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The San Francisco call. [volume] (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, October 14, 1906, Image 2

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THE WAR OF EXISTENCE
new Pisco\%^^^^^oluHon ResulHhg %
from- Dr..- Piacdou^^^RKearchcs taA
the Animal and V«^t^^^Kihgd6itiffl|
A. Russell Bond
£ f\ \F fJ^CH. camp first, the owl
V/y l.cr.ored riddle Is looked
upon as extremely foolish,
; but after i"« the subject hae two sides
/ to it. for t:-.» r"f»e^t inclination among
j'Kcicntisis Is to hold that the egg came
' Jlrst. It used to V>e thought that every
! form of lite en this earth was an ob
j Jcct of special creation which had
t descended uncharged from the Garden
'\u25a0' oZ "dm. This is not now bplieved by
} cay o=e vrho g-ives the matter any in
. * tt'ligcnt thought, for the simple rea
' cor» that new breeds cf cattle and do
| mestic animals are constantly being
• produced by the expert breeder, and
j In the floral kir.rrdom some really re
' markablc innovations have been ob
j tamed by horticulturists.
2Co matter what we may believe of
• evolution In general, it is absurd to
• think of an Angora cat purring at
. the feet of Mother Eve, of bantam eggs
cooked for Adam's breakfast, or a
| group of American Beauty roses adorn
i ing his table. These and many other
' breeds which are really distinct species
' we know to have been developed by
man in comparatively recent years
• through proper selection and cross
• breeding. It is l|ut natural to sup
> pose that the same selection and cross
" breeding might occur in nature wlth
\u25a0 out the aid of man, and thus be the
| origin* of the myriads of species which
, : fill this earth. And if this be so why
" could not genuses be similarly orlgi
' nated, for the difference between spe
j cies ar.d genus is not clearly defined.
: The ss.me is true of all classifications,
• So that if we admit a new genus can
(thus be formed, we cannot logically
draw the line at families, orders or
even kingdoms.
These ideas are not new. Even some
: of the ancient Greek philosophers held
J that all life sprang originally from a
j bmmon origin: but it was Charles
: Darwin who advanced the first logical
I theory accounting for the development
\ of the various gcrnif from the. primal
t germ, and he established his theory by
". a. most comprehensive array of facts
% gathered from all parts of the world.
? New Creation Theories.
\u25a0 Darwinism met with religious op
• position almost as bitter as that which
; assailed Copernicus -when he first de
iclared that the world was not flat, but
round. In recent years, however, we
have come to realize that the Biblical
story of the creation should not be
j literally interpreted any more than
f certain other parts of the Bible and
< that the idea of creation covering
•millions of years and accomplished
I jtritbout violating the laws by which
• nature is now governed is not*one whit
, less marvelous or divine than a crea
'' tlon in six literal days.
Darwin did not claim that the breed
! log or evolving of new species in na
j ture was conducted in a haphazard
fashion, but that it was governed by a
•! law, workir.gr toward the constant bet
i terment of the Fpeojps. This law he
. called natural selection, or as Herbert
Spencer termed it. "the survival of the
! fittest." and it may be briefly explained
las follows: All nature Is at war. Ti*e
' animal kingdom preys on the vegetable
; kingdom, and the vegetable kingdom
; in turn, chiefly in the form of bacteria,
: preys on the animal kingdom. Aside
from this there is extensive civil war
within the animal kingdom. Mammals.
birds, reptiles, fish and insects — all are
constantly battling with one another.
In the vegetable kingdom also there is
a .civil war. the stronger and hardier
plants overpowering the weaker ones
and choking them. We little realise
how fearful is thi« struggle about us.
It has been estimated that, taking
. en average of all forms of life, 999 in
j dlvlduGls out of every 1000 die an un
• natural or violent death. Were this
not so the earth would not be large
enough to contain all the life that
*rould b* produced at the end of a few
years. A single pair of almost any
animal If exactly adapted to its sur
rounding* and not Interfered with in
any way, would in a comparatively few
jreneratlons overrun the earth. Ele
phants are the slowest breeders we
know, yet it has been estimated that if
' every offspring- were permitted to reach
. maturity the living descendants of a
single pair would, at the end of 750
years, number 19,000,000 individuals.
