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The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, July 04, 1909, Image 4

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In the administration of a state neither a woman.
as a woman nor a man as a man has any special func
tions but the gifts are equally diffused in both sexes.
-piato. ' 3> :•
I go for all sharing the privileges of the govern
ment who assist in bearing its burdens, by no means
excluding women. — Abraham Lincoln.
t UfT'rve in the r'jrhts of the woman just as much
es I do in those of the man, and, indeed, a little more.
~ i * - She can do the best work in .her home if
she has healthy outside interests and occupations in
addition. — Theodore Roosevelt. ** *
Because women consider the government men's
affair, they have become so confused in regard to
their traditional business in life, the rearing of children,
that they bear with complacency a statement riiade by
the Nestor of sanitary reformers that half of the
tiny lives which make up the city's death rate each
year might be saved by a more thorough application
of sanitary science. Because it implies the use of
the suffrage, they do not consider it women's busi
ness to save these lives. — Jane Addams.
If the women of New York city had the ballot
they would drive the corruption out. Each party
would be compelled to put up its best candidates to
stand any chance of winning. I would like to see
the ballot in the hands of every woman. — Mark Twain:
Suppose, for the sake of argument, we accept the
inequality of the sexes as one of nature's immutable
laws; call it a fact that women arc inferior to men
in mind, morals and physique. Why should this set
tle or materially affect the subject of so called
woman's rights? Would not this very inferiority be
a reason why every advantage should be given to
the weaker sex, not only for its own good, but for
the highest development of the race? — Huxley. \
It is a very cheap wit that finds it so droll that a
woman should vote. * * * If the wants, the pas
sions, the vices, are allowed a full vote, through the
hands of a half brutal, intemperate population, I
think it but fair that the virtues, the aspirations,
should be allowed a full voice as an offset, through
the purest of the people. — Ralph Waldo Emerson.
The -Wage Earners' Need _of
the Ballot
*"l~- HE wage earning woman needs the ballot be-
I cause her every gain in the past, has come
1 through her own effort, and every future victory
she must win for herself.
She has two means through which to work, the
union and the ballot.
The union is the more effective. In organization
is strength, arid the wage earner's strength is a
surer basis for fair conditions than the goodwill of
an employer or of a lethargic public. But it is
difficult to unionize women. With eyes on the shores
of matrimony they look upon work as a temporary
affair. They do not seek to" better their craft.
They do not realize the large percentage- of
married women who are inevitably swept back into
the channels of industry.
It is stated than in New York city 27,000 women
support their husbands. . One-third of all young
women in this country are engaged in industry
alone. Six million \*omen in America earn their
living. Let men who urge that their "place is at
home" provide the homes tor them to stay in.
Women entered industrial life from necessity.
Forced to share with men the hard work of the
world, they, more than any other women — more
than any man — need the ballot's .protection.-. A wo
man's work determines her health, life, home and
children. She must not work long hours nor at
night. Her' place of work must be sanitary, with
pr<?tec*.ion for life and limb. Working women are
largely tlie mothers of the race. Their health con
cerns the whole community. Yet today, when the
development of business seems of greater import
ance than the development of men, fair conditions
for working women rest solely upon their \^wn
power to secure and maintain them.
With the wage earner, the ballot is not so much
a question of sexj as of class. She needs it to help
her industrially. California has no law limiting the
hours of women's work. Laws are not made foe the
weak, but for the strong. They, respond to the
greatest pressure. Women have never gained by
influence, however gentle, what men have gained by
vote. The eight hour law for men is constantly ex
tending, but women average 12 hours, Colorado
alone having an eight hour law. A bill before a
recent southern legislature provided an eight hour
day for men and a 10 hour day • for women and
children! Was it because the women could better
work long hours than men? Or was it because they
had no vote?
