APPARATUS USED AND PHOTO
GRAPHS OETAINED BY USE OF
LENS OF BULLOCKS EYE.
THE spring is backward, cold and destructive, frdm the Rocky Mountains to the great lakes.
The fruit crop of all kinds in that vast region is much shortened, and in the most important
centers of production destroyed, by freezing weather. This throws the burden of the supply on
California, and our fruit-growers must prepare as best they can to meet the emergency.
Last year several millions of dollars were lost to. this State through lack of labor to harvest
and market the fruit. In the orchards and vineyards, next to white labor, the Chinese have always
been the most reliable workers. But our rigid exclusion laws are rapidly reducing their numbers, and
their places are being taken by the Japanese, who are far less reliable and desirable/yet they arc free
to come and go, and no exclusion blocks their way. The fruit-growers will gladly seek any 'substitute
for. them. By the time the harvest is well on it is probable. that at least 40,000 new immigrants from
the East will be in the State, and that number will furnish many people who will want to earn some
money, while looking about them for a location. In our orchards and vineyards they will not only
have a chance to earn it, but also the opportunity to learn the way in which our rural industries are
carried on, the differences in methods compelled by "the difference in seasons and climate, and so
they will find a double profit in the opportunity that is open to them.
The orchardists should at once organize to: get hold of this' form of labor. When the fruit is
ripe it is too late to go searching for people to harvest it. 'They must be secured in advance. It will
be well for. those interested to provide, now, the means of reaching this form of labor and prepare for
taking care of it. Then, Eastern people are accustomed to, a different class of accomniodations from
.those usually furnished on California ranches. Mostof them are family people and have wives and
children with them. We hear of one fruit-planter at Acainpo who has a fruit -plantation of ncarlv a
thousand acres, -who is prepared to shelter such laborers" in good tents, and to provide a good summer
school for their children. Such facilities seem to us t# be the model which others should follow, for
they will be very attractive to Eastern people and -Avill make the summer's \vork seem like a vacation
to all the members of a family. Other large planters will adopt this \ plan to^their advantage.
THE EASTERN FROSTS.
"More Letter* of Charles Darwin." t>. Xf
pie ton & Co., New York. Two volumes. Prte*
The discussion concerning the power of
nature to "select" raised, of course. th»
older problem of the extent to which ln
telligtnt "design" is evident in nature.
On that point Darwin wrote to Hooker:
"Your conclusion . that all speculation
about preordination is idle waste of .time,
is the only wise one; but how difflcuTE it
is not to speculate. My theology is a
simple muddle; I cannot look at the uni
verse as a result of blind chance, yet I
can see no evidence of beneficent design,
or Indeed of design of any kind In the
details. As for each variation bavin*
been preordained for a special end, I can
no more believe In It than that the spot
on which each raindrop falls has been
To any one interested In the develop
ment of science, every letter in the two
volumes has something of instruction.
Even casual readers will find a fund of
entertainment In the familiar interchange
of thought among men of such eminence
and no one will have occasion to grudgs
the time spent in reading what was writ
ten either by Darwin or by his friend*..
beast was so large it could not enter the
door of the ark, and yet such an expla
nation was actually put forth by a mas
of eminence as a means of combating
what was called "T>arwinlsm." In Dar
win's own family the doctrine of the sur
vival of the fittest was soon familiar even
to the children. A story is told of one of
them saying' to his father: "If every one
would kill adders they would come to
sting less." Darwin replied :. "Of course
they would, for there would be fewer."
The child re-plied Indignantly: "I do not
mean that: but the timid adders which
would run away would be saved, and in
time they would never sting at all."
