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WHEN WE MUST USE CANNED GOODS AND HOW
A COUNTRY correspondent, who lives six miles from a railway and three from tbe nearest gro cery, has a lamentable talo to tell: "We are not. strictly speaking 1 , vege tarians, but we agree with you that It is not wholesome to eat too much meat. Moreover, unless we are content to have salt pork for dinner three times a week, we must go meatless many times in the winter. Heavy storms block the roads emd hinder the butcher from making his rounds twice weekly. Then, again, we nke vegetab>s. Our potato bin is well £Qed and lasts us until late in the spring. We have turnips and beets and cabbage. But we get tired of all three! We used to vary them by 'canned poods.' and very much to our satisfac tion. For the last two years we have heard so many dreadful things about these same canned things that we have, as my old Scotch grendmothe-r used to cay, "Ta'en a scunner against them.' We feel the TacS of them more than I can tell. We miss tbe nice corn pua dlr.gs and' the string beans and toma toes arid asparagus we used to buy by the dozen cans and set in goodly order upon our storeroom shelves ln the fall to draw upon during the long winter. Can you help us to a substitute for the banished provisions, or tell us If all these things ought really and truly to be classed as "embalmed foods'?" 2*. E. S. (Pinehurst, Ulster county, K. V.). It Is not surprising- that you should tave been set against preserved foods by the revelations of the last few years. I confess to the same dread in my own ca?e. Tiie able chemical experts who are kind enough to aid and abet me in the investigations I have made along the line of adulteration and chemical treat ment of meats, vegetables and fruits have supplied me, in days now, I would fain hope, gone by, with startling analy ses of divers natural products designed for the consumption, and presumably the nourishment, of human beings— so startling in seme instances that I have struck canned meats and a majority of canned fruits and vegetables from my lift of household commodities. Hence the return to the practice of twenty-odd years ago, of putting up our own pre serves and pickles and canning all man ner of eatables for winter up«. PROTECTIVE MEASURES Now. or so I am credibly Informed by those who claim to be qualified to jspeak \u25a0with authority upon the subject, the pure-food law has so far reformed the abuses of which we have spoken that it Is quite safe to partake of "canned goods" that have been put up since the passage of that law. If artificial means —the use of chemicals Intended to pre vent fermentation— are resorted to in the preparation of such foods for the market, the manufacturer incurs the danger of a heavy fine if he neglect to state the fact In the label upon the can or jar containing the vegetable or ani mal substance. This protective measure Is an unspeakable boon to the house mother who does not live near enough to city or town market to obtain the fresh . vegetables and fruits that are brought from the South and defy the interdict of winter. Before we talk of the proper use of canned foods, let me remark, with em phasis and gratitude, that I have ex cepted tomatoes from the ban placed upon other artificially preserved vege tables. Perhaps because the simple THE HOUSEMOT HE RS ' EX CHANGE White Fruit Cake A RECIPE for white fruit cake is called lor in the Exchange. If "C. H." wjjl take, a good recipe for a plain white cake and add fruit ac cording to her juflßir.ent (aa I do), a nice white fruit cake will be the result.. The white cake for which I inclose recipe may be baked in layers with a fruit filling. It im fine. Plain White Cake Eleven e»r« beaten EtiS; three full cups of •ugai; one full cup of butter; one cupful of hot. water; three cupfnlt of flour, or enough to make a good batter. (I hare sometime* had to uje four cuvfuli: much depends upon the brand of flour.) The water thculd be »o hot that you can ]u»t bear ycr.r hftcd in it. Cream the butter acd iusar; add flo-ar and water alternately until all the water is tsed «p. Neit add. alternately, the rest of the flour ar.l the beaten estrs. Sift a tab'.ej:x>on to ta t c rolrder with th« flour. FlaTor Tni» cia't be excelled as a wMte cake. PERCY (Louisville. Ky.). Our Kentucky members are such no ted housekeepers and cooks that I ac cept your statement as to the excellence of a cake that seems to me rather oddly put together. And what makes it "white"? The yolks of