who have followed in Profes sor Curie's footsteps, has yet been able to prove that the incessant continuity in the emission of rays of light and heat from radium causes any exhaustion,- ex penditure or diminution of the properties so mysteriously stored in apparently in finite quantities in this extraordinary, metal. Radium, moreover, has startling effects upon the nervous centers of human be ings ar.d living: animals. A glass tubo containing one or two milligrams of radi um when carried in the walstcoa't pocket causes a painful wound in the flesh that win require six months to heal. A glass tube containing a few milligrams of ra dium when Introduced beneath the skin of a moufe near the vertebral column produced death by paralysis in three hours. Tubes of radium placed in contact with the back of the necks of guinea pigs kill or paralyze the animals in a few hours, according to the length of expo bure to its fatal radiations. M. Curie snys that death to man would ' probably ensue upon entering a room containing a pcund of radium. Radium is, indeed, an unknown quantity. Each week brings to light startling additions to its mysterious properties, which, as far as is yet known, emanate and originate in itself. "The world is thus made acquainted," says the report alluded to above, "with a heat sufficient to raise the mercury in a thermometer 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit, the output of which is maintained Indefinite ly without any visible compensation to the heat giving substance. PUBLIC lnterset in the services ren' dered to science by Charles Dar win is attested by the fact that, notwithstanding "the publication of his "Life and Letters" in 1SS7, it has been found advisable to publish two additional volumes of biographical matter under the title, "More Letters of Charles Darwin." The new compilation is hardly less in teresting than the former, for the letters cover the whole period of. the long con troversy over the doctrine of evolution, ar.d Include parts of correspondence with such men as Sir Joseph Hooker, Sir Charles Lyell, Asa Gray, Fritz Muller. John Morley, T. H. Huxley, the Duke of Argyle, Francis Galton, Herbert Spencer and Alfred Rus3ell Wallace. A consider able number of letters, from those gen tlemen to Darwin are also included in the volumes, so that the work is a valuable contribution not o the life of Darwin only, but to a critical period of the his tory of science from. 1S40 to 1SS2. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the book is a short sketch by Darwin of his childhood. It was written in 183S and was evidently designed as a record of his early development, intended not for pub lication, but for the reading of some fa miliar friend, for the references to vari ous persons are made without explana tion, evidently upon the assumption that the reader would know them well enougli. In the course of the paper, which was nev<er revised by the- author and is but "a hasty sketch, Darwin shows that he studied his early development with as much scientific interest as any other sub ject that engaged his attention. He notes in the first place that his earliest recollection is of an incident that happened when he was 4 years old. Sit ting one day on 'the lap of his sister, who was cutting an orange, he was startled by a cow going past the window, which made him jump suddenly, so that he received a bad cut, the scar of which remained all his life. Of the scene Dar win says: "I recollect the place where I sat and the cause of the fright, but not the cut itself. My memory here is an ob scure; picture, in which from not recol lecting any pain, I am scarcely conscious of its reference to myself." • Another incident of his early childhood shows that even in comparative infancy his powers of observation had begun to develop, for after recalling that he re members going once to a shop in which a man gave him a fig, that to his delight . turned out to be two figs, he adds: "This fig was given me that the man might kiss the maid servant." A recollection of that kind shows that grown people should be careful of young scientists, for there is no telling how far they observe facts and how capable they are of de ducing conclusions from them. From the time he was 8 years old his recollections cease to be'obscure pictures and become quite clear. Of that period of his life he says: " "I remember how much afraid I was of meeting the dogs in Barker street and how at school I could not get up my cour age to fight. I was very timid by nature. I remember I took great delight in fish ing for newts in the quarry* pool. I had thus young formed a strong taste for cel lecting seals, franks, pebbles and miner als. I believe shortly after ¦ this I had smattered in botany, and certainly when at Mr. Case's school I was very fond of gardening and invented some great false hoods about being 'able to color crocuses as I liked. It was soon after I had begun collecting stones, that Is when 9< or 10, that I distinctly recollect the desire I had of being able to know something about every pebble in front of the hall door. It -was my earliest and only geological as piration at that time. I was in those days a very great story teller for the pure pleasure of exciting attention and sur prise. I scarcely ever went out walking without saying "I had seen a pheasant or some strange, bird. I recollect Inventing a whole fabric to show how fond I was of speaking the truth. I do not remem oer any mental pursuits , excepting thosa of collecting stones and: gardening; and about this time often going with my fath er in his carriage, telling him of my les sons ' and seeing game and other wild birds, which "was a great delight to me. I was a born naturalist." : Such' was the childhood of the great dls cevcrer of * the methods by which the processes of evolution are carried on. It is to be regretted that the sketch is v* brief. A scientific study of