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The San Francisco Sunday Call
Ben Blow THE pleasure of going into the open f.nds enhancement when ont has some definite object In view, and for the man who loves to be out of doors there Js no more pleasing study than that of our native trees. In a book just published by Dr. Willis Linn Jepson on the trees of California there Is so much of Information put so pleasantly that the n.an who goes forth into the woods accompanied by It as a vacation hand book can find not only pleasure but profit In Its use. Doctor Jepson. who Is a member of the faculty of the University of California. Is an authority upon the subject and his va cations have largely been spent in the wooded places of the state. Scarcely a mining camp is there along: the uplift of the Sierra with which he is not per fectly familiar, while the lumbering camps and towns along the upper coast ere to him as an open book. Not only has he brought to bear upon the sub ject of which he writes the skill of the long trained observer, but also he has acquired the point of view of the man who goes out in the woods to find sur cease from toll, to get away from the chains that bind him to his desk. California, as a place for studying the trees, is not excelled by any other state. The national forests lying with in its boundaries number 20 with a total area of 27,968.510 acres, far in ex cess of any other state or territory. Alaska coming next with 26.761.626 acres set aside by the government. Among the most important of these na tional forests are the Sequoia forest with headquarters at Hot Springs, which comprises an extent of 3,079,942 acres; the Cleveland foicst near San Diego, with 2,236,178 acres; the Kla math forest near Yreka, with 2,094,467 acres; the Santa Barbara forest near Santa Barbara, with 2.027. 150 acres; the Sierra forest near North Fork, with 1,935.C50 acres; the Tahoe forest, with headquarters at Nevada City, which covers 1,531,042 acres; the Shasta for est around Mount Shasta, which has :. 734,718 acres: the Trinity forest near Weaverville. with 1.534.533 acres, not to mention the Modoc, Lassen. Angeles. Plumas and Stanislaus forests, all res ervations that comprise millions of acres more. In addition to these national forests there are also the national parks to be considered, the Yosemite with 3C5.000 acres, which includes the Incomparable Yosemite and H«teh Hetchy valleys, the tnain crest of the Sierra Nevada moun tain? and the Tuolumne. Merced and Xarfposa groves of big trees. The Se quoia national park with 1G1.250 acres has within its bounds the North Ke y. (li forest. Giar.t forest. Cliff Cre<?k gfoye^ H.-»rmon Meadow grove. Atwell :\u25a0•• • <\u25a0- Lake Canon grove. Mule Gulch - • •. Homer Peak forest and South K'V'aU forest. Of these the Giant for est Is especially notable on account of the number and size of the big trees, the beauty <->f the cone bearing trees and Hie remarkable an.J imposing grandeur of tlie. North Fork plateau ai.d its surrounding gorges and lofty peaks. The lust of these national parks and the least 5s the General Grant rational park, with an area of only '2.Z".Q acr^s, situated in Fresno and \u25a0 Tulare counties, which, however, contains some splendid groups of big trees, r.oi-.vithstanuing its diminutive size. Parks and Monuments Asid« from the national parks and forests, there are so called national monuments set aside by congress for the purpose of perpetuating objects of historical or scientific interest, the main difference between the national ;>ark and national monument being that the park is born through some specific act of congress, while the monument is established by executive action of the president of the United States and may be disestablished by him in the same Informal way. The national monuments in California num ber four — the. Pinnacles in Monterey county, 2,080 acres; Lassen peak in Ehasta county. 1,280 acres; Cinder Cone In Lassen county, 5,120 acres; Muir woods in Marin county. 