eleven eggs should color it richly. Please write us again and throw light upon this point Perhaps you meant to write: "The whites of eleven eggs." But you didn't! The same correspondent sends in a recipe for something of which she cays: "1 do not know the name. The German lady from whom I got it gave none." With her permission I christen it German Tea Cakes. One cupful of nut kernels; half a pound cf raisins (seeded and chopped): a quarter pound of butter: half a cupful of molasses; one even tablespoonful- of soda, and the rame each of cloves, allspice and colan der (?) flour to make a stiS batter. Roll into a sheet and cut Into round cakes. You have written "colander" so plain ly that I cannot mistake the word. Is it a spice unknown to me? Or some thing else? A second reason why we should have •uiother letter from you. Actual Figures Demanded TVe are having letters from Marion Har land on the subject of living chearxr, on hired girls, on cooking beef tongue and caXo liver, etc.: but, cay. on the level, why don't we have something that will be of benrfit to the people who live ln the Sl2 a-month bouses, and who constitute the half or more of the oooulation. doing the actual productive work, as against tbe SCHOOL FOR HOUSEWIVES process of heating has been found suf ficient to guard them against decompo sition, we have not yet detected in cans of this invaluable vegetable any trace of mineral preservatives. ' We have used canned tomatoes freely and fearlessly throughout the embargo period. Not one cook in twenty prepares can ned foods properly for the table. To this ignorance or carelessness is due a large proportion Of the suspicion with which the "tinned stuffs," as they aro called in England, are regarded by thousands of caterers and eatsrs. At their best, they were but an indiflercnt substitute for fresh fruits, vegetables, meats and fish. So much the more rea son why we should bestow Intelligent care upon them, restoring to them, as far as possible, the flavor and nutritiv* properties of their former estate. AN INVARIABLE BTJLE To begin with— and to this dictum there is no exception— the contents of can or glass Jar should be turned out into another vessel five or six hours before it is to be cooked or cq,ten. Tomatoes, corn, beans, peaches, plums, spinach, and especially green peas, should, one and all, be aired to get rid of the "close" taste imparted by cooling in hermetically sealed cans. It may not be unwholesome; it Is un deniably unpleasant. If I lay stress upon the necessity that green peas should be aerated, it is because they' suffer more from the long- stages ef airlessness than less delicate edibles. The slight smoky flavor of canned French or American canned peas Is commonly accepted as inseparable from them when they have been arti ficially preserved. We all know it, and most of us submit to it. Some dislike It so heartily that they never "Let canned vegetables air in a cool place." •MO-a-monther." who, two to one. helps to add -to the "overhead exDense" that is charged u;» in the retail price— ln other words, the clerks, salesmen and others? How about the pcor devils who must feed two, four or six on }t to V. per week, and don't keen any hired srlrl to throw- In the slopbucket what would feed a family on thCback street? AVc hear a lot about using the ••cheaper pieces of meat." What are they, and how can they be made eatable and wholesome? What veretable* make Kood Felerttcn anj what are useless, so far as laoti volue Is con cerned? Figure it all out for a week, and clre us the "menu" for each meal of the twenty-one, without a whole let of ••frills" that tho average poor man's wife has neither th«s timo net- strength to bother with. The fellow v.h*> has ant '.o the ••kecp-a-Kirl" stage of cfriuetico ought to have brain • eno;;nh to fiiruie out his own .economy in the hcu;eboiri. In connection with Marion Harland's p\ r-rf-'flons as to clrls staving ho.Tte and helDln*- mother. Instead of working ln oill ces and store*, rtc. a friend of the writer. who has traveled oonslrtorablv. made tli« statement some time ago, "Xo daughter of mine wl!l ever b<» o. rtsriograDher: I have pcerl too much." It is a nutter of wonder to the writer that tuotliera will permit their daughters to work in offices where they know nothlne. absolutely, of the conditions and peoplo with whom the girl comes in contact. INTERESTED (Philadelphia). It would require a whole pajje to an swer all the queries and criticisms of our masculine critic. In the prepara tion of my