Universal -warfare is thus absolutely
necessary to keep the living world
•within bounds. Now the theory of nat
ural selection holds that only those
Individuals best fitted for the battle
of life stand a chance of surviving.
Generation after generation this war
hn* wasred. ar.d nature has been killing
off all those that vrere unfitted to hold
th«ir own. co that eventually races have
been evolved which are admirably
•idapted to their surro-Jndlnge. •
Some animals have earned their
right to a plsr? in t>.e life of this
world by developing sreat strength.
Others owe their existence to the de
velopment of high speed in getting
away from their en*iai*.s. An example
of the latter class is the horse, which
now has but one toe to each foot,
whereas fossil remclns Indicate* that
the present horse has gradually
evolved from a horse having five toes.
This evolution is due to the <act that
\u2666hoe* animals which rose on their toes
succeeded best in running away from
their enemies. The middle. to«t was
thus brought most, into action, and nat
'tiral selection encouraged its develop
' ment at the expense of the otner toes,
which were gradually lost.
A large part of the animal world
owes it« survival to the fact that it
: bears co close a resemblance to its
surroundings that it cannot be readily
discovered by its enemies. One of the
most Interesting examples of this is
Surnlshed by the kalllma butterfly,
•whidi 1« found In India. This butterfly
is very brilliantly marked, with bands
cf bright oranre and blue, but the un
ider side of Its wings are the exact
\u25a0 shape of a leaf, with Vela markings,
in perfect Imitation of the Itaf, *o that
jwiien It alights oa c branch and folds
ltc wines it can hardly bo distin-
Isrulebed. from the Icnv*«. To . heighten
Ithe illusion the lower ends ef the
'•wins* are -prolonged "lnto a tip, which
By A. Rus£eH Bond;
norms a stem Sflr the leaf, while one
edge of the wings is indented In a
manner resembling a damaged Jeaf.
Strangely enough, the wings of those
butterfliea, which are bred in the fall,
have a reddish hue corresponding to
the color of fall leaves. It is said that
Portuguese explorers of early days
brqught home the story of a peculiar
tree which in a windstorm sheds Its
leaves, but that after, the storm the
leaves flew back to their places on the
tree. These animated leaves were
doubtless the kallima butterfly. An
other odd Insect, ls the "walking stick,"
which bo resembles & twig that it eas
ily, escapes notice. The oranee-tlnped
butterfly Is usually found among .the
Rowers of the mustard plant, of which
in the matter of color it Is an exact,
copy. The "hickory horned devil" is
an example of another kind of protec
tion. This catorplllar Is very large,
sometimes half a foot or more in
length, and its liorns give it really a
most ugly appearance, whereas It is
really a very harmless individual.
Xow, according to Darwin's theory
of evolution, tl>es<»- characteristics have
been gradually developed by > natural
selection in gereration after genera
tion. That Is, those butterflies which
most closely resemble loaves and those
caterpillars which develop the most
terrifying aspect stood the best show
of survivinr. while the poorer Imita
tions were discovered by tneir enemies
and devoured. The same selection tonic
place in the next generation rind the
next, and so on, until. tve now have, an
almost perfect imitation. Thlsl. how
ever, docs not mean that the butter- .
fly's battle is now over, for, according
to the theory, its enemies in their
search for food have become more and
more keen and better able to detect
the differences between the butterfly
and the leaf.
This theory of natural selection ls
very good as far as it goes, "but re-,
cently new ideas have sprung up. Dar- j
win's theory required thousands of
generations to form a new snecles,
whereas new breeds are artificially de
veloped in f very few years.. The orl-.
gin of the American trotting horse, for
"ianil». dat»s back to the year-H25.