Even should men enact the* needed laws, they
would - be ineffective unless those who know con
ditions had the power to enforce them. In New
'.York the 10 hour law for women is a dead letter. A
[working girl who agitated for its. enforcement would
lose her job. Moreover, all her" time and energy
ioent in going about to influence men would be far
fets effective than her secret ballot on election day—
and then, it would be less womanly. '
The working womenof San Francisco have had a
fcard uphill struggle. By; constant vigilance do they
fjold their position. At any time there may come a
Ilip, a landslide and down they will go to the boU
tom'again. One can not say the \world does not go
backward. Masters were' forbidden to work slaves
more than 14 hours a day/ Yet, .only- eight y«ars
igo. in" San Francisco, white > women toiled 16, and
V' hours. And; public* opinion and tbeVgoyernmeht
»at back silent. Organization was the: women's only
telp. . Their advancetinch -by, inch-through the union
they now must secure through the; law, not^only, for
themselves, but for. their weaker sisters. And they
can not do it without . the balloj
For over 40 years I have not hesitated to declare
my conviction that justice and fair dealing and the
democratic principles of our government demand
equal rights and privileges of citizenship/irrespective
of sex. 1 have not been able to see any good reason
for denying the ballot to women.— J. G. Whittier/
The natural right of a woman "to votel is just as
clear as that of a man arid rests' on. the same ground.
Since she is called on to obey the laws she ought
to have a voice in making :them. And the assumption
that she is, not. fit to 1 vote is no better reason for
denying her that right than was the similar assump
tion which has been urged against every extension of
the franchise to enfranchised men.— Henry George.
Woman has as much interest as man in control
ling the government, in legislation and in vQting taxes.
That means that she has the right to political suf
frage. — Max Nordau. I . ; .. , i ; _».J^J
Prior to woman's franchise the distinctive feature
of our politics was finance. Legislative^^proposals
were regarded almost entirely from the point of view
of (1) What would they cost? and (2) What would
be their effect from a commercial standpoint?- The
woman's view i% not pounds nor pence/but her home,
her family. In ybYder to win her vote the politicians #
had to look at public matters from her point of view.
Her ideal was not merely money, but happy homes
and a fair chance in life for her husband, her intended
husband and her present or prospective family. — G.
W. Russell, Chairman of the Board of Governors- of
Canterbury College^ Christchurch, New Zealand.
In my opinion suffrage for women is bound to
come. There are many arguments against it, but no
reasons. — William Dean'Howells.
The Object pf the Petition
President California Equal Suffrage Association
BY unanimous vote the National American Wo
man's Suffrage association agreed at its recent
annual convention to make a national petition to
congress asking the submission of a federal amend
ment, it being one of the chief lines of work for this
year. J \u25a0£ v
For the first 25 years of the organized suffrage
work in the United States such petitions- were pre
sented annually to congress.
For the last 20 years no national petition of this
nature has been attempted. In 1896. the women of
Enpland presented a woman's suffrage petition to
parliment of 257,000 names. The. same year the
suffragists of New York presented a petition to the
constitutional convention of 300,000 individual
signatures. .Last winter the women of Sweden, a
country with a small population, supported their re
quest for full suffrage by a petition of 100,000 names.
The petition now undertaken, to be of value to the
cause, must not only surpass all previous' woman's
suffrage petitions in point of numbers, but it must
be the largest petition ever presented to congress
upon any subject. ; \u0084
The petition reads as follows: "v
"We, the undersigned citizens of the United
States over 21 years of age, hereby petition, your
honorable body to submit to the legislatures of the
several states for ratification an\ amendment to the
national constitution which shall enable women to
vote." . ;.;.
Now the congress of the United States by a two
thirds majority can refer the question of woman's
suffrage to the legislatures of all the states and when"
three-fourths of these have ratified it, the women^of
the entire country will be enabled to vote on exactly
the same te^rms as men. ; This is. the shortest and most
direct vmetTiod, but congress never \villP take such
action until directed to do;so by the . people.
"--The object of this petition is to prove, to its
members that public sentiment \u25a0 now. demands that .
women shall have a ypice in. the government. ' Let
it be signed by every man and woman who believes
in political liberty^ and equality of rights., '
Now jin this state we are s trying to carry \ this
•petition. into every one of the 58 counties for signa
tures. The names of men and women will "be" en
tered on the same petition and all signers are re
quested to enter,..their full names and postoffice ad
dresses. The petitions will be classified by counties
within this state.; Let every one; interested in he
welfare of this state sign this petition : and with a
"strong pull, a long pull and- a pull . altogther," we
*rill bring the results we desire. *
I have been asked why,;l believe Jn;woihan's suf
frage. One might as well ask why I believe in the
sun or- the stars or the ocean. 1 believe that women
should vote because' they are women, just as I-believe
that men should vote because they are men.— -Brand
Whitlock. v .