weekly menus, 1 have hon estly believed that I was catering for families of moderate means. I have never assumed to make out- "menus" that would feed six people upon 75 cents a day. I can tell them of food 3 that will sustain life and keep one in a fair degree of health at that rate. If I were to confine my directions to that class, what of the great multitude of tho "halfway poor" I have in mind continu ally? I told some weeks ago of the con tented laddie who breakfasted, dined and supped upon "brose"— id est. oat meal porridge— and when asked if he did not get tired of It. returned ln surprise. An' why should a mon weary o' his meatr/ "Meat" standing with him for his daily food. If American" "Interested" is willing to breakfast upon plenty of "brose" with milk, and lend c savory 'snack to his urpd by a rasher of bacon or a strip of salt pork, washing it down with a cup of coffee; if he will dino upon a bowl of broth thickened with barley or rice, po tatoes, bread and cheese, with bread* and treacle for a last course;. if he will sup upon bread and butter, apple sauce. Marion Harland craclizrs and cheese, cookies and tea— he will fare better than Scotch and English peasant and as well, so far as materials go, as the French laborer. The differ ence between him and the last-named is that the French wife knows how to prepare homely fare until it approxi mates luxury and' the wives of the rthers do not. Hundreds of American farmers do not see "butcher's meat" upon their tables more than once a week, '•interested" can afford this luxury upon $5 a week for a family of six. It will be a "chuck rib," or brisket of corned beef, or pig's feet, or such bits of mutlon as the butcher heaps together at the end of the counter "to sell to for eigners." as one told me when 1 asked what tncy were kept for. "Who know no better than to buy them!" sneered a woman who over heard him. . I could not help saying quietly: "Who know how to cook them! 0 A toss of the head was all the com ment she made. I shall probably get tho same, or its equivalent, from "Interested." If I have not marie it plain in all these months and years how the cheap er cuts may be rendered eatable and wholesome, I cannot hope to do it in the compass of one page. Not one American cook In forty knows how to make soups that are both palatable and wholesome. Oibleto, liver, the heads and hearts and tongues of- calves and cheep, -\u25a0'. the ragouts and hashes that might be compounded from "trimmings" are so much trash in her sight, as salads are "frills.". . <.\u25a0':. : ., \u25a0 : : > A Southern woman wrote to me once, saying that the deer: were so abundant and tame in the forests near her house that her husband might shoot one a > day if he liked. "Could I tell' her. of some way of cooking venison that would make it tolerably eatable?" • Tho reader,, may draw his own moral from the anecdote. 1 As to vegetables— potatoes . have" gone up until they are- no longer a cheap article of diet. They will hold their own upon thousands of tables, be the price what it .may, if for no better reason than that custom has made them, a necessity to most of ' us. : Rico is more wholesome and : nutritious— if (ah!, that fatal "if!) the housemother knows how to cook it. The .water in which: rice \u25a0 is boiled is \u25a0 a valuable addition >to the stockpot. Yet : nineteen out" of every twenty cooks throw it down the sink "The average cook merely dumps the contents into a saucepan." eat canned peas, if the contents of the can be poured into a colander, the liquor in jfAvhlch the peas have been kept thro'Tvn away and v the peas put into an open bowl of iced water and left there for .two or three hours, then cooked in /the usual way, there • will be no taste or smell of the "smoke." Keep the water cold, changr- Ing once for fresh. The average cook will hardly "take the trouble" -to obey directions s,o simple, acd which In volve little loss of time or , toil. The independent housemother who "does her own. work" will be thankful for the % hint. '\u25a0:!.,'. Treat lima beans and asparagus to the bath of coid water. The liquor ln which they have lain for weeks and months was devitalized by boiling, and It holds the undesirable raw essence of the esculent Never cook a vegetable In, the water In which it was canned. Tomatoes aud spinach are preserved -In their native juices. They are, there fore, exceptions to the rule. While it is not practicable to drain from corn the milk that exudes In canning, it Is well to pour away the