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The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, October 27, 1907, Image 8

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Edwin Emerson Jr.
'Author of "A History of the Nineteenth*^
Century**: V
I "ZS2 &s etnplr«i asd nation* hay«
I t!KO> rise and fall, so &b faalUea %
I snfl dynasties. In was. !nstano«»
both go together..^ . " ; * \u25a0
A case In point Is the present low .
fortunes of. the empire of Anstrta, which'
have f olloTred. cteadlly - upon \u25a0 the . «uc
cesslve misfortunes, mistakes and
tragic catastrophes that hare " befallen,
the . ruling Imperial house of Kaps
From the point of ; view of : poetlo !
Justice perhaps this Is but as it should
be, since the rise of the house! of
Hapsburg from Its first beginnings In
the early middle ages was never gained
by personal effort or military prowess,
but almost invariably by well calcu
lated matrimonial matches, supple
mented by cold,, diplomatic cunning.
Thus it was that the descendants of
t^ie first count of Hapsburg In Switz
erland, whose six daughters all mar
ried ruling princes," ultimately became
Jc'ngs and, emperors, ruling all v- the
'richest domains . of Europe and of*
America as well until one of them, the
great Charles V, could boast* that the
sun never set on his dominions. .
Yet no sooner was this' high zenith
reached when the imperial- sun begun,
to set even faster than it had risen.
The mighty Emperor . Charles V ' him
self was the first to weary of .his
scepter, and, letting it fall \u25a0•. from his
listless fingers, hid himself away in a
monk's cowl behind the 'walls"; of T»
Defeats in the Field
. After that followed disaster after
disaster for Hapsburg, signalized by
defeats on land and on sea, from -the
loss of the armada and the- loss of the
Netherlands down to th» ruinous wars
for the Austrian succession and "Maria"
Theresa's seven years' war with.Fred
erick the Great. After' the loss of.
Silesia to Prussia, came the loss of the
Italian provinces to the French, fol
lowed shortly by the crushing defeats
inflicted by . Moreau and. Napoleon at
Hohenlinden, at Marcngo,.Ulm, Austcr
litz and W'agram, followed by the. loss
of the Tyrol, the Illyrian" provinces
and Dalmatia. . .
Yet those disastrous losses of the best
blood and lands of Austria werc^not a«'
Serious to the pride of Hapsburg •as
'thfi loss of personal prestige sustained
from the unavenged- murder of the
Princess Marie Antoinette;* from the
unbroken record, of military, failures
achieved by tbw Austrian archdukes in
the field nnd from the- shameful mar
riage of the Princess Marie Louise to
the upstart Corsican.
The beginning of the end came v.ith
the enforced abdication of Francis as
emperor of Rome and of Germany.
XVith his remaining subjects in_ Aus
tria, Bohemia and Hungary, this -> 111
starred ruler was made thoroughly-un
popular by the odious misrule of his
prime minister. Metterhich. Under Fer-*-
idinand matters went from bad to worse.
When the storm broke 'Metternich -
went down -in disgrace, dragging his
master down with him. Thanks to the -
renunciation of his father, the -crown
of St. Stephen descended upon Francis
Joseph, then "a beardless princeling.
"With it went an ominous heritage of
Siapsburg — hatred °a»a Inco"rnpetence.
If these reigns "were^ill starred, what
Is to be said of the reign' of his suc
bessor, Francis Joseph, -as __viewed
through the vista of the.last 60 years?