To have a voice in f choosing those by whom one
is governed is a means of, self-protection due to;every ;
one.' Under whatever- conditions, and within what
ever limits, men are admitted to the suffrage," there
is not - a shadow of. justification .' for v not admitting
women under the samc^-^-JohriL Stuart -Mill.
; After all "democracy , is not a , matter of s ex, any .
more.than it is a matter of race,: color- or; previous '>:
condition, but. a matter of people. The more ' perfect "
the recognition; of the' commoni rights -"of fall' people
. the ', more perfect and the more- just ; the' democracy., A
truly enlightened and jdemocraticform of government
: would ;6f course recognize the equal rights of : women.
— Tom L. Johnson.. .;:
If we -could; manifest a; little (animation ; about the j
, antique; in justice that wej still do : tc^ woman! perhaps
-. we should," in time," get tired bf/being. ruled arid robbedV
-by pirates,: thieves,^'.bosses, ;-;rbo6"dlers, : ';.* : .miliio"naires,''j
swindlers; .poisoners, .pickpockets, ; railroad ; senators ; ;
and other criminals. ;:• But so long /as : we t keep •: out eof J
the suffragejthe element jthat- would purify; it jl:don't:"
know but we get- about cwhat-we i deserve!— Charier I
Edward Russell. \ V .-\u25a0'.'
Republican Government as It Is
-—Is It a Failure ?
Honorary President California -Equal ' Suffrage
_ Association
"I— HE opinion of .the writer of; this paper is that
I women wiir do well .henceforth if in their
1 general meetings they make it a" point to educate
themselves as "to the - mysteries : of government—
what: it really is and;what .it. will mean to ..them \u25a0 when
they become a part of the. body politic as they are
likely soon /to be unless the signs of the times are
misleading. We need to educate ourselves jjp make
the best use of ournew. powers of^citizenship.
We must step out into the open and make our
selves so well acquainted with government in all its
bearings that we will be considered authority upon the
points we shall' have investigated and thus command
the respect of the most intelligent people, nieri . and
women. , vv .
Our watchword should be duty— not -what, we
individually want; but what will be ;forv.the general,
good. Victor Hugo has well expressed this sentiment
in his admirable book, "Les Miserables"— l quote:
"It is a : terrible thing to be happy! How content
• . ~ - - ' -
one is! How all sufficient one finds it! How, being
in possession of the false object of life, one forgets
.the true object, duty!".
This will save us from the pettiness of selfishness
and induct us into the true largeness. of living.: Not
to think only or mostly of ourselves, and how. mat- x
ters affect.us individually, but. how they may affect •
the larger outside world — the majority. This would
'make us truly but "a little lower- than the angels."
This has ever been the greatest need of the world,
love for our. neighborr-helpf ulness toward those not
so well situafed ,as we ourselves may = be. Then ; we
shall not hear so often from those self satisfied peo
ple who tell us they have all the rights they want.
Speaking with and for women of the present day .
with whom we hold new and dearer relatipns vthan
ever before in these glad days of our emancipation
from the restricted duties of the past, we look about
for a new way in which to express bur : surplus
energy and, thanks to the press of the
country, it points out numerous duties. and ways. of
employing the time that has heretofore .been spent
in arousing and interesting women in new- lines of
duty which are to replace ;.tbe old and worn out sys-.
terns of the past. "New occasions teach new duties."
;,Now it behooves us to study>the structure and'na
;tufe of our government from its inception to the
present. Politics— -the part that women were sup
posed to know and to care nothing; about.
They have learned , that ; "affairs of/ government
touch their interests at every point, and if they do
not look after them no one else will do it for them,
and they will continue to suffer wrong as they have
in the past. They do not like our one sided govern
ment, .all ' done by one-half of the people.
They have experienced and studied it enough to
know that it is not good, that it "lacks an element
which women alone can supply. They know or be- s
lieve that this nation^will soon die of its own rot--'
tenness, unless that part of ', it which has had -no*
-voice in its councils comes to the rescue and that
. Women are not altogether ignorant of the de
fects of this government.;
Let.us teach and tell what we know for the good
of the community at large. \u25a0'. .['\u25a0'\u25a0\u25a0
Some woman risks her life whenever a. soldier ;is.
born into the world. For years she does. picket duty
by his cradle. .Later. on she is his quartermaster and
gathers his rations. And when ; that boy grows to
a man "shall he say to his mother, --\u25a0'\u25a0lf you want to
vote you must first go arid kill somebody?" It is a
coward's argument!— Lucy Stone.