Breeders and fnnciers do not follow -
the methods which Darwin a««ert«?d
are employed by nature. If a fancier
should try to produce a new breed by \u25a0
selecting those SDecles .which showed;
slight variation* in the direction of the
desired breed the bhances are that h«
would be no nearer his Roal at the end
of a dozen generations than he was at
the beplnnlnar. Thrre Is another thing
which is rather dlfficult.to explain by
Darwin's theory. We often find two
species of plants. jcrowlnp: sidebv sidft
under the same conditions and in the
THE RECOLLEGTION& i^-0B .^/^P^MQUS/; 'BEAUTY OF THE SIXTIES
(Continued from Preceding Page.)
champagne was heard whenever
tongues wagged at tea-tables, and Pa
cific avenue lowered its tones - when
ncr name was \u25a0 mentioned. Some
lauded her, others scorned her, but the
majority of San Francisco's "smart set"
covertly admired her.
But, as tbe old French proverb has It:
"Tout passe, tout casse, tout lasse."
which put Into American means that
everything" passes, or Is broken or
leaves us. And so the day came when
Mrs. Nellie Hall Bacon, having attained
the summit of,her fleeting glory,- found
that the joys of her existence "were not
all that she painted them in fancy, and
so with a haste that bordered on reck
lessness she settled her business af
fairs and left the city.*
In 189* «he moved out Into the hills
of Contra Costa County, and on a
300-acre ranch left her by Bacon set
tled down to. live 'anew and to;f orget
There, surrounded" by her: dogs J and
blrd^, the writes found her on a.recent
same environmrnt. -We have 'unmis
takable proof that one ofjthe'se has
b<-><\n evolved from the"- other, yet,
strangely, both forms, havp/ survived.
Why did not splpction act as'it is. sup
posed to and call off the parent species
in the process^of evolving the newer
• type? , ". - ' \u25a0\u25a0;' ' V;vr,
It was the consideration 'of this
nuestioi: that led * the Dutch botanist.
Hug-o de Vr»es, recently to advance his
mutation theory.- , De Vries noticed
that a plant will reproduce Itself \u25a0 gen
eration -after generation without, any
material chanpre.but that'on rnrc oc
casions one of Its* offsorlns: -will, for
som" unaccountable . reason. \V»e decided
ly, different f-orn tho;< parent.' This
offspring:, which he rails a mutant, he
believes to .beithe;>eg!hnirijr.ibf fa/new,
speeles.r. Consider, the : family tree of^a
butterfly. According:, to. Darwin, .each
hutterflvjs verv-wllP-iulv different from"
\u25a0its pa r«nts. -and if; th« difference is "uh
favor«bl*> that branchVof"the;butt«rnv.
is. pruned off the. -family tree. .This
constant, pruning, ' according'. tn-tsie, 'lie-'
crimination of nature,' will make a: fan
jily tree In, which -there wlU* be a stead j
bent toward one ; Ideal I bu tterfl y. • or. se v-*
eral Ideal speoiea of butterflies, each
exactly adapted to, its surroundings.
According tb~Do .Vries' :doctrlne. on
the other hand,' the species arise sud
denly from .mutants. ; orj "sport"- off
spring, that * vary % ntr the outset from
the parent. Whether these sports sur-
morning, as the sun crept over the
pines. Slightly Stooped, but with clear.
Inscrutable blue eyes, and clad in: a
gingham wrapper this one woman' in
a million. scanned us searchingiy before
leading the way. lnto her abode.
The walls ; of -the small ' room were
hung with good paintings. Over the
mantel was a portrait of Mrs. Bacon
by Fortunate Arlola. done shortly after
her marriage and _ which cost a' tidy
sum. Beside the door : was a copy of
the ' famous v painting, /"The Mother,"
which^ hangs in' the l_Vatlcan. This work
was also" done by Arlola shortly , before
his death. There =were many scenes
along the , Rhine," moated 'castles on the
Rhone arid .a*; copy of* the fof
Sighs." And away off In a [cornerhurig
a water scene from the Land , of the
Midnight Sun, .where Mrs. Bacon spent
two weeks in the course of her extend-
ed-travels; ;. . - ; ' r ;. '.?>,-;.
The' 'eccentric;- old \u25a0 lady iln . her ; ging
ham * dress ? seemed oiit of harmony" |with
the . masterpieces of a great painter's
\u25a0;--ir, -:\u25a0:- >>\u25a0\u25a0 -; v;;.,. :: .;,/\u25a0: \ \u25a0.-:--;• -,-v; : :: '.