Beginning In revolution. and hatred,
!t has endedj in such, truly a record;
xeign not only in years, but In dis-/
asters and trasedies.% . . : '*::'&}
While there seems to have been "no \u25a0.
tangible connection : between the ,- prl- ;
vate misfortunes of the' family of Haps
bury and the public disasters that have
befallen the patchworic empire of;
rso one can fail- to see *\
that private and public calamities have i
always stalked hand in handi until ; it^*
became an open" question which was --'"'
the worst sufferer/ the ' stricken head
of the empire ;or the worse stricken* ]
head of the house. \u0084 .'\u25a0. ' ' ,
Long protracted as Francis Joseph's*
rule has been, the history t of its , 60 '
years can be told-by, a^Jjrief cnumera-'
lion of Its most signal setbacks.: ' '
At tlie outset.of 'tl«e rolgn In 184S
came the . revolution •In , Hungary, in
Bohemia and at tho v very doors of --tho '•
Imperial palace In Vienna.-
When the mob broKe- into the reichs
rath and surged up to tWc portals of
the kalserburg Prince Metternich,'. the •
author of it all,- took to hls^heels and].
Emperor. Ferdinand abdicated." His*
brother did not care to. take .up. the.:
crown. The hopes of- the empire were
centered on the brother's oldest son,
Francis Joseph.
By a conciliatory policy Francis -,
Joseph might have won all the love /of •
the Czechs and Magyars and could thus
have cemented his crumbling, empire. *
Instead of that he chose* to use re- ;
pressh;e measures. With the: help'of ;
a Russian army, Hungary was devas- \u25a0
tated and beaten-Into- submission, f The -
Hungansn patriots, men like Kossuth,
Deak, Goorgey ,,.and\Batthyanl, were '.
either driven into, exlle'or put todeath.'
. The -result of it all was a \u25a0 heritage" of " :
/fierce' resentment and racial \ antipathy'
which haslasted until the present day. r
• The'.*rev6lution In Italy was}. put-
I down: in' the -same ruthless, manner.. tjliT
" the: name lot "Austria . in Italy ' spelled v
only ; hatred. - Italy's j hour lof I deliver- '
» ance % struck «» ln •-' 1859, when.' Cavbur;
; gained j, thej alliance of France. ;" Then c
Emperor ' I^rancis "Joseph \u25a0 took the field. ,
'.Hevwas defeated- decisively on the :disV - :
" astro us /day' of • Solferino. when . 25,000 .
: of !hls' loyal,A.ustrian^s6idiers'lost 'their. :
; lives.. Further battles, at Magenta and*
Nbverp.w«e, equally 'disastrous. North- {'
l eni* Italy was lost' to "Austria, all- but ;
, Venetla*// -: _: \u25a0.- - '
Maxirhilian's^Tragic Death' .- \u25a0. :- y .-•
Francis. Josoph's ''brother, .Tiinximilian,';
, had > been {-Austria's .stake - holder , in . •
.'ltaly. Now he -was: without, a Job. By
. '.way '^ot, ''compensation r' Napoleon fill /a ;
'. few 4 years', later.' offered him th* iiii-'
perlal.crown of -Mexic*, which was^be- *~
Ing invaded ! by/ a ; French army : aiiiedv'
/by,' Austrian .'"and^ Belgian V auxiliaries. '
': Maximiiian's /.wife, r 'Carjotta, '\u25a0'\u25a0 was 'a i
"Belgian, r > the "sister /of 'the scapegrace ;
\u25a0Leopold. ' ':' . I ' '."'•' :
. Maximilian ; was .». allowed to \ accept-;
the Mexican < crown < only^ : on ;"
- condition * of;; abdicating '• his » rights ? of ;'
: succession'^ to .Uhe"; throne; of iHapsburg;^
* though » ln V a ;. secret » document", he u-:re- :-.