I have never regarded the. desire (now as wide
spread as civilization itself): that, woman should take
her share in^ the duties: and labors of the national life
as in^any jense a movement of the: sexes against each
other, x but rather as a : great integrati ve \u25a0 movement of
the sexes toward each other.-— Olive, Schreinef.
..Just as woman in literature, both as authoress and
as audience, has effected a radical ;reform, an elimina
tion of the 'obscenity arid harshness' from -literature
and art, so woman in the s tate wilj avail to eliminate
the rigors of law.'and much of , the Corruption iri-poli
tics'; that ndw preva-ls.— Prof. " William IT. Harris." I?
, When . you : were weak and I was jtrong I toiled
for, you. -Now yotr' are, strong and lam weak.- Be
cause of my work for you I ask your aid. ' I "ask the
ballot? for "myself ' and ! my sex. As; I stood by you, I
pray you stand \by me and mine.^-rClara Barton, to
the Soldiers. \ : --v
The Seattle Gonvention
The National ; Woman V: Suffrage Convention '; of >
thoj United > States v is now i in * session " ( July : 1 to* July.
7) at Seattle, Wash., with ; President \ Anna Howard
; Shaw -.'presiding! : The sessions * are being" heid in the
Plymouth \u25a0 CongregationalTchurch." The Lincoln i ho-,
tel is the \ headquarters ; for ; the delegates^ who", come "
'. f California*^^is ably : represented by
delegates from every dub" in the * State. Among
them.'-' are v Mrs. ' Mary Simpson ? Sperry, ; Mrs. Fran- \
cesca • Pierce faftd Mrs. l , Lloyd \ Baldwin, of \ San *Fran- . :
cisco; Mrs. A. N. Chapman. y executive \delegate,';'
" Alameda ; ; Mrs. : Mary- McHenry Keith, Mrs. "\u25a0 San
born. Berkeley ; ; Mrs; t Lillian j Harris; Coffin^ Mill 'Val
ley; Drv \u25a0 Charlotte ; BaWer/; San^ Diego; Miss •:" Wills^?
. l^s Angdes; ;MrsV- Kathen^
Jose;, Mrsiv^AHce L, Park, Palo v Alto; vMrs? Julia
Churchill, YreksL0 , ' :"• /." -. r " -
I have never seen an argument against woman
suffrage that was- not flimsy. Men are much, disposed
to exaggerate; the .difficulties of voting intelligently,
when, they "talk : of .'women voting.;: By the time a pu.b
licj; question is ready for the popular vote it has be
come a very simple question,- that requires littlemore
than honesty arid common sense to vote upon it. If
our mothers are not fit "to .vote they ought to. stop
bearing sons.— George W. Cable.
"If Molly Donahue wint; to vate in a livery stable,
th', first thing she'd do wud be to get a broom, sweep
up th'; floors, take th' harness from th' walls, an hang
up a picture iv Niagara: be. moonlight; chase out th'
watchers an' polis, remove th'seegars, make _ th'
judges get a shave, an p'raps invalydate th' iliction*
It's no job fr her, an' I toiu her so."— « Mr. Dooley. (F.
P. Dunne).
,The i weapon of Christian warfare is the ballot,
which represents the peaceable assertion of convic
tion and will. Society everywhere is becoming con
verted to its use." Adopt it, oh, you .women, with
clean^hands and a pure' heart! *\u25a0 * * If manhood
suffrage is unsatisfactory, it does not at all show that
woman suffrage .would : be: On the contrary, we
rriight make it much better by bringing to it the femi
nine mind," which, in a way, compleriients the mascu
line, and so completes*the mind of humanity.— Mrs.
Julia Ward Howe. - /
If. we., are ever going to have a state of society
whose progress shall be up and not down I-believe.it
must be through woman, suffrage. ' Apart from the
justice of the right conceded, the practical part must
appeal to most men of unbiased minds.— -Hon. /Thomas
W. Palmer. "^ ' \u25a0 V
> Woman must be enfranchised. It is a mere ques
tion of timei She must be a slave or an equal; there
is no^middle ground. Admit, in the slightest degree,
her right to property or education, and she must nave
the ballot to protect the one and use the other. And
there are no objections to this, except such as would
equally holdHgainst the \vhole theory of republican
government.— T. W. Higginson.