Darwin's use of the . phrase, "natural
selection." gave rise to a good ' deal of
confusion and put the supporters of his
doctrine at a disadvantage In the con
troversy with their opponents.' and Wal
lace wrote urging him to adopt the term
of Herbert Spencer, "the survival of the
fittest." In advocating the change Wal
lace wrote: "This term Is a plain ex
pression of the fact. 'Natural selection'
is a metaphorical expression of it. and
to a certain degree indirect ' and > incor
rect, since, even personifying nature, she
does not so much select special variations
as exterminate the most unfavorabls
ones." In reply Darwin stated that had
he received Wallace's argument on th«
point earlier he would have mads use of
Spencer's phrase, but the revised edition
of his book was then ready for publi
cation and it was too late to alter it. Ha
then went on to say: "As in time tha
term must grow intelligible, the objec
tions to its use will become weaker and
CARNEGIE'S gift of $1,500,000 for the erection of a courthouse and library, a temple of
peace, as a permanent home of the Hague High Court of Arbitration, will doubtless have
the effect of giving the court a permanent existence as an international institution. There is
a certain force in property that tends to conservatism. Mankind does not" willingly
.let anything die that has a stately and enduring hefrne. A noble building impresses the imagination
and the memory. Residents of the locality take a pride in it. Visitors delight to inspect it and to
talk of it when they return to their homes. . ]n that way the building adds to the fame and dignity
of the organization that maintains it. and so tends to increase at once its prestige and its vitality.
It is a foregone conclusion that when once the Temple- of Peace is completed it will be one of
the most noted show places in Europe. The possession of a famous home will moreover incline the
members of the Hague Court to hold assemblies more frequently Jhan they would otherwise do, and
accordingly the court will be more prominently before the public and exert a more constant and a
Called into existence by a Czar representing the mightiest of the surviving despotisms of the
earth, and gifted with a magnificent palace home by the generosity of a man who represents the
democracy of American labor, opportunity and law, the High Court will go down to future genera
tions as fairly representative of the age that created it and of the forces now in operation. America
and Russia stand as its sponsors. Despotism and democracy have united to uphold it. A vast field of
work lies before it, and it is not impossible it may grow to be an institution of first-class power in the
world of the future.
>Vj*& By the forces of steam and electricity the nations of the earth have been drawn so closely to
gether and their relations' Jiave been so interwoven in a common warp and woof that to-day the
affairs of far-off Manchuria in the wilds of Northeastern Asia are matters of public and popular con
cern to both Europe and America. So also the industrial and commercial conquest of South America
and of. Africa is bringing far separated nations into alliances 'or agreements for joint action. These
problems of international relations will increase in frequency as the commercial conquest goes on.
The higher interests of humanity will not admit of their settlement by war, for that would mean the
beginning of an era of conflict that would not terminate until the globe had been brought under the
virtuaf*dominatioii of a single power. By one means or another. solution for most' of the conflicting
interests of. the nations will have to be arranged by negotiation, and in that work the Hague Court,
if properly directed, will have an ever increasing authority and power.
It is therefore probable that the Temple of Peace will become something like- an international
capital — a building in which all the world will have an interest. Great questions will be debated
"within its walls and mighty issues settled by the judgment of the best statesmanship of the time. Mr.
Carnegie then has bestowed wisely this gift out of his vast fortune, for it has larger opportunities
for growth and usefulness than any other institution he has yet endowed.
THE TEMPLE OF PEACE.
FRONTISPIECE OF NEW VOL
UME, "MORE LETTERS OF
Perhaps the roost remarkable bridges
in the world are the kettle bridges In
Russia and Siberia, of which Cossack sol
diers are expert builders. They are built
up of the soldiers' lances and cooklmr
kettles. Seven or eight lances are placed
under the handles of a number of ket
tles and fastened by means of ropes to
form a raft. Each of- these rafts 'will
bear the weight of half a ton.— Exchange.
Townsend's CaL .glace fruits, 715 ¦ Mrkt*
•Townsend's California glace fruit and
candies. 60c a pound, in artistic fire-etched
boxes. A nice present for Eastern friend*
Moved from Palace Hotel building to 715
Market St.; two doors above Call building.*
Special Information supplied daily to
business houses - and ! public men by •" the
Press Clipping Bureau (Allen's), 230 Cali
fornia street. Telephone Main 1012. *
Strangest Bridges in the* World.