;THE?;;iSAN^SRA&GiSGO>, : ; SUNDAY^ CALL;
vjve-or not It rninVilns: for natural ''se
lection to docidp-^-that; ls, .the-new"in
dividual must take his place" in' the line
of \u25a0 battle and if .-.\u25a0 he;* prove - himself
brush; but^with line' intuition! she! read
our] though tsari'l" explained -briefly., that
shedresspd wbenitlie ocfiasion rdemand
ed. "I have clothes In; trunks
stairs,',' she said,' -"that cannot ', be dup
licated" in Paris. My laceslalone would
turn"; an -antiquarian^ greerii with : envy,
but ; they ; will ; never : '- bc-I sold Awhile \u25a0 I
live." ' And then she lexcused^herself i a
moment and: BoonJrcturhed,\butlwhat^a
change! ".; She was "clad^fromShead i to
foot.inNa flowing ? ermine -robe. ;'\u25a0 lined
with;: heavy, 'black > silk*.-' From -the
hooded / cape to ; ;the"' hemVof ;-lts jlon*
train^ lt ; was : a model; of ; the urrlerls
art, and one needed < but a' glance; at jits
wearer/ to read the ? memories Hits *don-^
nlng awakened.^, IrivoluntarUy^heribent
shoulders straightened
while . an » old-time \ fire ~\ that i has i burned
deep; /into . many ; aj gallant's l- heart
glowed for; an 'instanti In : ;her^ faded
eyes. ; l.TVith its C f olda about
her, and, : her .-. withered' 4- flecking
away , a\blt of .vagrant fdust.i she-spoke
of * the 'nobility ; alsoVclothed4infermlne, !
and of her visits to the court'of Edward
VII; then ; Prince' of vWales.; ; ' '. .
o "It; was . a" daily -occurrence :>toiisee
him,''; she said, "and' l\ cannot ; Bee}. why.,
"o^ many; American' girls dotelon'royalty,
andUitles. > What's in ? a* name after/all*
and : what's In - a.' titled As I i told ? Ed-
worthy he. and the best of his offspring:
will s survive. ';, ; If ?he; lives ,it does
mean:that ? the parent type wlll'dle? but
both species may. live on. together" in
ward - one day, , I wouldn't "give up my
position for. that fof his queen '\u25a0 if all the
money;. In England,' Ireland k and - Scot
landtwere'j'art and ;parcel]of the bar
gain. jiKings v and "' Queens and "com
moners: can; bow Ltoi, one i another over
here .in Amerlcar; but; they can't there.
Give ;mei a Y ruler ' like': Roosevelt ',. toY a
dozen bedecked- sovereigns of. England
andiriUsay; they'restlll^lnthft-minor
ity,'; ; and ithis woman ?of a" strong mind
and a':loyal.lleaned forward just a trifle
in >; unthiriklngiemphasls.Wi "- j •-
i From- Bnicland e she \ led us\tb^ Berlin,
then to; ParlsV-baek through Ireland and
the/castles of >. \u25a0' Scotland fand \u25a0 up? the
Thames ~ and f Meraey. - v'And rlt j seemed
that Jheri trip t.was tfully ailuatrated;>6o
often did she turn to this corner or that
of, the room Jajidipolntout* paintings or
pictures of the particular place In ques
tiOn.-V;'\u25a0,\u25a0'-'; ;::";\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0 .--\u25a0 - 1 ---' ..•;. .-'
In her.'.bearing . arid In .h er conversa
tion \ Mrs. > Bacon ; showed i the ' of
a>courtly^past.^and^listeningr?tovher,
onej is conscious i still f of ,' a glamour • be
lbnglhg:toUhelolden:tlmes;, '
2 ', The f our^walls'of her cottage contain
priceless ? heirlooms } of i dress, furniture."
art ; and \ jewelry, 1 * ana.Tso : regardless \u25a0: of
danger^ is * she J that £ fifst tone and i then
anotheriofiheritreasures was
with unmistakable | pride. ' In' the attic-
harmony. Darwin's ; theory required,
ages upon ages:, for the life of this
world, to ; have developed from the.orig
inal germ to : its present multitude of
species, while i v De' Vries accounts for
the species In a much 'shorter, period..