The Declaration— What Is It?
Second Vice President California Equal Suffrage
ONE hundred and thirty-three'—y'cars ago the
declaration of independence was drawn up by
Thomns Jefferson and adopted by the representa
tives of the United States of America in congress
assembled. Year alter year, on each succeeding an
niversary, the people of this country listen to its
reading and hear that all men are created equal, and
endowed, by their Creator with certain inalienable
rights.among which are life, liberty and the pursuit
of happiness — to secure which governments are
instituted among men, deriving their just powers
from the consent of the governed, and that when
ever any; form of government becomes destructive
of these ends it is the right of the people to alter
or to abolish it, and to institute a new government,
laying its foundation , on such * principles and organiz
ing its powers in such form as- to them shall seem
most likely to effect their safety and happiness.
And because the enlightened men and women of
this country, -its truest patriots and best citizens,
urge that women should be included as sharers in the
rights and privileges of government, as they are ir\
-all of its burdens and penalties, and because they
seek'by all peaceful 'means to alter and to abolish
these unjust features of; that government, they are,
as a matter of course, reviled, ridiculed and misrep
resented by. all the unthinking, the shallow pated
and every class of undesirable citizen, including the
corrupt politician, the grafter of every, description,
and \u25a0 those who live by . pandering to the vices and
corruption of the masses.
Well has Elbert Hubbard said in. a recent issue
of his journal of affirmation, the Fra: "When a
man tells you -that the majority of women do not
\vant to vote, and therefore equal suffrage
not be granted, set him down as a pollparrot, that
; has been instructed by a \ monkey."
\u25a0 So-long as;;thelaw of the land makes women
political aliens in their \u25a0 own country, so Ion? ; should
\u25a0they consider \it their holiest duty indignantly to
*: protest ' r ; arid .loudly \u0084t o "clamor for their rights."
"Let free*dom . shriek" be heard "in the land and let
those ": who are battling for a voice- in -their own
government xonsidef themselves: as the only true
daughters of the American: revolution, a revolution
which has' yet to be fought and won, amid the op
position-of the ignorant and thelukewarmness of
the selfish: , .
* .And because "woman's cause :is man's," we urge
every stump speaker in California today, every k ora
tor: from every, literary, pktfornv to declare himself
on this great question, which in reality is, "shall we
establish a republic' in fact, asjwellas in name," and
"shall we bring; into oitr voting constituency, a great
moral :element>for the lack of ; which this country
has'already entered upon the path of retrogression?"
\u25a0Does : the* American ' man's* blood boil when he
Reflects tha^ his. mother,; his wife and his sister are
-classed: politically with the criminal, the pauper the
; idiot ? and the:-infant? - ;Then let him" take his ttand r
for, right and justice.: Let him showhimself a true
Uover; of? his country, and refrain \u25a0 from-such,plati
tudes as -'.'equal rights to all, and special privileges
to noncT;.^ \u25a0-"-": v ; •
' Is = h^, on* the other 'hand,, so blindly conservative
so cowardly;* sol afraid to uphold : the "truth; because "it
-is not>yet, popular, because Jas; yet there are not
•- enough j rich women like $ Mrs. Mackay, nor : promi
. nent men, to ;• nrake ; it ; safe and respectable ? ••' If he is
such: a weak brother/ he will mot,r not, on the 1 other hand
have -the , courage, to^attack the'propositioh that wo
men - are \u25a0 living ' under3 a ityrannical form'- of; govern
ment/nor will he "try to prove; that only ;raen -are
entitled ;to^be exempt from taxation without re
presentation. A .
liililiil i i
The San s> Franciscq, Sunday Call
One principal cause of the failure ot so many
magnificent schemes, social, political,. religious, which
have followed each other age after age, has been this,
that in almost everycase they have ignored the rights
and powers of half the human race-viz .women.
I believe that politics will not go right, that society
will not go v right, thzt nothing human will ever go
right, except in so far as woman goes ngnt; and to
make woman go right she must be put m her place,
and she must have her rights.— Charles Kmgsley.