i pudlated • this agreement ' as T. obtained -
lunde^/ duress., ; : ' \ : ;"\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0, ; : "" ji -- ; ;
j >"AU' Americans 4 ' are f familiar.' with* the';*
' sequel.' \u25a0• Maximilian, 'after 'paying} the •>
- third ''Napoleon '• his ' : price, i-T^.OOOjOOO
lco» on? a>perernp^ory^hlnHfroms;ou
r clecfi?e';condcmning: Jo death ;as:an.^ul-
' \u25a0 I;}v/U1 ;} v/Ui n>y rn a n j takVpl i h*' arms'- i nVM^sicK 1
7 SS JIJ II I.?1 '.'? i Mi^""cicqu t ion • 'of ;iio,ui>" X VlOwl
\u25a0 II 1l1 ls '; Austrian/, wife \u0084no 'js.uchr tragic',- fate
: hayi^fallenanyjreisninpr.house of Eu-'
* tP' p . e ;';.?^ A3t '™JU* n .'s {widow,* the ' Empress
jlost^her^reason'.and lisTstiU
* c . o t n ? ne ?\ a . s /AvV.iolent^maniac^'in|an':ln-
• • '/ i^l^r
\u25a0 - > **?**J" * - *. an ' s .kod y v.vf as .• tak en j home
; tb^Trieste'/byjAdmiral^Teg^thoffionithe
i Austrian ' roan^of fwar ?Npvara;v the 3 ship
r on f which] Maxim! lian 'in* his? you thN had
Balled^arounla3thViglbbe^,^. wvV-'w vV - ' t . f
; '-/v ßoth;'; the i names iof 4the V commander
and '\u25a0J~'\Otf's the* ~-\, ship .^must'S have : ; had' Ja
t ragicf rinar? tojAus tri ans;" since ' 111 1 'was
:. at i JSoy*ra.J jthat^Napoleoft^ni^h'-ad.-'.liis'
h ? n l?^ d *^
> Joseph.-jwhUeTlP^^^^iJ^
L^ho 1 < t w6n_' the -fruitless^ "ri.aval ivictory 'of
'I^ssa ; 'in-the?disastrbusiwarjOf ;1566. Vit
.; was ;then^!that JdeflniteiyVlost
>"herA ascendency »_in,; Germany rafter? the
' brief Salx-1:'- weeks' war' ' with " Prussia;
.-• -v" ••• \u25a0 \u25a0\u25a0\u25a0?. -\u25a0",\u25a0\u25a0»•<-— A;-, sm-x: :\u25a0-_\u25a0."•'•--\u25a0 • ; \u25a0•
\u25a0.which \ endedj in % the'j crushing ; defeat- of
1 Sadowa, ; \ As ') onej of I the', results^, of < this
war", I^rancls f : 5 Joseph 5 lost r and
s.Vcrietia- ' " r •"•'j'- : - 1 '- '"-* T^--:"!"''^; --,v-., v -. *' .-7 \u25a0
the. :_ so '- called v empire : qf
dominions -hostile to
one> another. Its history; has been ' li ttle
more: than- aTsuccession^ofiilliaajusted
.uinerences^oetween; tho warring, races,
J to? offset'; which - there -were * only - con
:astantlyr;rcn?Tved;alliances^wlths Ger- 5
;f many"=lin7\vhich 'Austrlavplaycd 'second
/nUaie-to'herVowerful'neignbor. ; '-/ : <
. "V f^Eye ri r now ' the kin gdom \u25a0of gary
?^. appears be - once . morefon * the* verge
1 '\u25a0•"•' V"'.-.- "•;*
3 and .» political:- events j in'jthe £hlstory*,*bf
\* Austria-Hungary V during - "the * last'" 1 60
>years.^'. ;\u25a0; *."j^"' •'•'.','- •"\u25a0•"v'.'.'- i . ;
iTcnf Decades -ibf i Disaster/ > r ;
*V :^The ..'of; events f in "the. private
i familyjhistory of^th'e Hapsburgs:iveven
'^nibre;sinister;^thev'most^tragrlc-in^ r fact
/ofVanyOriiling .: family/ of /Europe^' 1 \ '.'%::
*-,^Fraxicis Josopli.'i as»has{been'{'t6ld, as
i cerided.*the *} throne »amld» : turnioilf I.and1 .and
SreVolutfons/qn {Dqccrnberr 2. '* 1 S ißp when
> \u25a0he|.was^a3nJere"jlad,.of^*lß.'"'i,The*Hunga
frian?half ./of/his/ kingdom refused? to
;ack I nowle^
ma . r chedj> on*- Ki slcapi tal.^ Even . i n' "Vienna
[.'. itself thV'peoplei rose against hinvf- The
•; rebel '^flag >; was \\ raised f over ; the.'cathe
i.dj^iror^' l sfephenrj'"The\younßr.e^pefpr'
'haditorfleelto ! lnnsbruck. His:flrstlmeas
of *' government r we re : : acts Yof ~ ; civil
;.. war: V' ""!':' \u25a0"-.*'; -. ]':•" *.' : - * '\u25a0\u25a0'.I'". '\u25a0•'* ;. ' -. \u25a0'"'\u25a0
v \u25a0 Among j^the, revolutionists .a* price 'was
,. managedt'to' plunge! \ into . the
.; youngV^empeVor.'s >• breast,* 'and Y- came
"'- wlthin r a : liair's breadth'of killing him".'.-'.