295 acres. By far the most important of these monu ments is Muir woods, the gift of Wil liam Kent to the nation. It includes Kedwood canyon on the south side of § Mount Tamalpais and is of enormous value educationally because of its proximity to thickly settled centers and its ease of access, to say nothing of national grandeur, which is almost In describable. In so far as the Calaveras grove of big trees is concerned until recently It tvas neither a national park nor a monu ment, but in 1909 an act of congress provided for the exchange of lands of equal value for it and providing that it shall be known as the Calaveras na tional forest. This grove is famous all over the world and too much credit can not be accorded to those who have kept the matter of preserving it to future generations in mind until suc cess crowned their efforts. Since 1862, when it was discovered, thousands of people from every part of the world have visited it and no little part of the lure that California has for travelers is to be credited to this wonderful group of gigantic trees. Aside from the proves that have been parked by the government and held secure from mo lestation in California there is one state park, the California redwood park, which includes the Big basin of the Santa Cruz mountains, with an area of 2.500 acres, purchased In 1901. This park is truly a splendid acquisition, being a mixed woodland of redwood, Douglas fir. tan oak. black, oak and madrona. and, together with Muir woods, it forms the only place where the redwood is preserved In its prime val sanctity, to be forever undisturbed. In so far as the food value of our native trees is concerned, their worth is a retrospective rather than a present day one, few of them being regarded as of any economic Importance in these luxurious days, but in the times long W'tst. when the native tribes owned all cf. California, before the white man, •pelling right and might the same, pushed them into oblivion, the main ex istence of a whole tribe was not In frequently dependent on the harvest from the trees. Probably the first in value were the oaks, wnlch provided their acorns in abundance, susceptible of being easily harvested. The acorns of the white oak trees were easily the most desirable for food purposes, being less bitter than those of any other kind. And of the white oaks no other species had such wide distribution or bore so abundantly as the valley oaks, which were regarded by the Indians so highly that their villages were usually situ ated in some such grove, and even particular trees became the subject of property rights in certain families. The acorns of the valley oak are large, but long and narrow, and the kernel is sweet and palatable when roasted. The^ usual method employed by the Indians in utilizing them for food purposes was to gather and dry them, then, store them for the win ter supply. These kernels, ground into a sort of coarse flour, were made into a soup or baked into a rough but nour ishing bread. The live oak and the California black oak also furnished acorns that made an acceptable flour, although leeching was required to rid them of their bitterness. Tan oak acorns were also bitter, but they ex* isted in such quantities in northwest ern California that the Klamath and Eel river tribes depended on thera largely for a winter food supply, and even today squaws of the Trinity and New River Indians can bfi seen grind ins the acorns into Hour and leeching them to take the bitter taste away. The pines native to California that bore large nuts also furnish food to the Indians, a better food by far than that supplied by the oaks, the most important variety being the Digger pine, which bore the largest nuts, al though they were not so palatable as those yielded by the one leaf pinon, which exists upon the desert ranges and the desert slopes both of the Sierra Nevada and the mountains of southern California. The Torrey pine also, the Parry pinon, the big cone pine, the sugar pine, the silver pine and the white bark pines supplied nuts that were and are today a source of food and revenue for the Indian tribes, and when the time for gathering the nuts came around it was regarded and celebrated as an event. In "addition to the oaks and pines there were other California trees that formed a food supply for the Indian tribes, the large seeds of the buckeye being made up into flour which required much leeching to rid it of its undoubted astringent properties, but which after treatment formed a fairly satisfactory article of food. Among the desert tribes the pods of the honey mesquite/palo verde, screw bean and desert ironwpod formed an important harvest, while the berries of the blue elderberry and .madrona .were acceptable as food wherever found. The California nutmeg also was re garded as a dainty by the Indians and . eaten, after being roasted, more as a relish than an article of daily food. , , The Giant Rearguards By far the most Interesting of all California trees is the redwood family, the big tree (Sequoia gigantea) and the redwood proper (Sequoia semper virens). The biff tree- has its habitat along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada from Placer county southward to" Tulare -county, a distance of 250 miles. It occurs only in groves that are more or less disconnected, seeming to be the rear guard of a vanishing: race, as it undoubtedly is. North 'of