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THE SUNDAY, CALTj.
STRIKING FACTS ABOUT STRIKING THINGS BJMUUAMg>.g!giK>J| HE following com | 2BEE2£&i£3 parlson only attempts i< £? SUi *° eal w ' tn wages In b V^j S^3 *^e or^inary accept- B jOH? a.nce of the term — the r» r?^ "W^i money received In pl^^r?^^ payment for labor. It is, however, evident. that to examine thoroughly the rewards of labor In different countries and to compare them, many other factors. such as cost of living, would, call for consideration. For, as Adam Smith says ("Wealth of Nations," Bk. I., Chap. V.) "the real wa?es of labor may be said to consist of the auantlty of the necessaries and conveniences of life that are given for It; its nominal wages In the quantity of money. The laborer Is rich or poor, is well or ill rewarded. In proportion to real, not the nominal, wages of his labor." A comparison of "real" wages would be an extremely difllcult. if not an impossible task The best practicable substitute consists of an account of money wages, with the reservation that the "real" wages may be, either greater or less than the "money" wages— greater where the cost of living is low. less where this is high. • Even with reference to money wages it is impossible to give as exact a comparison, when dealing with large classes In different countries, as v. hen dealing with smaller classes or with individuals in the same country I sha endeavor to present a fairly correct picture of the conditions which prevail by first giving an estimate of the general average of wages in the three countries in -whirh the conditions are most Interesting, viz.: America. Kng land and Germany, and then by giving in more detail particulars of wages In tucclal branches of Industry in several countries. Let us take America first. An offlclal estimate (the Wage -Census) gives J4S4 per year (3Ss 9d per week) as the general average of wages for the' whole of the States. In the slave States, where the competition of cheap black la bor is felt, the average runs from $211. to $395 per year (16s lid to 31s 6d per week) In "the States around New York the general average is $493 per year (29s 6d per week). I have made an estimate from the returns relating to 255 000 workers in the State of Massachusetts (published by the Massachu setts Bureau of Statistics of Labor) and obtain an average of 42s 6d per week, or a little more than the average above given. I do not know of any offlcfal general average for this country, but Charles Booth gives particulars of the wages of 75.000 workers in various trades in- London, and their average is approximately 31s 9d per week. In Germany particulars are recorded as to the wages of 10,000 employes In various trades in Baden, and here the average is iss <a per wmk. tsroaq averages such as these are, of course, liable to. certain errors, but probably they are sufficiently accurate to give a fairly correct Impression of the gen eral level of money wages fn the three countries. . The employes have been. divided Into classes according to the amount of their wages, those receiving under 20s per week forming one class, from 20s to 25s the next class, and so on. The vertical height of each column repre sents the number in each class out of a hundred work people. In England it will be observed there Is a very large group in the classes ranging from 20s to 35s per week, and the numbers fall off rapidly above and below these limits. Almost half the workers are In the two classes which earn from 23s to 35s per week. In America there is much more variety in the Incidence of wapes, and the population Is much more evenly divided among the various classes. It is Interesting to note that the proportion earning less than 2Qa a week Is near ly twice as large as It is In this country. At the other extreme the figures are more favorable to America; as ths number of people there v who earn more than 45s per week is five times as great as It is here. The diagram does not throw a very favorable light on the ; state of wages in Germany. More, than half the wage earners appear to receive less than 20s a week,, while the number of those receiving more than 30s a week Is only 7 per cent., and, does not admit easily of a further division Into classes. Indeed, in, order to get a complete picture of German wages It Is necessary to subdivide further the group of wage earners receiving less that 20s *a week. When' this Is done it is found that 12 per cent receive less that 12s a week, 14 per cent receive from 12s to 15s a week and 20 per, cent receive from 15s to 18sja week. The mos't Important industry in every country is agriculture and on the whole it is one of the worst paid. The following figures give an idea of the rate of. pay given to agricultural laborers in various