What is this wonderful substance called
radium that science is talking so much
about? "We only know it, as we know all
other matter, by its manifestations.
According to its discoverer and Sir Wil
liam Crookes, it is a substance which ra
diates heat indefinitely. But it is so val
uable that a ton of it would pay the whole
national debt of Great Britain.
A bit as big as a grain of sand sends out
rays enough to blister the skin. '
Radium is supposed in some mysterious
way to govern the motions of the uni
It has been isolated in minute quantles
with the most wonderful results. It is
the latest scientific puzzle.
But it is found in such small quantities
that it cannot be cornered for profit It
will never- be quoted in the Stock Ex
change. Let us be thankful.-Boston
What Radium Is.
Another extraordinary property of ra
dium is to throw off rays rot only of heat,
but of light like those of the "glowworm
or firefly. Indeed, the light rays of ra
dium are so powerful that It has been sug
gested by French . scientists that in this
rnyeteriouB metal may some day.be found
a means of lighting cities without loss of
energy or waste of force. The ray« of
It alto emits ray* that have the quali
ties of the X-ray and of cathodlc rays,
and is as active in vacuum as in the open
air. Its rays are analagous to those of
thorium and uranium, but incomparably
more intense. Its rays penetrate through
certain opaque bod<es, and act on sensi
tive filmg inclosed "*ln wooden boxes to
take impressions of metallic objects inter
posed as in case of the Roentgen rays.
The radiations from radium also react
chemically and physically on certain oth
er bodies, changing oxygen into ozon», for
instance, and the colors of glass or por
celain to dark violet or brown.
They found, further, -that radium main
tains its own temperature at a point 1.5
degrees centigrade above its surround
4nge, which is equivalent to saying that
the actual quantity of luat evolved is
such that the pure radium salt will melt
more than its own weight of Ice every
hour, and helf'a pound of radium will
evolve in one hour heat equal to that pro
duced by burning one-third of a cubic
foot of hydrogen gas. Yet despite this
constant activity the salt remains at the
end of months just as potent as ever.
The newly discovered metal, radium,
continues to be the subject of interesting
study and experiment on the part of both
chemists and physicists. Professor Curie
and Mme. Curie, the discoverer. In a late
communication to the French Academy
«if Sciences, stated that radium possesses
the extraordinary property of continuous
ly emitting heat without any chemical
charge of any kind, and without any
change in Its molecular structure, which
remains spectrcscoplcally identical afier
This multiple image, with the magnified
imaEC of a portion of the beetle's eye
usfd in making it. is given with his arti
cle, also full directions for taking the
picture and developing the plates.
The picture of the apparatus used in
making the above experiments is given
When first removed the crystalline tens
of a bullock's eye is a beautiful, clear
double convex lens about three-quarters
of an inch in diameter. It is soft end
delicate and must be handled with great
care to prevent its being injured. The
method of handling, mounting and using
the lene in photographic work is fully set
forth in the article. Stress Is laid on the
fact that the lens must be kept moistened,
as the cornea of the living eye is kept
moistened by the eyelid, and that the
aymous humor of the eye was found Ltst
suited for that purpose.
The cornea^ lenses of an insect's eye,
being very minute, were found quite diffi
cult to use in photography, but neverthe
less Professor Watson succeeded in get
ting some very clear and remarkable re
sUts therewith. The eyes of a single
btetle of some species have as many as
21.000 lenses, and each lens produces a
separate image of the object, making
therefore as many images as there are
lenses. Mr. Watson took a very small
w,iCtJon of a beetle's eye and mounting it
q-& his instrument as he describes got a
multiple image reproduction of a man's
head of over one hundred figures. •".