A woman is just as well qualified to cast a v>te
for every municipal officer in Chicago as any man. —
Bishop Samuel K. Fallows (Episcopal).
You ask my reasons for believing in woman s suf
frage. It seems to me almost self-evident, an axiom,
that every householder and tax payer ought to hace a
voice in the expenditure of the money we pay, includ
ing/as this does." interests the most vital to .a human
being.— Florence Nightingale.
Properly understood, suffrage does not mean the
appointing of ward heelers; it means the park sys
tem and public -schools and hospitals and playgrounds
and public libraries. In matters of this kind we can
make no distinction between men and women. To
day, to secure the best results in city government, we
must have the common service of men and women. —
Prof. ; Charles Zueblin.
In quite early life. Informed the opinion that
women ought to vote, because it is right, and tor the
best interests of the country. Years of observation
and thought have strengthened this opinion.— Bishop
Individual and judgment "are the foun
dation stones of a republican government and a true
civilization. Whatever lessens wefean's selt-respect
or the respect of others for her is demoralizing to
the entire race. The ballot is a citizen's tongue and
hands. Without a ballot, and the dignity and power
that scepter gives, -the moral influence of the city
mothers is essentially crippled in combating the
evils of society. If educated, intelligent and virtuous
women had the right of suffrage our' best men would
always find in them a reserve moral power to estab
lish a safe and stable government — Mrs. Elizabeth
Cady Stanton.
It fills me with joy when I think of the, many
changes that will be brought about when women have
the right of suffrage. They will defy the politicians
and vote as any Christian man should and would vote
if he had the moral courage.— Bishop Bernard J. Mc-
Quaid (Roman Catholic).
If women can stand side by side with men in the
halls of learning, why not in the life outside? Our
educated women are pouring out of our institutions
of learning in long processions. Why not open the
larger doors of public usefulness and let them help to
solve the pressing problems of the time? — Dr. Wo.
E. Huntington, President of Boston University.
I advocate woman* suffrage because I believe it
to be profoundly reasonable. Women as a whole
are as well qualified for the suffrage as men; they
have as much at stake, and it can not be seriously
claimed that the extension of suffrage would put a
burden upon women which would overtax their .
mental or physical strength. It will hardly be called
unwomanly. Under the Australian ballot it has become
a delightfully feminine function. — Prof. George G.
Gardner of the Boston University Law School.
I can state from experience and observation that
(municipal) woman suffrage is satisfactory in its re
sults in every respect. — Former Chief Justice Albert
H. Horton of Kansas. -' v
Why I Wish to Vote
Corresponding Secretary California Equal Suffrage
WHY do I wish to vote? A personal question,
but I will answer it. ' \
In 1776 my grandsires shouldered their flint
locks and went out and fought the British- to a finish
in an endeavor to establish a democracy. My grand
mothers stayed at home, knit yarn stockings,
molded bullets, held the plow in the fields, while
the little brother, too young to go to war, trudged
along barefooted and drove the oxen.
Eighty-five years later, a young boy of 18, who
later became my own husband, went out and for four
years fought in a heart breaking war, to perpetuate
that same democracy, which we have not yet achieved,
have never had, and never will have until men and
women alike stand free and equal before the law.
I wish to vote because every great force for
good in our country is disenfranchised, while every
power for evil is enfranchised and fully organized
Not one .will deny that the public school i 3i 3 the
greatest force for good in our country, but its vot
ing is \practically nothing. A3 the women
teachers outnumber the men 10 to 1.
Next ; in; .value, the church, with ail its allied sob
cieties; oi< Sunday school, social science service
Endeavor and philanthropy. It all the
women connected with these diverse organizations
stepped out and folded their hands, the whole fabric
•would go to pieces like a house of cards The
kindergarten association, the Women's Christian
Temperance union and many others too numerous
to mention, are all carried on by women who can
not vote. . . . »
«i^? a "l^ 7h7 h " C w «, mus t place the racetrack, the
vice-Sll v ?* fi Sht and all forms of organized
( \f ho j?? h to vo te because of the insistent cry
-•'flif V%* chl l d . rcn aiu L their tired,, overworked and
half fed mothers and because, our men do^not seem
able to cope with this situation.
.f,. f ,- I - wn *^. toy . ot c because I desire to be a part of
.the great: moving force around us
4J ' \u25a0":-; --• : \ '

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