parts of the world. In England the general average of wages of ordinary agricultural labor ers is 17s a week .without* board. There are considerable variation* In dif ferent parts of the co'untry; the rate being highest as a rule In the neigh borhood of coal mines and, In other industrial centers. The highest rate ia found in Durham and Is 20s 9d a week; the lowest. In Suffolk, is 14s 5d. In America the general average is 17s lid a weekend the rate varies from £1 IOs 2d in Washington to 12s in South Carolina. The lowest rate of ag ricultural wages in the States is thus lower than the lowest In this coun- On the Continent the wages of agricultural laborers are much lower than the rates given above. For instance. In France the average Is 12s a week, Dr .mark 9s to 10s, Belgium 9s Gd and in Hungary only 6s 3d. On the other hand, in the colonies the average rates are higher than' either In .this coun try or in the States. For instance, In Canada the general average Is 21s, ivhiia thin is pvwpripri \n Manitoba and British Columbia. In the older col- onles of Australia the average runs from _10s to 20s a week with board, and In Western Australia reaches 60s a week, but this does not include board. The mining industries show very considerable variations. In coal mines the following are average wages: - s. d. s. d. Austria ..... 10 0 to 14 0 per week Belgium .... 15 fi to 21 0 per week France 16 8 to 25 0 per week Prussia 18 6 to 24 0 per week In each of these cases the lower fig ure refers to the wages of "putters" and "trammers," while the higher one refera-to those actually working at v .;• T?neland the cutting the coal. In Belgium the miner., day is W hour.. In England the general average rate of wages in coal and Iron mines Is Ms M per *eeK. . but of course there are wide variations above and below this «*"«• The metal trades produce .high rates of wages in America and to a less fra y de. and theWng wage, are obtained Si :•:•••••• "* >™ SB5SE ¦SSSce :::::::::::...... 2y<d P ernour. ™ per hour. I rermany per hour. S%d per hour. Germany jw 15Hd por nour , England"""" V.V.'.V.V.'.V. . . . . >• 8Vid per hour. 8V4d per ho % ur. S^mewhaSlmuiV rates are found in the bolldin* trades: F° r *" m »£ bricklayers' wages are as follows: Belgium. 3d per , hou ;: u . D « nm 2^ E Jl: ¦ i?uld be necessary to flnd out the cost of living in ™*™£Z™£ ,£ tlmate the surplus left out of the wa^es when the ordinary expenses of life had beet, provided for. This It is impoiilble to do with any degree of accu racy, and we have to be content with the generally accepted conclusion that in the United States the cost of living Is considerably h»*her than In •England, especially ns it affects clothing, coal and rent, while in- continental countries it is probably not much lower. State Library at Sacramento. Legislation was soon procured which gave the trustees ample authority; not onlyto send out traveling libraries, but also conferred the long-desired right to make the library otherwise helpful to the State. 0:;^'' "•/.• ¦.¦*.'¦_ The State Library, established in 1850. has by the generous appropria tions made for its increase become one _of the largest and best selected State libraries In the Unlted^States; in fact, It Is surpassed. only by the State Library of New York. :'But*during. the half century; of Its existence Us functions have been, limitedfsolely to those, of a reference library, save that a few State officials could borrow books for y : short periods. The time was ripe for a change.^^ when the great; storehouse" of '120,000 volumes of his-, tory, art, literature and law— -and; all other departments of knowledge should become beneficial, to : Its owners— the people of California.. The, first liberal measure of recent adoption to be described Is that of ' individual loans outside of Sacramento.. Responsible Individuals and all approved In stitutions throughout the State may now borrow— perferably through their local library or the/school authorities— any volume which In the Judgment of the State Librarian can be spared, or which Is not of such rarity a» to forbid loaning. 'Such books may be borrowed for two weeks, subject ordi narily to renewal for the same length of time.- The sole conditions are good care of the' books and payment of all express charges. Special stress Is laid by the State Library upon the value of this work, and no paina will be'spared to accommodate all applicants, regardless of their, location., in the State., Teachers and women's clubs will find this boon to t>#'of the highest vaiue in thalr studies. ... •— ;' ' ? * * No two" States have exactly the same educational problems. Hence, be fore undertaking the dispatch of traveling libraries, the State library trustees determined to send State Librarian James L. Glllls on an exten sive tour of investigation and comparison of the traveling library systems in the East, bo that the best features of their work might be Incorporated. If desirable, in our own. During his month's absence Mr. Gillis visited many State and public' libraries, was' everywhere received with special courtesy, had every facility for -Information opened to him. with promise of subsequent co-operation.