UNDER the UUe "Photographic Ex
periments With Nature's Lenees"
a recent Scientific American has
a very interesting article describing the
methods pursued in making photographs
with the crystalline lenses of bullocks'
and beetles' eyes, together with a number
of illustrations, some of which are here
The eyes of animals possess various dc
i-ices for the refraction of light and the
'ormation of images on the retina, the
rrystalline lens and the cornea appearing
to be the most important of these.
With the crystalline lens from a bul
lock's eye mounted in a pasteboard pill
box pierced with holes top and bottom
to serve as diaphragms Mr. Watson macic
a number of photographs which would
pass n-lth credit for the work of a good
K'.ass lens. Two of these pictures are
here reproduced, one of a wasp and the
other of a flea.
"Physicists do not doubt that the phe
nomenon observed by the Curies, ha3 a
cause and the investigation of that cause
is regarded as being full of promise for
Two German physicists. Runge and
Precht. have been studying the relations
of radium to the other elements with a
view to determining to what chemical
group i» belongs and what is its position
h. the so-called "periodic system," into
which all the elements have been ar
They have already found that the most
intense lines of the spark spectrum of ra
dium are exactly analogous to the strong
est lines of barium and to the correspond
ing lines of its congeners, magnesium,
calcium and strontium. The atomic
weight of radium is now given at 257.8, a
much greater value than that assigned by
its discoverer, Mme. Curie.
radium dash and explode like minute ar
tillery projectiles upon sensitive surfaces,
and their phosphorescent properties are
astounding. The most puzzling property
of radium is that, as far as has yet been
ascertained, its properties of emitting
heat and light are inexhaustible. The
great mystery is how and where the am
bient forces needed to produce heat and
light are absorbed by radium. According
to the laws of the conservation and cor
relation of forces, heat, light and motion
are convertible, and neither Professor nor
Mme. Curie, nor Sir William Crookes, nor
any of the scientists of France, England
or Germany who have followed in Profes
sor Curie's footsteps, has yet been able
to prove that the incessant continuity in
the emission of rays of light and heat
from radium causes any exhaustion,- ex
penditure or diminution of the properties
so mysteriously stored in apparently in
finite quantities in this extraordinary,
Radium, moreover, has startling effects
upon the nervous centers of human be
ings ar.d living: animals. A glass tubo
containing one or two milligrams of radi
um when carried in the walstcoa't pocket
causes a painful wound in the flesh that
win require six months to heal. A glass
tube containing a few milligrams of ra
dium when Introduced beneath the skin
of a moufe near the vertebral column
produced death by paralysis in three
hours. Tubes of radium placed in contact
with the back of the necks of guinea pigs
kill or paralyze the animals in a few
hours, according to the length of expo
bure to its fatal radiations. M. Curie
snys that death to man would ' probably
ensue upon entering a room containing a
pcund of radium. Radium is, indeed, an
unknown quantity. Each week brings to
light startling additions to its mysterious
properties, which, as far as is yet known,
emanate and originate in itself.
"The world is thus made acquainted,"
says the report alluded to above, "with
a heat sufficient to raise the mercury in
a thermometer 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit, the
output of which is maintained Indefinite
ly without any visible compensation to the
heat giving substance.
PUBLIC lnterset in the services ren'
dered to science by Charles Dar
win is attested by the fact that,
notwithstanding "the publication of his
"Life and Letters" in 1SS7, it has been
found advisable to publish two additional
volumes of biographical matter under the
title, "More Letters of Charles Darwin."
The new compilation is hardly less in
teresting than the former, for the letters
cover the whole period of. the long con
troversy over the doctrine of evolution,
ar.d Include parts of correspondence with
such men as Sir Joseph Hooker, Sir
Charles Lyell, Asa Gray, Fritz Muller.
John Morley, T. H. Huxley, the Duke of
Argyle, Francis Galton, Herbert Spencer
and Alfred Rus3ell Wallace. A consider
able number of letters, from those gen
tlemen to Darwin are also included in the
volumes, so that the work is a valuable
contribution not o the life of Darwin
only, but to a critical period of the his
tory of science from. 1S40 to 1SS2.
