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COMPLETION OF SIMPLON TUNNEL UNDER THE ALPS ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREATEST ENGINEERING FEATS Bore Over One Mile Below Summit of Peaks. Vast Obstacles Overcome Subterranean Flood and Heat Delay the Work. Special Cable to The Call.- LONDON. March Piercing . the heart of the mighty Alps in a bee line for twelve and a quarter miles, the Eimplon tunnel, the longest in the world, and the greatest underground engineering feat ever undertaken, has just been completed. The obstacles encountered have been many and stupendous. Nature has op posed with all the might of her sub terranean forces the invasion of the in trepid human burrowers. . Landslides have intervened to stay their advance. Heat has done Its best to baffle them. Imprisoned streams, ccid springs and hot springs have burst . forth from the bowels of the earth dissharsing some times from 10,000 to 15,000 gallons a minute, to overwhelm and destroy them. These things have greatly retarded the progress of the engineers, occasion ally causing them to halt for weeks while they summoned fresh powers of science to their aid; at other times re ducing their advance by boring and blasting to a few inches a <lay. But never were they beaten; never -id they deviate by a hair's breadth from the straight course that had been mapped out for them. FLOOD OF BOILING WATER. Last October, when only two hundred yard* separated the Swiss and Italian sections, the pent-up forces of old earth, as though bent on a last su preme effort to put an end to the at tacks of dynamite and hydraulic drill, let loose a "boiling flood." That was how it "was described at the time, though to be precise the temperature of the water was 133 degrees Faren heit — sufficient to put a stop to human labor when the rate of flow was several hundred gallons a second. By the skill of . the engineers i none of the water from the hot flood reached the workmen until it. had been diluted with cold water from the hydraulic mains. At the same time the tempera ture of the air was cooled some twenty-five degrees by means of a high-pressure water-spraf. And after a while the men were able to continue their tasks .in a comfortable sort of shower bath. •. • - In the building of the Simplon, forces .Ture, harnessed and controlled, have been employed to combat other forces of nature, wild and rebellious, r.derously passive. Water derived the Rhone on the Swiss side and ne Diveria on the Italian . : <ed the power that has driv en th< hydraulic drills through the adamantine rock, subdued and d ed the subterranean floods and forced into the tunnel the fresh air and cool ing spray from glacial streams which have rendered work possible in what The San Francisco Call. As Result of Scientific Gare Few Lives Are Sacrificed Th the Enterprise. would otherwise have been a suffocat ing inferno. CARE OF HUMAN" LIFE. The crowning glory of the Achieve ment lies in the success of the mea sures adopted for safeguarding hu man life and health under conditions of deadly and stupendous peril. The St. Gothard tunnel, three mil«s shorter, and where the natural ob stacles encountered were far less seri ous, claimed a toll of 600 lives, 400 from pneumonia or "tunnel worm," and 200 by explosions or landslides. In the con struction of the Simplon tunnel not one single case of miner's phthisis has oc curred among the 3000 laborers en gaged on the borings, while only a dozen men have been killed at the works during the more than six years that they have been in progress. It was decided that the trucks of the Simplon tunnel should not be car ried to a greater altitude than 2310 feet, the Swiss entrance at Brigue be ing 2250 feet and the Italian one at I«el3e 207"5 feet above sea level. The great depth of the perforation under the surface — at the summit ex ceeding 7000 feet — made it impossible to sink vertical shafts for purposes of ventilation. Weight involves pressure and pressure produces heat. At the middle of the tunnel It was estimated that the crushing weight of the great superincumbent mass of mountain would heat the rock there to be bored through to a temperature approxi mately 110 degrees. The contract for the colossal work was undertaken by Brandt, Brajidaa A Co. of Hamburg and their preparations were made with characteristic German foresight and thoroughness. To cope with all the obstacles, so vastly great er than those encountered in any other subterranean railways, a form of con struction was adopted differing from that of the three Alpine tunnels al ready built. TWIN TUXXm» PLAN. They are all double-track single tun nels. The Simr>lon consists of twin single-track tunnels, fifty-six feet apart, and connected with one another by transverse galleries at intervals of BO yards. In this way each tunnel serves as a ventilating shaft for the other. The twin perforations have been pushed through simultaneously, but only one, that of the eastern side, has been hewn out to its full dimensions. T'ntil the traffic demands a second track No. 2 tunnel will serve merely as a ventilating shaft. While the work of excavation has been und^r way this subsidiary tunnel has served as a drain to carry off the Roods that have gushed from the interior, to transmit in mains the glacial water needed to cool the air and the heated surface of the rock