* His report to the trustees indicates that he was profoundly Impressed with the value of the work as a 'whole and hear tily believes in Its widespread adoption In California. TtteHrustees Immediately voted to send out fifty traveling 'libraries of fifty volumes each as early as possible and they are now in process of preparation. These 2500 selected volumes' have been purchased in the East and will form the basis of a duplicate department of the State library, for It has never been contemplated— as has been erroneously supposed— to de plete the existing collections on the shelves by large drafts on them for traveling library purposes. The rules governing the issue of traveling libraries are very simple. They will be loaned to any community now without a public library. Five resident taxpayers must organize as a local library association and must pay *3 In advance for transportation of the library both ways. Other details may be learned by correspondence addressed to the traveling li brary department of the State library. % • - • -V.* ji Inevltabiy 1 the question arises, will this library extension work be a success? , Before seeking an answer, let us look fit some of the prevailing conditions. It would seem as if It were supremely appropriate that the traveling library should have a permanent home among us because of the peculiar topography of the State. The vast areas and the great mountain ranges of California ordain the . existence of hundreds of scattered hamlets and villages that will never be able to support a local library. For that very reason the State should reach out its helping hand and say to the boy and girl, the lonely housekeeper and the telling man. "You shall not, be cause of your Isolation, be deprived of the mental life and power which comes through the reading of good books; It Is your birthright." Such read- Ing is part of the education which every State in. this age of the world should give to those of its youth and adults who desire it. No argument is needed that without such knowledge there cannot be realized the Indis pensable qualification of a democracy— the best citizenship. In further seeking a solution of our question we cannot be unmindful of the far-reaching results that may flow from this work. It is not merely a proposition of a few hundred libraries circulating throughout the State, but rather, what ia to be their effect?— to what will they lead? Said Oliver Wendell Holmes, when asked at what time a child's educa tion should begin: "A hundred years before he Is born." To -our query then we may briefly reply, that, like other worthy enter prises, the results will largely depend on the management. Rarely does there come to any body of men an opportunity to do finer work for a great State than is now presented to the trustees of the State Library. A new educational field is to be occupied— fortunately with the use of ample means— yet there, is another imporant factor to be secured. This Is noth ing less than the' good will and co-operation of the people. No measure for the uplifting and enlightenment of the masses ever succeeds if It falls to command that element divine— human sympathy. From the known strong interest of the State Library Trustees, the deep concern of Governor Pardee In all educational matters and the well founded belief that our leading educators will counsel and assist, there is no room to doubt that the future of library Interests in California Is as sured. As time rolls on, to all race lovers comes more and more the con sciousness'that . "The education of the people Is the real underlying work for earnest men who would best serve their country." • . ¦ . ¦ 2 jc educational measure Is now In view which demands the ]^^s-fc-^sr| sympathy and widespread attention of the people of Caii- £» fornia. It Is a part of a movement which has for its ob j*»j&//^ra<«*|) J >(1 lh<? helping of every person, young or old, to broader </*/^-^Vc^B views of life, to a wider outlook on the world, to a culti ; Ti'W^| vation of the best lhat is in them. These alms are to be T/d^"-Jifc~^. \ accomplished, first, by a general use of traveling libraries; JjXjtliauLaqggBg second, by an extension of public libraries to every place which Is able to support one. . :- '* \ The traveling library is easily described. It is simply a little collection of books of varied selections— usually of fifty