thinner liquid."' Give the contents of the can a slight shak« In the colander to rid them of tho watery part of the liquor; let them air for several hours in a cool place (not the Icebox); put over the fire in the inner vessel of a double boiler, and when they have cooked ten minutes add half a cupful of hot milk into which you have stirred a tablespoonful of butter, with salt and white pepper to taste. Simmer ten minutes longer, and as they would dishwater. May I de scribe one simple dish which 'my family enjoy as a "pick-up luncheon"? A Luncheon Dish Break Into inch lengths half a pound macaroni or spaghetti, and boll It tender in salted water. If you have a weak etoek, so much the better. If stock be. used, return it to the pot when the spaghetti is drained. The cereal has en riched it. Put a layer of spaghetti ln the bottom of a bakedlsh and strew over It any minced meat you may happen to have. Over this put a layer of drained and chopped canned tomatoes, season- Jnc each layer with pepper, salt and onion juice. Fill the dish in this order, po-jr in enough stock to keep it from drying, cover with fine crumbs and bake, covered, for half an hour. Then brown lightly. We" like the addition of grated cheese to the uppermost layer, and now and then omit the meat and substitute grated cheese. Any bits of cold cooked meat will flavor the dish sufficiently with the touch of savoriness the meat-eater's palate craves. It is of Italian origin, and very good when rightly seasoned. Should any be left, chop it next day and put Into your soup. Rice may be used instead of macaroni, if you like. Straight Talk. Onions are never dear and are exceed ingly nutritious; Boil them in two waters always, 'and if you can ,epar« enough milk tQ use instead of the sec ond water, -they are delicious. Turnips hold too great a percentage of water to be of value as bone or brawn or brain makers.' Yet they in troduce pleasant variety into plain fare and are liked by many. , Carrots are very , nourishing. Cooked tender and served In \u25a0 a white sauce, they are wholesome and palatable. They are more palatable when parboiled, cut into short lengths , and fried in batter. Canned tomatoes are said to have Buf fered leas from artificial preservative* than any other vegetable. They may therefore be eaten freely. A quart 5 will Rupnly material' for the Italian dish I have described and the foundation of a nice soup. Boil, season well; thicken, the juice to your fancy, and just before serving stir In a cupful of milk, boil \u25a0 IngrMiot.'- to -which you have added a Quarter teaspoonful of baking coda;;; -^ -••I 1I 1 could talk on this head for a longer time than "Interested. can spare from \u25a0his \u25a0'. daily toil, or I from mine, without "Peas are put into a bowl of ice water." exhausting it, and yet. perhaps, without convincing him that cheap foods are not of necessity coarse. If I do not see that "keeping a girl" implies "affluence," or that that or any other degree of affluence Implies brain enough to keep family expenses down when prices are inflated. It is probably because what brain is left to me after hammering upon the "economy" anvil for three months is not of a quality to appreciate my critic's Ideas of causo and effect. \u25a0 To "S.J. 1V.,":0f Virginia Is this what "S. J. W.." of Virginia, wants T Marshmallow Crcanu Ono-half pound of fresh marshmallowe: one cup of chopped English walnuts: one. cupful of -whipped cream (stiff): two tea npoonfuls of powdered sugar: one teaspoon ful of vanilla. Cut the marshmallows into small bit*: stir theso with the sugar and vanilla lntt) th« whipped cream apd sprinkle.' tho chopped nuts on top. Set ln the lea until you are ready to serve. I often use this Instead of Ire cream at small gather ings. \u25a0 . E. F. E. (Milwaukee. Wls.). An acceptable* substitute for the in variable ice cream without which good Americans fancy they . cannot "enter tain." And how tired some of us get of it! : . < To"C.H.;' of Bolton,Ga. Dear C- tl. (Bolton, Ga.). ' In answer to your request for a recipe for white fruit cake, please accept the inclosed. I have tried it and we like it very much., , White Fruit Cake. .White* of three eggs; one largo capful of pulverized sugar; one-half cupful of butter; one-half cupful of sweet milk: one and a half cupa of flour: two level teaspoonfuls of -bakini: powder; - one large cupful c( chopped raisins: chopped citron— as much or as little as you fancy, \u25a0 Beat the whites of the eggs very stiff and fold ln, last of