Perhaps the most interesting feature of
the book is a short sketch by Darwin of
his childhood. It was written in 183S and
was evidently designed as a record of his
early development, intended not for pub
lication, but for the reading of some fa
miliar friend, for the references to vari
ous persons are made without explana
tion, evidently upon the assumption that
the reader would know them well enougli.
In the course of the paper, which was
nev<er revised by the- author and is but "a
hasty sketch, Darwin shows that he
studied his early development with as
much scientific interest as any other sub
ject that engaged his attention.
He notes in the first place that his
earliest recollection is of an incident that
happened when he was 4 years old. Sit
ting one day on 'the lap of his sister,
who was cutting an orange, he was
startled by a cow going past the window,
which made him jump suddenly, so that
he received a bad cut, the scar of which
remained all his life. Of the scene Dar
win says: "I recollect the place where I
sat and the cause of the fright, but not
the cut itself. My memory here is an ob
scure; picture, in which from not recol
lecting any pain, I am scarcely conscious
of its reference to myself."
• Another incident of his early childhood
shows that even in comparative infancy
his powers of observation had begun to
develop, for after recalling that he re
members going once to a shop in which
a man gave him a fig, that to his delight .
turned out to be two figs, he adds: "This
fig was given me that the man might
kiss the maid servant." A recollection of
that kind shows that grown people
should be careful of young scientists, for
there is no telling how far they observe
facts and how capable they are of de
ducing conclusions from them.
From the time he was 8 years old his
recollections cease to be'obscure pictures
and become quite clear. Of that period
of his life he says:
" "I remember how much afraid I was
of meeting the dogs in Barker street and
how at school I could not get up my cour
age to fight. I was very timid by nature.
I remember I took great delight in fish
ing for newts in the quarry* pool. I had
thus young formed a strong taste for cel
lecting seals, franks, pebbles and miner
als. I believe shortly after ¦ this I had
smattered in botany, and certainly when
at Mr. Case's school I was very fond of
gardening and invented some great false
hoods about being 'able to color crocuses
as I liked. It was soon after I had begun
collecting stones, that Is when 9< or 10,
that I distinctly recollect the desire I had
of being able to know something about
every pebble in front of the hall door. It
-was my earliest and only geological as
piration at that time. I was in those days
a very great story teller for the pure
pleasure of exciting attention and sur
prise. I scarcely ever went out walking
without saying "I had seen a pheasant or
some strange, bird. I recollect Inventing
a whole fabric to show how fond I was
of speaking the truth. I do not remem
oer any mental pursuits , excepting thosa
of collecting stones and: gardening; and
about this time often going with my fath
er in his carriage, telling him of my les
sons ' and seeing game and other wild
birds, which "was a great delight to me.
I was a born naturalist."
: Such' was the childhood of the great dls
cevcrer of * the methods by which the
processes of evolution are carried on. It
is to be regretted that the sketch is v*
brief. A scientific study of the lntellec
tuar development of Darwin written by
himself it-is evident' would have been a
masterpiece. The frankness and sincer
ity with which this fragment is written
ls~a convincing proof that a complete au
tobiography would have been a genuine,
human document of the first importance,
both'to science andXto literature.
The letters relating. to the controversy
over the theory of : evolution will appear
to readers of our time .as something like
emanations from the days of troglodytes.
It will ; be with something of amazement
that readers will learn that the opponents
o£ evolution went so far as to explain the
extinction of the mastodon by saying the
THE idea that work is a curse, put upon man for the Edenic transgression, and uttered in the
phrase: "Cursed is. the ground for thy sake; in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread,"
surely does not apply to modern man. Work is the blessing that produces all blessings. In
work is health, and in health is happiness. Wealth is an incident, and "by itself is not the
<:ause of happiness. In its pursuit often health and happiness are sacrificed, and are lamented when
they* are gone beyond recovery. In work is length of days, the opportunity to apply experience and to
teach the true philosophy of life to those who are to follow. "The world, owes me a living," is the
vicious motto of laziness and unthrift. The world owes man only what he earns, by his hands, his
head or his genius.