volumes— sent from a center to places more or less remote. Its object, like that of the public library, Is th« recreation and Instruction of the people. The most noticeable feature js seen In the fact that the book is brought to the individual. Instead of com pelling him to go weary distances to the library. It Is free to all, excepting transportation charges. f'Jr'-- The ready response to the widespread use of the traveling library In all parts of our country reveals the longing of the common people for quickened Intelligence and broader knowledge. They have long waited for such a help and now cheapness of printing and transportation and rapid communication combine to make the wish a reality. California is distinguished among her sister States for zealous educational efforts which have given her schools and universities exceptional rank. What then has been done In traveling library work? With the exception of several scores of libraries sent out by women's clubs, which have done valuable pioneer work, nothing has been accom plished. Organized womanhood stands for the best in this, as In all other uplifting plans for the State. The States of New York, Michigan, Ohio. Wisconsin, Iowa and others have for many years past found this labor, conducted by the various library :ommiEslons, to be of the most productive they have undertaken; in fact, it s Impossible to estimate the educational value of the missionary purpose tvhlch these Itinerant libraries have performed. They have been sent to min ing and forest camps, to distant hamlets and towns shut away from close touch with the world, to little villages whose local libraries are struggling to live, to granges, schools, societies without number and women's clubs, every where carrying the refining and elevating influences which are the message of good literature. Surely It was with prophetic vision that Horace Mann, the distin guished educator of Massachusetts, forty years ago exclaimed, "Had I the power I would scatter libraries over the whole land, as a sower sows hla wheat field." The charge of indifference to this great popular movement can no longer be made against California, for preliminary steps have been officially taken to a wide and general use of traveling libraries. The Initiative was .effected a year ago by the California Library Association, which after due discussion succeeded in obtaining the Interest and. co-operation of the trustees of the ¦¦¦!¦¦! ii n HOUGH we sometimes speak of the great importance and t '" ir " W * T ", pi the wondrous power of sympathy, too few realize how In- I IS conceivably potent Is its function In the formation^of hu oVr JRevS man cnaracter - Especially powerful Is its influence over SyVcg the tender feelings of a child. In his joys and sorrows v^** ;Fcm a every child wishes some one to share. At every turn he w ¦¦n-jui.TWTTTTT-a needs, and should have, the tenderest sympathy of the lov ing parent. Too often he receives no sympathy where he has a right to expect It. The child who has injured himself is made no better by being told, "It serves you right; be more careful next time." "I told you you would hurt yourself." Such a statement will tend to Btir up all that # ls worst in any child, but especially in the child of some temperaments. ', Parents must ever remember, and never forget, then, that sympathy Is the strongest bond of union between human hearts. It is not -possible for - any heart to shut Itself against it. When all else has failed it will prove to, be the most powerful factor In reclaiming the lost. Indeed, it seems almost Impossible to exaggerate the strength of the influence which it exerts in forming character and in regulating the habits of all. If a child feels that you sympathize with him he will imitate you, and you can .mold him almost at will. As children grow older their habits become firmly fixed, and determine character. That which is once fixed in a child's mind . through loving sympathy will scarcely ever be removed, even by the moat skillful argu ment. Each one of us can trace most changes in ourselves to the Influence of some one whom we loved, 'because of the sympathy which was shown us. It may have been silent sympathy. It may have* been almost or en tirely unconscious. It was none the less powerful. The child who loves the parent and feels that he possesses the parent's sympathy needs but little admonition or criticism. When he perceives what the parent wishes the, bond of sympathy tends to firmly establish the desired principles. Be assured that In no way can any parent gain such power over a child for the purpose of shaping his character as by manifesting warm sympathy with the .child. Next to a lack of loving kindness there Is no more potent cause of unhapplness to children than a lack of