v Kings river" the groves are widely sep arated, while to the south they might* be said to form a continuous belt, for there are scattered individuals that bind the different clumps together al most into a. chain. Commonly grow ing on slopes, ridges or *> depressions •where there is ample' moisture, it: may be found existing upon almost barren rock as in the Giant forest on the Kaweah river, where there are. 800 trees spread over 500 acres that is al- . most solid rock. Commonly; associated with It in the groves are the white fir. incense cedar, , yellow pine and , sugar, pine, and its reproduction, while fairly, satisfactory in' the southern gToves, Is , at^ standstill; north- of Kings river.. Th? extreme age of the Sequoia -big , trees, so far as , Is certainly known, : is '" about 2,500 years, a century more or less making little difference in. the face' of ages upon 1 ages that have .passed since first the seeds sent \u0084forth their ;; shoots. >*2s6S '\u25a0-:"- '.'\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0 "\u25a0'.:' This statement as to age is far from belng. guesswork, inasmuch : as; it is derived from trees for commer cial* purposes. •-\u25a0 Free": from branches " for nearly 200 feet sometimes these trees. stand up like monuments to unnum bered ages that. have gone, dating back;; 500 years before the ; Ch ristian era; and % gl virus: food -for much ;r thought'; on' theV^ changes. that have taken place beneath the vast spread of their plume Ilka crowns. The -wood, pink' when freshly sawn, 'turns dark reel, and Is light .and reasonably strong. For. durability, how ever, it is equaled by hardly any. other wood, as logs buried naturally show scarcely any decay after hundreds of years. The redwood proper, Sequoia semper virens, is found along, the coast rather than inland, and- while far- from being as massive, a tree as. its brother big trees it reaches : farther up .into .the heavens,, attaining to an altitude of about 350 feet, while the big trees tower no farther than 250. The trunk of the ; redwood sis from 2 to 16 feet in diameter, which Is hardly worth con sidering when compared to the diameter of the Sequoia gigantea, which is from 5 to 25 feet through at some distance above the ground. In geographical distribution the red wood reaches from southern Oregon down to the San Lucia mountains, cov ering a strip 450 miles: long 'and from one to 40 miles wide, the main bodyjoc-. curring in a well defined belt which be gins in Del Norte. county and extends to southern Sonoma county. : Below So noma ;county the redwood is existent, however, in detached -bodies- only,; be-, ing found 'around' Mount: Tamalpais, in the Oakland hills, in the Santa Cruw mountains and in deep canyons in the Santa Lucia mountains. Back of the coast range the redwood occurs more or less locally: around .Ukiah, Willlts, Cloverdale and . on the . east side of Howell mountain : in' the Napa range, which is its farthest -invasion toward the Sierras. On the> south fork of the Eel river, the main stream of the Eel river, Van Duzenrlver.Mad river, Red wood creek, 'lower Klamath; and I Smith rivers there \u25a0 are - magnificent ' grqves as yet untouched by the ax • and existing as they" have stood for more than a thousand', years," giving - the * man who cares to .wander fronv the; beaten, track a chance to see. the' forest ;as it .was growing only, a few hundred years after tho birth of Christ. Most Delightful Grove Commercially little .need be said of it, for the great industries that have sprung: up and' calledjfor, the investments of. millions .of -dollars 'are evidence enough of its utilitarfan value. In his discourse r on \u25a0'\u25a0 the'_trees ; of Cali fornia .:Professor Jepson" declares' that the.most;delightfuirßrove,rnet ,with by him In all his travels is situate \u25a0 be tween Usarand Cottonaby creek 'on i the Mendocino -.\u25a0 hills that \u25a0 overlook '.the ocean.' In almost V perfect 'preservation they' stand onriittle/knolls'andlin small swales arranged so openly; that all their grandeur, 'and : 'their ' beauty"; Is ", f orj him who would behold; 'And ! from an outing standpoint the redwood groves of Marin and Sonoma have' become; mosf. popular, thousands of : persons " going* there"; for their-' brief .respite ; from ;work;to| pitch tents beneathvthe;branches;and;llve;out in':the;open-in'the;Bhadow|of : the 'ages that -the} old: trees v testify, to ; with -their .vast? reaching.,- trunks and spreading, plumy- tops'-'. - .-• \u25a0••.\u25a0;-'• j.-'v^ > -\u25a0'.*• t \u25a0\u25a0.'.., i*, : ;"-."