It may seem odd ; that : a species can
descend '• from a single; individual, par
ticularly, in animal life, which requires
the union of two Individuals to produce
offspring. One would think; that If the
*port\ should ; breed j with the . members
of .the specie 3 from which It sprang
the off spring .would, be: a blend; of -the
old -characters , with the: new. so that
the? new]. character, would not, be pre
served .in. pure « form. .Though thia Is
sometimes ' the case; as a rule It does
net hold true. . .•
Proving the /Law.
\u25a0;". Dr. '->W.' E. Castle, of. Harvard has
experimented : with guinea- pigs and
rabbits. : : He finds that the .white coated
,ffulneaiplg;is;domihant,overAthe pure
black coat: that the black. In turn, is
dominant over the .yellow, and that the
yellow; Is; dominant ..over the; white.. : A
rough coat ' Is ; dominant ' over a smoqth
on* 4 , and a short coat over a long one.
"We. thus :. understand- .how. a , species
may. be established . when 'once a - sport
has been produced. But we have not as
yet i discovered the real . origin of the
species.
H> Scientists are , now? trying to ; find but
what i produces \u25a0 the mutant, or,, sport.
Some J say ' differences In temperature
will, effect >thls result . Dr.'Standfuss.
of Switzerland, has made' some very in
teresting -with butterflies,
breeding' some ;of the cocoons In Ice
boxea and others in lamp-heated boxes,
and .in this manner, he has been able
room,' where she dreams of a dead past,
.we* saw ;her , solid,! rosewood ..bedstead
and ancient < clothes-press of the same
wood brought from : Paris . expressly for
her. And ' she was "careful . to ; explain
that, seek as. we m lgh t. their . duplicates
could . not be' found." the ones "nearest of
kin having been destroyed during the
April .conflagration In the Stanford
mansion. "The hand carving. on these
antiques showed Austrian cabinet mak
ers rat ; thelr best and served as another
confirmation ; of »; Mrs. ißacon'si Bacon's love jfor
all .is rare and costly. - :
It was^buta.step^across.the hall: to
her chest iof silver.; where »he fingered
with :a\ sort" of • a - collection
of knives and : forks handed ; down from
President Jefferson ito , ; her mother and
engravedlwith his. Initials. - : v
Her i double ; harness • heavily \u25a0 mounted
\u25a0with gold .was .brought : in by/a servant
as we ; sat : down:- to dinner, and during
the meal she gave its history from the
time r; !tvnras": made i until "It - took the
first : prize ; at a T State, fair. In . New; York.
Mrs. Nellie « Hall j Bacon . Is a", royal ; en
tertainer \u25a0 from - the - first ' course .to the
last,'; and over, baked squirrel : on . toast ;
she] dwelt on Jier, rich* and rare;experi
ences jwith 1 , ah" enjoyment .which caused
themto'Btand'Outvvivldly^h'our-nllnds.
;-; It «was 'late afternoon when we left
to produce butterflies ranging tn col
oration • from Arctic varieties to those
found only In the tropics. This un
doubtedly proves that 'temperature has
something to do with ; the origin of
species. But these species are not
fixed, because the Arctic 'varieties he
produced changed back to those of the
temperate lone when bred at moderate
temperatures, or to those of the tropics
when bred at extreme heat, and vie*
versa., In one case, however, he claims
to have actually produced a species by
abnormal temperature which bred true
under normal conditions. Experiments
similar ;to : those of Standfuss are be
ing carried out by Dr. P. T. Macdou&al.
director of the department of botanical
research of the Carnegie Institution.
He has grown the same plant at sea
level and at altitudes of 230.0. 5000, 6000
and 8000 feet, and produced - widely
varying" forms. > But. none. of these are
fixed, for they will revert to the parent
type .when returned to ; their, original
environment. ! Hhwever. "he Is trying
the experiment of fixing the species by
breeding: the plants at these altitudes
for. a great many generations.
The* difficulties ,ol . carrying out r»
•ea'rch In plant life are enormous.. The
greatest care must* be exerolsed In se
curing thoroughbred'planta. Thla means
that the plants must be screened from
outside Influences. The seeds ar- plant.