sympathy In those from whom they have a right to expect It. Almost every person has wondered at the peculiar, potfer and action of sympathy. One child starts to cry, and nearly all the young children present will do the same, as if they had been Injured also. The actress feigns great grief, and two-thirds of the audience Join with her In' shedding tears. Or one or two start to laugh, and, In a short time it will spread to the whole company, though none may be able to tell why they are laughing. Some one sneezes or yawns and many others do the same. \,A Joke which Is scarcely, understood by a single heare r will set a whole audience- into sympathetic laughter. , It would thus seem, that there Is some mysterious. Inexplicable power In sympathy. By this power the mental or physical conditions of one may be communicated to others, Increasing in intensity as It passes from one to another. Since this is so, need we wonder that that sympathy, prompted by. holiest, love, should have such an all-powerful effect upon children, who are bo "delicately deeply sensitive, to every influence? . Some may assert that there is no difference between sympathy and love. If this is the caBe,; then, having considered the power of love and kind ness, we are not Justified In spending even a few minutes In the/con sideration of sympathy. But are they the same? Love may. be" upon one side alone, and therefore . unappreciated and without any power of affect ing the object loved. It is not so with sympathy. Sympathy Is two-fold. It starts as a response to an express need. It is an answer to a call for it, whether • expressed in words or ; not. It is therefore certain of grateful recognition, even where love Is neither felt nor welcome. v As .before - stated, next' to love, there Is nothing a child needs so much as sympathy. It is : much easier for a parent to love a child than to give the child the'sympathy which. It should have. ' Parental ! love is natural. It may not be unnatural, but It is. comparatively 'seldom r. that a parent is found who, shows. great sympathy with his child In both work and play. When such. a) parent is noticed it is considered worthy of remark, if not re markable. UThiB may Beema; strong statement, but It is believed that it will bear the test, of Investigation.' ' Let the reader ask himself the questions: "How many playthings have I taken home to my child? Of these, how many have I taken time to enjoy with the child in play? How many books have I purchased for him? How many of them have I enjoyed with him or even made Inquiry concern- Ing? Of the things lost how many have I simply replaced? Concerning the lost how many have I really sympathized with the dear child in his then great sorrow?" Truthful answers to such questions as the above will give a parent some idea as to .whether or not he is showing that sympathy to which every child is entitled. SflSpl v To sympathize. with a child you must be able to put yourself in the child's place and feel as a child. You must forget that you ara not a child. any. longer. By being a child again 'for a few minutes you will not only make the child love and adore you, but you will again renew your youth and be the better and the stronger because of it- Let it be acknowledged, then' that the most effective way of securing that confidence and love of children which make their management easy- Is by sympathizing with them in their hopes, in their fears, in their sorrows, in their plays and in their work. Certain It Is that the parent who does not sometimes descend into the world in which the child lives as a sharer of its fears and sorrows and not as « faultfinder or even as a counselor cannot have the fullest power over the child. NlneAlmes out of ten— yes, ninety-nine times out of & hundred— the child does not mean to do wrong. The right kind of sympathy will have a more powerful effect at this time than at any other, for the heart is es pecially open to Buch influences when bowed down by grief. Why should not the loving parent sympathize with the weakness which has resulted in some folly? - ; Then is the time a child is most happy to turn for advice and, comfort to some one stronger than he. God for give the parent who could turn an unsympathetic ear to a penitent child's cry. Foolish is the parent, and not often truthful, who tells the child he does not understand how he can be so bad'. Hard-hearted he who can turn such a child away without the sympathy to which he is entitled. If he does this he need not be surprised if, at the same time, he builds between himself and his child a barrier which will probably never be removed. REMARKABLE, DEVELOPMENTS OF TRAVELING LIBRARIES IN CALIFORNIA By William P. Kimball SYMPATHY BETWEEN PARENT AND CHILD—-- ELEVENTH TALK BY W.J. Shearer 12