-. v : CThe' pines* .of ; California? form anjin teresting^ group v of ."'trees fahdv a^valu able;one'asj.well,.contrlbuting.:"much;to , the i state's ;C; C wealth*;^ perhaps J_ the J rarest »of them' all' beingjthesilver'pine.iwhich CALIFORNIA'S SPLENDID TREES Professor jepsan's Book Tells~thc Wonder Story of Our Woods from the Days When They Supplied the Indians With Their Food as Well asi Shelter is found mainly in the Sierra Nevada mountains at altitudes . which rang* from s,sooto:B,ooo;feet Inthe-northto 11.000 ; feet , In the , southern stretches ; of the - mountains. \u25a0, Reaching a : height ol 125 feet: sometimes with a diameter of four feet ? at the .base, it ls;a -striking tree with slender branches and some* what "d.'ooplng- foliage and 4 thin, very smooth bark,- sometimes checked Into small squares. From a commercial standpoint, however, the sugar, pine ,'s the most important of; its family, being a splendid I forest tree which reaches to a ;'--.- height -, of 180 feet,: clear^; ; f rom branches for almost the entire length of its/ trunks and" surmounted ; by -a :flat topped crown. In the main timber belt of the .Sierra it is i a striking featuft of the landscape wlth;its brown or red dish: colorod bark, and while "it is found ;,\u25a0 In f^th'eV coast; range -it Is very scarce jthere,'. Its range In altitude being between"; 3,soo and B,soo:feet. Very similar to the: sugar' pine \u25a0 and almost ;indistjngulshable : . from- it. ,In certain .individual ;. trees Is the yellow pine, vwhich^is, normally more resinous. Growing,-' as . lt ; does, at a. lower altitude than 'the sugar, pine.^it' Is .found"asso ciated with ; . black ! oak.: incense i cedar and white ; fir. - The; "apple" . pine, so called,\which- has a very fragrant smell when, lumbered,- is -nothlng^biit > a-high grade "yellow > pine ; and ; can - hardly be distinguished "from ; the j best grades tof sugar.vplne. '- Perhaps; the ; most abun dantUree.iriiCallfornia.'the yenow.pine, Isi.partlcularly; 'characteristic:- of thfi Sierra^ Nfvada;f attaining* ;its ; finest ; de velopment, along i the; ridges; where; it carpets "i the -ground , with l.its-] needles, making la' soft and :\u25a0 pleasant'^ path » for onej who r cares - to .wander Jamld| moun tainTscenery/SSo manyjpinesithere^ar* Ini California" 17J distinct, species -In all, that 3l l! is ; no 7 wonder.- that : the^ average ihdiyidual^can^hardly^distinguishSont} fromltherother.j -The i most j peculiar ?oJ aHithe'pines is' undoubtedly, tlielDlggeir pine.; . It- grows^in^the dry; hot- foot hills ;'and- sometimes; In Jgravelly-vafleys • >\u25a0-,; f *• ..- ,\u25a0 .—\u25a0- '.- \u25a0 r \u25a0 \u25a0 . :\u25a0\u25a0'-•-.'\u25a0-.•...• jr.. i-i - \u25a0\u25a0! ranglng ,-from. the Tehachapl to- the canyon'; of -the' Sacramento , river, al ways occurring as > a scattered growth. Another pine ; of somewhat ' similar type Is ~ the ; .Torrey - pine, ' which \u25a0is a • low, - sprawling tree^ confined almost exclu i slvely tto ..'the \ /of ".' San? Diego, '/although 'Occurring on Santa Rosa island ;of£ f the; coast;. . " ; :'•':\u25a0' • The'orie '.leaf : plnon,\ commonly called nut pine,* frequents rocky, slopes or arid ranges and.Jwlth;. the -Digger; pine;: fur- ; nuts of ; any of Its cies > ; and .is | much '£ sought by. > the ; In dians as an ; artlcle of food. Asidejfrom these * pines* ;;• mentioned there i are ! the '' white * bark? pine/1 the \u25a0•limber- pine," the " \u25a0foxtail" pine,:' -the; hickory'", pine. -> t the \u25a0 \u25a0 Jeff reyjplne," the .beachpine; the tamarac j " plne^theblg cone; the; Parry. pinoh, : the ißishop'sPlne.f Monterey,* pine 1 ; and fknob :' ~i cone pine* whichfare mbreor less wide-; 1 ly "spread I over.: all; of Calif ornia and.will i \u25a0^eventually -become; of importance l'eco-"j the desirable ; varieties, -.arefcuttoff.' ..- - v " ',; 1... \u0084*' tv 1 . Closely > allied .with; the pines ; are; the; : flrsand;the r spr ices, "the Douglas flr^be-> ''.-,'' .''_..*• \u25a0 \u25a0 - \u25a0"\u25a0 ."-\u25a0_•-.'"» Ing a magnificent and valuable torct tree which Is perhaps most- commonly known under the name of Oregon pine. It is without a doubt the most widely used structural timber in the west and from a commercial point of view la enormously important. Its range is wide, reaching from sea level to an al titude of 4,000 feet and throughout the north coast ranges it is found with the redwood and tan oak. Next in im portance, perhaps, is the tideland spruce, which makes an excellent saw log, as its grain Is straight and Its wood is'soft and easily worked. Found principally along the north coast It extends north to British Columbia, where It Is an important, part of the national wealth, growing as it does to a much greater size than in California. The weeping spruce once seen Is never forgotten, and is the