and dilute the hot springs. By wateroower-driven fans pure SAN FRANCISCO, SUNDAY, MARCH 19, 1905. Alpine air is forced into the tunnels at the rate of 60,000 cubic feet a min ute. The hydraulic power which works the Brandt drills is obtained for the Swiss cutting by gravity from the Rhone, the water being brought down from a point three miles hipher up the valley. At the works turbines of 2225 horsepower each generate and trans mit through a hydraulic main a pres sure giving ten tonß upon the cutting point of each drill. On the Italian side similar power is derived from the Diveria in much the same fashion. WONDERFUL MACHINES. Wonderful machines are these Brandt drills. They are the Maxim guns of subterranean borings. Like Maxims, one of their advantages is extreme portability, for only four men are re quired to work and carry the drill. With three machines, which can all be fixed on one carriage, six holes can be drilled in a little over two hours In the hardest rock. The compressed air drills used in the St. Gothard tunnel necessitated sixteen attendants and a cumbersome carriage. The Brandt drill has rendered possible a rate of progress never before attained in simi lar tunnel borings, frequently averag ing ten yards a day. Another ingenious Invention of Brandt's employed In the Simplon tun nel is a compressed air gun of six and a half inches caliber and 800 feet in length, wheih discharges a projectile containing 900 gallons of water. It is fired simultaneously with the explosion of the dynamite cartridges in the holes made by the drills. This great volume of water, impelled with tremendous force, pulverizes and sweeps away the debris, preventing that accumulation of dust which plays havoc with miners' lungs. Never before has an engineering work of such magnitude been attended by such careful provisions for the safety and comfort of the men. To ob viate the risks of pneumonia, dressing halls are provided at either entrance. On emerging in tralnloads from the galleries the men are compelled to en ter these apartments, ready heated for their reception, and to stay in them for half an hour, while the temperature is gradually cooled down to that pre vailing outside. Bemhardt Revives Old Play. PARIS, March 18. — Mme. Sarah Bernardt is preparing a revival of Racine's tragedy, "Esther," under con ditions similar to those of the first per formance in 1689 by the girls of Mme. Maintenon's school at St. Ofr. All the parts will be played by women and to make the revival more perfect actors representing Louis XIV and his court vill have seats on the stage in cos tames in accord with the description given by Mme. de Sevigne in her let ters. The original incidental music has beei, moderinzed by Reynaldo Hahn. SCENES AT DIFFERENT POINTS OF THF GREAT SIMPLON TUNNEL THROUGH THE ALPS. RECENTLY COMPLETED. IN ITB MAGNITUDE AND TRIUMPH OVER THE GIGANTIC OBSTACLES WHICH NATURE HAS THROWN IN THE WAY IT REPRESENTS ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREATEST ENGINEERING FEATS. APPENDIX BECOMES MERE PLAYTHING IN THE HANDS OF SKILLED DOCTORS Sir Frederick Treves Tells of a Thousand Cases He Has Treated Without a Single Death to Mar His Long Record of Successes. LONDON, March 18. — If, a* was flip pantly remarked recently in the edito rial columns of one London paper, the removal of the appendix is an essential qualification for entry into smart soci ety, the meeting the other night of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society should have been the occasion of a smart gathering, for its Interest cen tered, so to speak, round the appendix. Those present, numbering more than 200 surgeons and physicians, had two hours of appendix, and in the course of Sir Frederick Treves' lucid address, which opened the discussion, even a layman had ample occasion to improve his perfunctory acquaintance with it. How thoroughly modern the subject is, was made manifest by a casual in troductory remark by Sir Frederick Treves when he mentioned that when in 1887, before the same society which now had mustered in force to discuss complex problems at times presented by operations, he had first mooted the advisability of the removal of the ap pendix in cases of recurrent attacks, his suggestion had been received with polite skepticism, not unmixed with de | rision. OPERATIONS RARELY FATAL. Since then a deal of water had flowed under the bridges. Sir Frederick had i himself In private practice operated on i more than 1000 cases without a single death to mar the success of his record. One great London hospital records : within a period of four years a total of exactly 1000 cases of operation for ap pendicitis, most of them except when > the disease had brought about general Special Cable to The Call. peritonitis before operative treatment wae possible, with a mortality of a little more than 4 per cent. Similar favorable results were shown by sta tistics- furnished by several of the larger general hospitals. In view of these astonishing figures it occurred to a lay mind to inquire of expert opinion as to the fate of those who, seeing the appendix was not a modern innovation in the interest of the mechanism of the human race, had suffered frnni appendicitis in the dark ages before the introduction of the Treves Operation. He was told in a hurried aside that they were reputed to be suffering from colic and