Ed In ground which Is twice heatad to
the boiling ;polnt of water to kill all
germs It may contain. The utmost pre
caution Is taken to prevent the Intro
duction of foreign seeds. Dr. Jlac
dougal says: "Thei splashing of water
from a hose, the contact of the nozzle
or of the spout of the sprinkler; the
careless brushing of the sleeve or the
hand against the dirt may result in the
transference of seeds and the vitiation
of .years, of; labor and care, especially
If a complicated series of tests fa under
way." _\
Breeding , Artificial Flowers. *
Dr. MacdQupal has already obtained
some very remarkable results in a thor
oughly - original ' line of investigation.
He han tried the" experiment of inject
ing\ weak solutions of various chemi
cals •In ' the ovary- of a flower called
ralmanniii odorata Just before, the
flower - opened. . The flower was then
covered with , a bag of oiled paper to
keep out insects or floating pollen of
other - plants. From the -se^ds of a
flower thus-treated he obtained a num
ber of ; individuals which differed very
materially from the parent. These new
types have bred true and they are th<*
first species ever produced with the a!d
of artificial means. The same experi
ment was tried with the common even-
Ing primrose, and this also gave rise
to a new species. To explain hoY
such conditions could arise In nature.
Mr. Macdougal suggests that the atlnc
Of an Insect" might Introduce ?luij3
which' would affect the ovules In such
a way as to produce a mutant. The re
sult might also be obtained by the ac
cidental entrance of pollen from a plant
of a different genus. The pollen might
be carried by the wind or by beet and
other insects Into the open flower.
Owing to the great difference in the
two plants a, hybrid \u25a0 would not be
formed, but the effect of foreign po'len
In the ovary, might be such as to stim
ulate certain properties .and thus bring
about .the production of a mutant.
A very -plausible explanation of the
production of mutants In plants has
thus been found. Animal variations, on
the .other hand, are more difficult to
studV.
Just how the same results couM be
obtained In the higher order of animal
life It not clear. It Is possible that we
may learn some day Just how to modify
and develop certain characters of the
human body. We m«y be able, for In
stance, to eliminate criminal tendencies
or to develop a highly Intellectual peo
ple of most beautiful form. But at
present .such speculations are Idle.
What we have learned Is that new
species do come from mutants, and that
mutants can be originated by chemical
agencies. Whether the species could
be produced by natural selection with
out the origin of the sport, as Darwin
claims, we cannot definitely state, for
Darwia's theory requires tens of thou
sands of years for the formation of a
Mingle species, whereas man's life ts but
four score years and ten. However, the
evidence* we \u25a0 do have seem ..to be
against, Darwin's teachings, and. to re
turn to our original question of . th*
owl and the eg*, recent investigations
seem to prove that the egg came first:
for It must have been a mutant of some
other species of bird which was the
prototype of the present owl.
her sitting on her breeze-swept porch
with ;an «pen volume of / Browning In,
her lap. She had shown us her. treas
ures, and told us her story, and she was
content. When the winds are "wafting
old memories to her she likes to talk,
but, even In face of her loquaciousness
the thought was in our minds as. we
left her that perhap*' Mrs. Bacon, like
Talleyrand, knew the real use of words,
and that she 'had told just what she
.wished and no more.
This old lady of "the Contra Costa
hills passes her life In undisturbed
quiet, for she rarely leaves "the ranch
except for an. occasional visit to ITar
, tinez. " and \ she has not yet seen, the
skeleton of the old San Franclsconbr
the new In Its swaddling clothes. -'She
has cared nothing 1 for -her , Jorraer
haunts for a long time. She cares.even
less for. them since the disaster of April
IS. but Is content to remain in seclu
sion, secure and calm, thinking of much,
occasionally sighing, but never daring
to . hope.
The end la not far distant, but Nellie
Hall Bacon will grieve .over nothing
she leaves behind but her treasures and
her gold, and even her philosophic: old
mind perceives that ' ln her. prospective
• Brief there is something sadly amiss.
GEORGE CLARKEK, /

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