/.. He' ( had '^sciirccly/ rec'overedf f rom his
; woundu when was by\ his
* political » counselors"* tot marry PriiictM
lirrJVfTTl^Jl7ffiff%^lir''JMßTMTggTMffMntfflJl liBI I • - •
The^San^ Francisco / Sunday Call.
W^??y«?^ -™*4 a profoundly un,
I 'harpy^miktchifrota'flrsl^to last. ElXza>
ft^KT*'. 1 ?; I?'*:.with;he^cousto.1 ?'* : .with; he^cousto. youn*
';.: «ndVVonamlttß4
Wkvlal&». r: : Ellxab%th's : older slater mars.
Sa«l«.fi.ith6f Jetnj*p;of \u25a0 Naple«, whovnot only
, \u0084E^«ltT*atedih«ratrcclousl7, but\lost hli
r^«l3t«r.:: J tli« duchess . ,of Alcr.con, was
I burned to death -in a 7 charity bazaar at
was'^'so unhappy ta
\u25a0. her t Eoa.r'fa^r.s •:: that she twico fled from
:. her.j husband— afsf to Madeira and tha
la«t:tlme : to'Corfu in the Mediterranean".
;\u25a0 She.- refused . to -be reconciled to him
uritii^ the/ tragic death -of their only
;.sonV Crown; Prince Rudolph, who was
rr.ufd*red'2 together with ,' hl3 mi3tre3s, "jj
vi th a e?Barbness"Vetsera. at the castle of .
\u25a0 Meyerling. j In ; 1 S 89. - Both . were mur
dered after-an all night brawl. In which
, the baroness-brothers are said to hays
v.-flgured/r The>fficlal version was "heart
* " failure*."- '-The, most . charitable private
• version^ was ;;'suicide." .. * Kin '.jg Leopold
of: Belgium, .whoseidau'shter was mar
rledT to .'Prince /Rudolph, :,wrote to th«
' pope: »**AII- reports are better than the
\u25a0 knowledge 'ot .the . real. \ hideous truth."
!./\u25a0>? After %'Rudolph's' "deaths Archduke
John L Salvator,* one of' tire heirs pre
sumptive-to. the throne. of Austria, lost
falthfin-the fortunes of.:his house. He
\u25a0 renounced his titles and all his rights
tothe succession, and. droppln*sr the an
r clent \u25a0 name -of Hapsburg \u25a0 for that of
simple - John • Orth. : he 'V embarked on a
\u25a0 -ship-i. bound for America. Neither h«
• ; nor his ship were ever heard of again.
With 'him 'perished the best ; brains* of
the house:6f Hapsburgr.
• A few years later the tide of misfor
tune ; shifted 'to i another - scion \of tha
.'HapSburg --.family, - Princess -Marl*
T Christina, queen regent of Spain. The
* war/with • America^ 1 fought -'flurln jr her
'•_relgn, ended 'disastrously for Spain, and
the last of her transoceanic possejßSlona
j were' lost to* her infant son. It was the .
tnd ' of ' his proud ; ancestors* boast thatj^"
- the ; sun, never -:' set on his dominions.