other unpleasantnesses ending in "itis," and that in many of the cases the patient whose life would now be saved died of unrecognized appendicitis. SO3IE CAUSES OF RELAPSE. The greater part of Sir Frederick Treves' address was devoted to the consideration of the causes of relapse after the removal of the offending ap pendix, as shown by the recurrence of attacks. A majority of these are of too technical a nature to admit of ap preciation by a layman, but one or two of them are of more curious in terest. The recurrence of the pain is at times due to the incompleteness of the oper ation, when the whole appendix has not entirely been removed. Often again the pain is due to a sort of neuralgia in the amputated stomach. More extraordinary, even to the lay mind, are cases which have occurred where the pain altogether Is neurotic, a question of nerves pure and simple. Again, mistakes In diagnosis do occur and before now' man has been deprived of an offending appendix only to find Pages 17 to 24 that his trouble had its seat in quite a different part of his machinery. Sir Frederick did not, against all traditions, quote the familiar story of the man who, to guard against con tingencies In the event of sudden loss of consciousness, wore tattooed on his abdomen, "do not operate, have had appendix removed three times," but he told a no less remarkable story of a patient who had come to him with a relapse after having undergone an op eration for removal of the appendix. Tn Investigating matters Sir Frederick was able to remove it for him a sec ond time. On the flrst occasion, pre sumably, the surgeon had overlooked it. DANGER WHEN DELAYED. Much more formidable than the operation during the quiescent period after -the attack are those necessitated by local general peritonitis during the attack, known as cases of "fulminating appendicitis," when every hour la of vital importance. In such cases it Is always a question of touch and go, but even in these cases London is able to record of late a remarkable increase in the number of cases successfully .treated. Iceland Home of Learning. BERLIN. March 18. — Robert Frie sen, a German traveler, recently re turned from Iceland, says the Iceland ers are the most highly educated peo ple in the world, and the average at tainments there are far superior to those in Germany. They are omnivor ous readers and take especial delight :n_pure literature and modern philos ophy. Their latest production & a newspaper published in Reikjavik by Mrs. Asmundson for •women exclu sively and written and printed by women. GRACE ASSISTS HIS DAUGHTER'S TITLED SPOUSE Insists on a Useful Career for His Lordship. EARL PLACED IN WAR OFFICE Donoughmore in New Role Gives Much Promise. Ssecisl Cable to Th« Call, LONDON. March n.— Among th# subscribers of a well known London press clipping agency is Michael P. Grace, erstwhile of New York and now of Battle Abbey, in Sussex. And the most singular thing about (lric?s subscription is that he does not re quire clipipnss ajrfout himself, but he wants everything rhat is printed about his son-in-law, th- Earl of Donoughmore, or about matters with which h» is identified. -eada carefully all the clippings supplied him. post 3 them up in a scrap book, and if any of them oftW an oppor tunity for giving any counsel or ad vice to the young nobleman he de livers himself of it freely and frankly, verbally or by letter. He has constituted himse'.f the Earl's guide, philosopher and friend. If hij Lordship doe 3 not amount to a good deal some day it will not be his father-in-law's fault. When Lord Donoughmore had the good fortune to marry Miss Elena Grace — one of the "three Graces. " as they have be«n dubbed in society, because of their good looks and charming personali ties^ — he was disposed to take th« world easy, feeling that his financial position was assured, at least. But. so the 3tory goes, Grace gave him to understand that he had not bargained for a butterfly Lord as a husband for his daughter — that he came from a nation of hard workers and had no more use for titled idlers than for plain, every day loafers. Perhaps he did not put it quite as strongly as that, but anyhow Lord Donoughmore availed himself of the flrst opportunity to don the political harness in earnest, by getting himself appointed Under Secretary of War and urged on by hi 3 father-in-law and his wife, who is equally ambitious for his future, he has astonished his friend* and acquaintances of his bachelor days by the fashion in which he has buckled down to work. There are few men in the Govern ment service who stick to it closer. He is only 30 and if diligence and applica tion can accomplish it he will make his mark some day. He is a cautious man who snakes sure of every step that he takes. • >n a certain occasion in the House of Lords when Lord Willoughby de j Broke pressed him for some definite 1 information on a government matter ■ he replied "I cannot tell more than I i know." This display of a discretion I so rare among politicians gave birth to the nickname of "Dunno 1 more,** which is likely to stick to him. Grace is very fond of his son-in-law, regarding him as a living refutation of the notion rather popular on the other side, that a lord must necessarily be rather a no account sort of chap. They are as Intimate as father and son and i pass much of their time together.