easiest of all the forest trees of California to distinguish, its cordlike branches hanging • down sometimes six feet and sweeping the ground as they begin to grow almost from where the trunk emerges. The big cone spruce, the coast hemlock, the mountain hemlock, the lowland fir, the white fir, the red fir, the noble fir and the Santa Lucia fir are also relatives of the pine family of conifers. The last named Is the most remarkable of all the firs, being restricted In its habitat to the Santa Lucia mountains, overhang- Ing the Monterey coast, and being a pe culiar looking tree, its narrow crown tapering up like a steeple, while the cones which^are borne in heavy clus ters at the very top of the trees are re markable for the long bristles whlch^ protrude from between the, scales. 15 Varieties of Oak The oak. family is, of course, of such Importance that there Is hardly any need to mention its many uses aside from that to which the Indians put it as. a producer of food. There are in California 15. different varieties of oak, the best known; being the coast and "interior live oaks, which are called in discriminately live oak.- These are splendid trees and . form a noble ad junct to any landscape, looking at a distance like great balls spread upon the plains or -hills. In addition to the live oaks there are the valley oak, the mesa ' oak, the Oregon oak, the blue oak, the island oak, the maul oak, the scrub- oak, the leather oak, the deer oak, the huckleberry oak, the Palmer oak, the California black-oak and the tan oak. '. Th»'rnost remarkable7among the California oaks is the maul oak, which supplies a " wood of undoubted commercial .value that Is used for mauls, whence it gets. lts name, wagon parts, tool, handles, ship's knees, fur niture and floors. The wood is remark ably-close grained and is extremely tough .and strong. Purely . from an ar tistic'standpoint, however, the valley oak," sometimes called the weeping oak, is most noteworthy of all. growing as it does in the deep alluvial soil of the valleys and! being, practically the only break in : the monotony of the far stretching flats: The valley oak attains Its finest development In the deep, moist loam of the valleys and grows to, be of a diameter of 8 to 10 feet, forming a splendid- shade tree that is distinctive, standing as It generally does alone. The tan oak, so called be :ause its bark is valuable and much used by the leather tanneries, of-Call • fornia, v which cons-ime - about 25,000 cords annually. In the use of the bark, however, there Is much of waste, about 15,000 trees of different sizes being left .to. rot each year, save fora very small number that are used for firewood. : The cypress family, including the cedars, the cypress and the junipers, makes up an Interesting group of trees more or less valuable commercially.' the Incense cedar being one;of the most abundanftrees In _the main, timber belt of "the Sierra, growing to"a- height of 125 feet and being of ; great, value for \u25a0telephone poles", as It Is; extremely dur able. \u25a0 The canoe -cedar also Is = remark ably durable, being used in: the manu facture'of i shingles and was, highly, re garded by _the .lndians who ;made: their huge war .canoes ; from a single log; they utilized! the fibrous bark In weav ing their clothing and the wood in mak lng^household:implements. Of thecy * press :• trees * the •._: Monterey ", cypress Is noteworthy from the local nature of its habitat,;': being; found -. only : along the i- coast,' where - ; the^rough-; ocean" winds form 41t'-into v-pe~cullar;v -pe~cullar; shapes. These trees.V while .'forming 7 the basis . for ' a " widespread- -belief , ; that 'they are. the same as the biblical cedars of Lebanon : because-of Itheir iresemblance. are in no way.- related." being' a 'cypress proper, while" the : cedars -; of . Lebanon are gen iuine; cedars.'^ But -notwithstanding this /fact^theTguidesiatv Monterey :are per sistent iin -spreading*- the -popular story ; which Is' received .with 'so much Interest by, the tourists.' I The California Juniper. ' the! desert Juniper • and - the] Sierra \u25a0 Junl per belong to this family, the wood be- « Ing hard and durable and of much valua to the settlers for fence posts and fuel. The lily and the rose family both find representation among the California trees, the former being represented by the Joshua tree and the Mojave yucca, which are well known to those who have passed through the desert places of California, while the rose family ap pears in the mountain mahogany, the Trask mahogany, the plum, the bitter cherry, the western choke cherry, the Sierra plum, the islay, a hollyllke shrub, and the Oregon crabapple. The willow family find 