all. Bake in a moderate even, in a mould or. in a large shallow pan. F. M. K. (Plttsfleld. Mass.). For the excellent, and brief.' formula we are your grateful debtors, : albeit it was meant for a single reader. I laid hold upon it for the general good. Another White Fruit Cake Cream together half a pound of butter and a pound of powdered sugar until very light. Add \u25a0a • cup \u25a0of cold water and three ' cups of flour which has. been sifted 'twice with two rounded teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Beat well. . Have ready a pound of seeded The San Francisco Sunday Call you will have corn somewhat resem bling in sweetness the original article. A corn pudding eaten as a vegetable is a wholesome variety in a winter menu. After preparing it as for stew ing, take from the fire, stir In two beaten, os'gs and a teaspoonful of flour rolled in cornstarch. Bake, covered, for twenty minutes, then brown. Succotash made of corn and lima beans that were canned separately is far su perior to the canned succotash sold by the grocer. Treat the corn as if it were to be cooked alone; a!r the beans and soak in cold water for two- hours. Put them over the fire In hot salted water, bring to a boil, drain and add to the corn, which is simmering- In another ves sel, seasoned as for stewing. Heat the two together not more than five minutes. WHEN TBOUBLE PAYS More troublesome- than when the can marked "succotash" is opened twenty minutes before dinnertime, "dumped" Just as It is into a common single sauce pan, seasoned with a lump of butter, a <Jasn of salt and a shake of pepper. I do not deny it! Yet if you will examine the provisions of the recipe you will see that compliance with them Is a matter of brain expenditure and neither of time nor labor. The distinction makes all the difference between intelligent and un skilled, slovenly culinary operations. One of my masculine critics— of which, I am proud to say, we register so few that they hardly count in the number of approving friends of the same gender — warns me against "frills" in writing for housewives who "do not keep a girl." If these commonsense directions for se curing the best results from cheap mate rials without increase of cost be "frills," then— as Patrick Henry said of the im putation of "treason"— let my censor and chopped raisins, a quarter pound of shredded citron, a half pound «aeb of chopped f.es. chopped dates and chopped blanched almond 3. DreUga these thoroughly with flour. Now atlr Into the batter th« whites of five esss -whipped very \u25a0tiff. Do this -with Mpht swift strokes, beating tho batter up from the bottom with each stroke. Lastly. beat in the trnlt. Bake for three hours In deep cans lined with paper. Ice with tutti-frutti frosting;. KMILIE (Brooklyn. N. T.>. I am thinking, la transcribing the recipe, what a line wedding-cake your white loaf would make. Wo hope to hear from you again, and thank you for your compliance with, our request for the recipe. calf s liver? I feave read wi;h much Inter est what you say of the possibilities of it know°n mm * terUlU wnlc! > »b«jld be better . - The Becipe. * "??» '2 fl;>nr : fr 7 In dceo lard or dttpplnc until they are-tfone and r.lcely browned. X?ft* l«, Up . and ke t? hot n P° n • Patter ?£l c , TOU m l?.* tablcspoonful of browned Slittjl »«£ 'V*.!!^* . wlth Yln «car. Put ??"• ' n th « n°ur paste, and neaaon to an^ln^fer. 1^" «**« la thla ™* Many dishes require much work to" ret them Just right. ».ut this Is very simple --E. R. F. (Muscatlne. Iowa). Referred to a Trained Nurse And at the same time earn mv liiMni • ? have aa inclination for nSrslr.™ 7 Uvlas - * In asking some of, the trained nurses of holding; hands whenever we- may be of use to others to reply to this nuery I remark that the profession requires long and diligent training. Severe ex aminations must be passed and work performed that tyro S y little dream of when. they are led Into It by natural In clination and the need of self-support- May I not look for -a brie; statement from a trained nurse, of what must b« done . In • order to enter the ranks and of the remuneration for. besinnerat "profit by the example" of the woman who makes her brain supply the lack of money. Spinach, comes to us now tn cans. a?u* at a price that does not proscribe Its ap pearance weekly upon the table of th» family of moderate means. Turn it out five hours before cooking it. Cook in a double boiler with the too off for half aa hour: season with a tablespoonful of butter, salt and paprika to taste, a tea-^ spoonful of sugar, a wee pinch of nut meg or mace and a tablespoonful of lem on Juice. Cook one minute and aervc^ garnished with triangles of thin toast. T If you can spare three tablespoonfuls of cream, beat into the spinach until you have a smooth green mass and serve not forgetting the toast. The possibilities of tomatoes are b« yond counting. As on© example of tho truth of this, take scalloped tomatoes. Drain off all the liquor that will come away without pressing, setting It aside for other purposes. Butter a bakedish and put a layer of the drained tomatoes in the bottom. Cover this with a stratum. of fine crumbs.