All rA'ustrik ''mourned wi.h Spain, '
\u25a0•- \u0084 Then Vcamafthe': startling of
.-. the '-\u25a0 assassination -\u25a0 of Z Empress Eliza
' beth In ' Switzerland. : While" hoarding a
steamer. on I the; lake'of Geneva slia was
stabbed . to death by aa Italian anar
£ chlst : named : Luig! ' LucchenL \u25ba: It was a
v senseless Jmurde'r,'. inasmuch as the em
*'Press^had r never' exercised the slightest
; influence^ over spoil tics. 1 either directly
.- or^ Indirectly. » Down jtoj th« very day
of^her^deathilt^wasnotorlous that sh» \
had 7no ; Influence • whatever over her 1
husband. -With her death vanished th« i
: lastrpersjonal hold 1 that ' Francis Joseph }
had ? over :!hls,; Hungarian- subjects^ for j
Empress 'Elizabeth was the only mem
, ber ; *of t ' the'!: emperor's household for
whom the chivalrous Magyars had any "
Thus .tragically stripped by , fate of
; brother, son > and ~ wif o and < bereft as
- well ; of. the loveVof his people, Francis
VJoscph J" now, became a recluse. Thtts
\u25a0 heihas /remained "' for ,. nearly] * '. decade,
i a" broken down old man.'.
; " The last time '\u25a0 he .was called upon to
. exercise- his prerogative as head of the
house of. Hapsburg - was ; when his
- cousin, the -Archduchess Louise Antoln
l ette^jf Tuscany, the wife "ot the present
/king of r Saxony, left her; husband and
..children to run_ off. with a; French mu
sic' teacher, who has since abandpned (
-:hor. v '• > \^H|||BHff r - " T . I
-vtThen the old emperor from |
\u25a0 his .castle of Schoenbrunn Issued a 1
'.wrathful, 'imperial decree forbidding'
-^the ? 'errln*r princess further: to bear tho j
•'.name'. cr arms", oZ Hapsburg and de
prtying her of all her princely title's,
v MoreYannoying to the "countess of
/Moritignoso, as she now. styfes herself,
'\u25a0.undoubtedly was the fact that "the lm
- perial/'ezchequer" and privy purse of
been 'closed, to her for
• gooiL^Htejragfißfl
/i** t Eyen 'as.the'Jmperial throne of Haps- ',
/burg.^has. proven but a;seiit of tragedy t.
last incumbent, so the 'succession !
u to..tb.e;thfone -looms upas but another *
"sourco i 'of 'distress t\
' VWlro the Heritage?/
- -Under /the iold^ Hungarian la> th*'
*throne;tbr.;rlghti should <go to *3e of'
r Francis i. Joseph's ? daughters. ; as Vi?, did
in the glorious days of Thfiresa, i
"but;? that ." bzs»,be'en^; done ; away .. wim.
throne is Archduke,
* Francis ,\u25a0 of "E3te. a + son jof}>'
-Francla, Joseph's dead 'brother. Charles,'
v Louis.*i But'the prince of Este. unfor-l
\u25a0tunately : for., his ; right3 of * succession, f
. married": a'i morgana tic wife." the Count-\
;,ess^-Chotek. t*so that;- his , v childreSj
.cannot^: succeed -him ?onVthe throne. {-
-.Thereforej.iUls..*btlleved .that-he will ~i
.^renounce £ the^crown *in .favor of his
Charles Louis.
- ? Sox much-vis^ certain: - whoever . ln->
heritaithe' throne- inherits with-it a full
>»;up i of s grief, hatred ; arfd . unhapplness.
j; for "r" r such.; is ; the .'latter day lot of all
•i reigning: princes \of Hap3bur»> -

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