the lntellec tuar development of Darwin written by himself it-is evident' would have been a masterpiece. The frankness and sincer ity with which this fragment is written ls~a convincing proof that a complete au tobiography would have been a genuine, human document of the first importance, both'to science andXto literature. The letters relating. to the controversy over the theory of : evolution will appear to readers of our time .as something like emanations from the days of troglodytes. It will ; be with something of amazement that readers will learn that the opponents o£ evolution went so far as to explain the extinction of the mastodon by saying the THE idea that work is a curse, put upon man for the Edenic transgression, and uttered in the phrase: "Cursed is. the ground for thy sake; in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread," surely does not apply to modern man. Work is the blessing that produces all blessings. In work is health, and in health is happiness. Wealth is an incident, and "by itself is not the <:ause of happiness. In its pursuit often health and happiness are sacrificed, and are lamented when they* are gone beyond recovery. In work is length of days, the opportunity to apply experience and to teach the true philosophy of life to those who are to follow. "The world, owes me a living," is the vicious motto of laziness and unthrift. The world owes man only what he earns, by his hands, his head or his genius. President Roosevelt is the American apostle of work. His own life is an example of- work, that all of his countrymen may well follow. In this he is not singular, for he shares his vigor of thought and action with a vast majority of his countrymen. But it is well that a citizen in his sta tion should frequently emphasize the gospel of 'work, "in his address to the Y. M. C. A. at Kansas City he did this in plain and impressive fashion. He said : "Nothing can be done with a man who will not work. We have in our scheme of government nq_room~for the man who does not .wish to pay his way through life by what he does. A rich man is bound to work in some way that will make the community better for his existence.- Capacity for work is absolutely. necessary, and no man can be said to. live in the true sense of the word if he do not work." , * ; That may be studied with profit by the social philosophers who continually present work as a curse, which men should escape by some plan that will divert all of their time and energy to what that school calls "improvement of the mind." The best results of thought have come from physical work and not from physical idleness. Work is the means and the beginning of all reform of the vicious. In penology it is hopeless to lead men back to virtue except by honest work, which would have kept them virtuous. The prison statis tics of all nations show that a very great majority of convicts had in freedom learned no calling that would yield them an honest living. They acquired no skill with head or- hands to .earn their bread, and naturally sought to get it by dishonestly preying upon the labor of pothers. But few skilled mechanics are guilty of crimes against property or person. The idle are the recruits of the ranks' of crime. True, there are those who see in the idleness of men the elysium of the race, but such a con dition would be intolerable to a majority of men, and, immersed in it, the race would rapidly dete riorate and fall from the high estate to which it has been lifted by work. The President is correct in his inclusion of the rich' in the general obligation of all to work. There is no more vicious example than that which is set by the idle rich. They are a class who, as a rule, have inherited the accumulations of the honest toil and enterprise of their ancestors who were workers, and they use it like drones in the human hive. Instead of being active stewards of their in heritance, and using it so that it may supply work to others, and in its administration make work for themselves; they make it pander to their selfish indulgence and set an example of idleness which makes them the teachers of evil to their fellow-men. What people are who do not feel the spur of necessity to work may be seen in the tropics, where nature does not impel to toil, and where even the hardiest races soon degenerate, lose their arts and theii; energy and cease to be an influence in the on ward movement of the world. Without^ work there is no true leisure, no grateful rest, no satisfying sleep. Those who dream of life as one long holiday dream of it deprived of its zest and its pleasure. Rest is the reward of toil, and otherwise has no- significance and no satisfaction. When the President is extolling the pioneers who won the West he is preaching the gospel of labor, for the virtue of the pioneer was that he must earn before he could eat or be slieltered. Let the idea be enforced that each generation is made up of the pioneers of life. No matter, under what conditions, they begin as the frontiersmen of their career. For them the ground is not cursed but blessed, and the bread thev eat, earned in the sweat of their faces, is the real bread of life. THE GOSPEL OF WORK. DARWIN LETTERS COVER LONG YEARS OF CONTROVERSY; THE SAN FRANCrSCO CALL JOHN D.SPRECKELS. Proprietor. >¦:¦ / ; Address Communications to W. S, LEAKE. Managefj SUNDAY ...7; ;........ . . • . • • • • ..........MAY 3. I9Q3 Publication Office.. . ...................... ... .'. ... <t£f|f|!iS|j» ....... .... ...••.• • .Third and Market Streets, S. F. THE SAKTBANOISCb CALL, SUNDAY, MAT 3, 1903. PICTURES TAKEN WITH LENS FROM EYE OF BULLOCK. 26 ADVERTISEMENTS. IN OTA/ RE/\DY. ANGELO, . . THE - - MUSICIAN, BY HARRIET BARTNETT. An exceptional novel by a new writer, wtio tells a love story in- teresting from the first to the last chapter. Frontispiece in photogravure. I2mo.. Cloth $1.25. GODFREY A.' S. WIENERS. At the Sign of the Lark, New York.