- season with salt, pepper and a few drops of onion Juice; sprinkle lightly with sugar and dot 3 of butter. Now another layer of tomatoes and more seasoned crumbs. Fill the- dish in this order, the last layer being crumbs dotted rather thickly with butter. Cover closely and bake half an hour. Then brown slightly. If the tomatoes have not been drained too much, enough moisture will bo left in them to make the scallop soft. . FROM THE LEFT-OVERS The reserved liquor may be made into soup or into tomato aspic, which, with a few leaves of lettuce, will supply you with a delicious salad. Half a dozen cans of tomatoes may be bought for 60 cents. You may put both, these disiiea upon your table for 25 cents. Or. ff you have scraps of any kind of meat in the refrigerator, drain the to matoes, chop the meat and mix with a cupful of boiled rice and the drained to matoes. Moisten with a little stock or a left-over of gravy and bake as you would scalloped tomatoes. Tou hava then a soup and a meat dish. This. too. may be done for 25 cents. In both these cases the> excellence of: the dishes depends upon seasoning main ly. Do not think it beneath your dUr^ nity to study effects of combinatioTW and of flavoring in- cookery. It is b£ these means that you may obtain tho best results from unpromising mate rials. . 9/Uo/hj^ Honl(VH<A FAMILY MEALS FOR A WEEK SUNDAY BREAKFAST. Grapefruit, cereal and creaaa. ere«nieel ham (a left-over). waffle*, marmalade, toast, tea and coffee. IXNCHBDJT. Uvenront. sliced and ciralahel with ttmoa and parsley: sally luxra. baked po tatoes, flnzertsread and crtmm cheeac, wyvu, JMKNJBB. Vegetable soup, roast pork. apple s&uca. baked corn puddlnc. cauliflower, pinea-ppla souC». cake. Waci coffee. MONDAY BREAJCFAST. * Oranges, cracked wheat, bacon aad rr^"» peppers, French roll*, toast, tea and coffea. I,UXCHEOjr. Breaded sardines, remain* of com pud ding;, lettuc* sandwiches, crackers and cheese, rico puddinr. tea. DIXNER- Osllflower soup (a- left-over', pork piasj (a left-OTer). apple sauc*. scalloped torn*. toe*, fried oyster plant, cracker plum pud* dlrr. black coffe*. TUESDAY BREAKTAST. Stewed prunes, cereal and crea.ru, bacon. boiled cess, graham biscuits, toast, tea aad coffer. LXTSCBEOX. Baked Welsh rarebit, stewed* potatoes, apple and nut salad, with French dressing; crackers, Jan pulls, tea. DUfNER. Tomato soup, rolled beefsteak. Bermuda* or.ions. creamed carrots, snow pudding with ladyflngers; black coffee. WEDNESDAY _J BRI3AKFAST. Orans?s. cereal and cream, bacoa aa4 fried hominy, rtca muSlos. toast, tea and coffee. LUNCHSON. Etew of beefsteak, onions ana carrots (a left-over), split mufina. toasted (a left over); stuffed potatoes, poor man's pudding. , **" DINNER. Celery cream soupy veal cutlet*, spinach. rr?en pea pancakes, floating island, black coffee. Thursday BREAKFAST. Sliced pineapple, cereal and cream, dim fritters, shortcake, toast, tea, and coffeo. LUNCHEON*. Baked perk and beans, with tomato) sauce; fried French potatoes. shortcak», reheated (a left-over); ginger cookies and cream cheese, cocoa. DINNER. Beef gravy soup, with noodles: stuffed beef's heart, stowed celery mashed aad browned potato. lemon pie. black coffee. FEIDAY - BREAKFAST. Oranges, cerwtl and cream, fishcake* corabread. toast, tea and coCee. LUNCHTON. Lettuce with French dressing, omelet. potato cakes (a left-over), junket and cookie,, tea. '^^^ Oyster bisque, baked btueflsh. potato croquettes. ntewr<l tomatoes. French paa cakas. black coSae. SATURDAY BREAKFAST. • Baked apples, cereal and ereara. cTeara ed fish (a left-over), rrtddte cakes and syrup, toast, tea and coffee. j LUNCHEON. . pork and beans (a left-over), tomato ' toast (a left-over), baked Eotatoes, bread aad raisin pudding, tea. DINNER. "Scrap soup," ln which odda-and-'enda play a, part: corned beef, mashed turnips, celery knobs, wine Jelly and cake, black coffee.