President Roosevelt is the American apostle of work. His own life is an example of- work,
that all of his countrymen may well follow. In this he is not singular, for he shares his vigor of
thought and action with a vast majority of his countrymen. But it is well that a citizen in his sta
tion should frequently emphasize the gospel of 'work, "in his address to the Y. M. C. A. at Kansas
City he did this in plain and impressive fashion. He said : "Nothing can be done with a man who
will not work. We have in our scheme of government nq_room~for the man who does not .wish to
pay his way through life by what he does. A rich man is bound to work in some way that will make
the community better for his existence.- Capacity for work is absolutely. necessary, and no man can
be said to. live in the true sense of the word if he do not work." , * ;
That may be studied with profit by the social philosophers who continually present work as
a curse, which men should escape by some plan that will divert all of their time and energy to what
that school calls "improvement of the mind."
The best results of thought have come from physical work and not from physical idleness.
Work is the means and the beginning of all reform of the vicious. In penology it is hopeless to lead
men back to virtue except by honest work, which would have kept them virtuous. The prison statis
tics of all nations show that a very great majority of convicts had in freedom learned no calling
that would yield them an honest living. They acquired no skill with head or- hands to .earn their
bread, and naturally sought to get it by dishonestly preying upon the labor of pothers. But few skilled
mechanics are guilty of crimes against property or person. The idle are the recruits of the ranks' of
crime. True, there are those who see in the idleness of men the elysium of the race, but such a con
dition would be intolerable to a majority of men, and, immersed in it, the race would rapidly dete
riorate and fall from the high estate to which it has been lifted by work.
The President is correct in his inclusion of the rich' in the general obligation of all to work.
There is no more vicious example than that which is set by the idle rich. They are a class who, as a
rule, have inherited the accumulations of the honest toil and enterprise of their ancestors who were
workers, and they use it like drones in the human hive. Instead of being active stewards of their in
heritance, and using it so that it may supply work to others, and in its administration make work
for themselves; they make it pander to their selfish indulgence and set an example of idleness which
makes them the teachers of evil to their fellow-men. What people are who do not feel the spur of
necessity to work may be seen in the tropics, where nature does not impel to toil, and where even the
hardiest races soon degenerate, lose their arts and theii; energy and cease to be an influence in the on
ward movement of the world.
Without^ work there is no true leisure, no grateful rest, no satisfying sleep. Those who dream
of life as one long holiday dream of it deprived of its zest and its pleasure. Rest is the reward of
toil, and otherwise has no- significance and no satisfaction.
When the President is extolling the pioneers who won the West he is preaching the gospel
of labor, for the virtue of the pioneer was that he must earn before he could eat or be slieltered. Let
the idea be enforced that each generation is made up of the pioneers of life. No matter, under what
conditions, they begin as the frontiersmen of their career. For them the ground is not cursed but
blessed, and the bread thev eat, earned in the sweat of their faces, is the real bread of life.
THE GOSPEL OF WORK.
COVER LONG YEARS OF
THE SAN FRANCrSCO CALL
JOHN D.SPRECKELS. Proprietor. >¦:¦ / ; Address Communications to W. S, LEAKE. Managefj
SUNDAY ...7; ;........ . . • . • • • • ..........MAY 3. I9Q3
Publication Office.. . ...................... ... .'. ... <t£f|f|!iS|j» ....... .... ...••.• • .Third and Market Streets, S. F.
THE SAKTBANOISCb CALL, SUNDAY, MAT 3, 1903.
WITH LENS FROM EYE
IN OTA/ RE/\DY.
. . THE - -
BY HARRIET BARTNETT.
An exceptional novel by a new
writer, wtio tells a love story in-
teresting from the first to the last
Frontispiece in photogravure.
I2mo.. Cloth $1.25.
GODFREY A.' S. WIENERS.
At the Sign of the Lark, New York.
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