3 creditable represen tation among the California trees, there being tho yellow willow, the red willow, the black willow, the arroyo willow, the nuttall willow, the velvet willow, all of them unmistakable and well known trees, -while the poplars are ex istent In the common cottonwood, the black cottonwood and the aspen. Few people not familiar with tree lore would suppose that the blue and red elderberry bushes belong to the honeysuckle family, but such i 3 never theless the case, while so called desert willow is not a willow at all, be ing comprised in the bignona family o£ deciduous trees and shrubs. The maple family 13 well known, comprehending the big leaf maple, the vine maple, the Sierra maple and the boxelder. The cactus family finds representation only in one variety, the giant or suwarro cactus, which has only recently in vaded the state of California, coming across the Colorado river from Arizona. The palm family also Is restricted to a single representative, the California fan palm, which is so well known that it need scarcely be dwelt on. The pea family Is also a familiar part of Cali fornia's landscape. it 3 most widely known variety being the mesqulte. that valuable desert shrub, which is closely related to the palo verde. the smoke tree and the. desert Ironwood, the last of which is much used by Indians In the making of their arrows. Hortlcul turally the California black walnut is a valuable tree, although it occurs too sparingly to be valuable as a timber of commercial importance. Used as it la for a stock graft for the English wal nut it contributes no little to the wealth of California and so assumes impor tance from a utilitarian standpoint while being an imposing and. magnifi cent shade tree. Of the other trees that are native to California the birches are Interesting, comprising as they do In their family grouping the white alder, the red alder, the mountain alder and the thin leaf alder, besides the water birch and the scrub. birch, ea&h one of which is not ably easy to discern when In flower, for the catkins -which are so well known and so much appreciated in the spring make each member of the family dis tinct from any other tree or shrub. Representing the ash family are the Oregon ash. the leather leaf ash, the Arizona ash and the dwarf ash, none of which 13 of any particular importance either commercially or as a feature of the woods and mountains, nor do the sycamores amount to much. The Cali fornia laurel is remarkable, however. Growing to a height of 100 feet some times It disturbs to a certain extent the. preconceived notion of the unin formed as to what laurel is. The most noteworthy groves of laurel in Cali fornia are found on the Eel river near Camp Grant, -where there la for several miles a growth of magnificent trees. On the summit of the Berkeley hills the laurel also grows in profusion, although it does not attain a size that makes it noteworthy.. The Unique Madrona Representing the arbutus family as it does, the madrona -is one of the most unique oZ California's trees. Its - gnarled and . twisted body,, that seems to writhe along the ground, suggest ing' almost irresistibly a cripple maimed by some tremendous accident. Rarely symmetrical, the older the ma drona grows' the more deformed it seems to become. No other ' California tree has 'figured quite so much In lit erature -as the jnadrona and . many a master painter's brush has traced the sinuous outlines of the crawling trees. Bret Harte with " all his wealth of imagery has sung the madrona in verse. With its crown of flowers and Its mass of crimson berries, its bur nished foliage and Its terra cotta bark -it casts its charm on all. Scarcely a man who has gone forth into the -woods returns without being impressed and bettered by his outing; in the places where it grows, and irregular in outline as it Is. It adds a piquant touch to the unfolding landscape, gives new boanties at every turn and vista of the woods. So ideal is the California . climate that to touch upon each tree that flourishes beneath, lts -wooing sun -would scare: be possible. Long spreads of lemon and orange groves, stretches of olive \u25a0 and . almond, vistas of English walnut trees are everywhere. The val leys with- their old gnarled oaks, the mountains /with their forests of sky touching, trees, the foothills In between each 'has Its lure. ea,ch spreads before the ' one" who > loves the open .Its beau ties if or him to make his own. and any one \. who casts his chains 'aside' and goes forth to find rest and respite-can do no better than to; make a little in timate study of, the, trees of ..California and "; wander \u25a0on beneath the .'avenues they make into oblivion of toll.