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'■ C *S®*s(i*a@„ | ISSUED EVERY SATURDAY FOR THE EOYS AND GIRLS OF SAN FRANCISCO AND CALIFORNIA ALONZO ffiLrM IBQUBLE .IfflHfclli___lLTO.ffls The Aeroplane: Its Past and Future . ■>■•'£ WALTER J. HELD /.'""Little does one realise-; the. great pos sibilities '■ of aviation ; not only.;for, mili tary,: but!commercial uses. A new in dustry is looming updone that has all the j possibilities similar,, to the tele graph, telephone, "locomotive: and auto mobile,'which were rapidly developed In spite of the misanthropic wiseacres. B) And again, how.HttV one realizes how great ..the sacrifice -of life" and of the years that,have-been' spent and have yet"to be spent before the aeroplane can become a success.;,;, Yet the subject of, aeronautics is not as new as some may presume, either in this country or Europe, .although, it was experimented with hundreds ,- of "years ' before we thought anything about it. As far back as the sixteenth and seventeenth .cen turies Germany. and France made main notable experiments,..for those, times, and the'subject of .aeronautics Was first introduced in this (country* in the time of .Washington, "about 1793. it was brought; about by a Frenchman named .Blanchard In ' Philadelphia, who made a flight In an airship or balloon to the height of 6,812 feet; And although much interest: was: created not many, other experiments were made in America for some,.time. .This only shows how' long the, subject has; been in the minds of some people, and yet the aeroplane Is not yet;practical;,;-7 77 '%- .•." , In the year 1890 many noteworthy ex periments were made by 'Langiey, Maxim;, l.ilienthal and .Octave; Chanute, of r whom '■: all deserve great I credit for their work.*; These men would have had much/better success, as would many lie fore-them, had the lightweight gas en gine I existed* at that time. '- " .! The v gas - engine, .;a:motor '■ of light weight and .; developing .great, horse power, has done more to . forward aero nautical .^achievements - than anything else. '-•.-■".--■'.. 'It was Chanute of America ..who first used a method'of, twisting the.ends of his planes to balance himself in the air, thus "being able: to > overcome any' gust of wind that - threatened? to ..overturn his machine. This Is called lateral*sta bility and; was and is one of! the" most ; Important things about an aeroplane. These early experimentally used motor less aeroplanes *.called gliders made short flights by running down the hill side or over an "embankment* when the wind would |catch underneath the planes and they would go sailing down on the air. .It was while : making ; one •of . these flights that LUlenthal was killed by his machine" turning turtle on 1 him. The glider of Octave Chanute,* in which he maintained stability. Is the foundation on which the modern aeroplane is built. 'It was at the beginning of the twen tieth century that the "Wright brothers were,j after some years of ; experiment ing,- able .. to i take?.up;, the work ,'where Chanute left off. *:■* A few years later ac tive work was done by Curtlss, Baldwin .and - Honeywell ' of ; ; America, .Blerlot. Delagrange, * Volsen," Santos ; Dumopt. : Farman and others of France, also Kle martin of Belgium and? Zeppelin, Oaste and others of Germany. * The great work of these ; men has continued up to; now, when it is at a THE San Francisco CALL SAN, FRANCISCO, MARCH 25, 1911. | standstill. ;as for over a year no great Improvement has been made > on,"the aeroplane excepting a few minor * de tails. The Curtlss, Blerlot, "Farman and Antoinette-machines are Identical: with.those built a year ago. The Wright machine has been changed somewhat by. the addition of a, tail, and, In some machines; a-change in * the control from front to rear." * ■-..*. ... , While the development of the aero plane is at a standstill the Improvement of records .has advanced wonderfully In the last year,* the I heights," speed, etc., attained by the "aeroplane being once, twice and three times greater, titan the year • preceding, and hardly : a , month goes by that somVrecord is not broken. Also that some life'is not taken. '; > ;,-*,I. think maybe,the- power plant of all aeroplanes /will eventually be placed iin front of*the driver. Shall the propeller be in the rear or ; front of the planes? Maybe the engine will be Incased in a racy looking wind shield that will ex tend along the sides of the fusllage.'. In. racing 'machines this; shield will : bend. In a half;arch. in front of tt the driver's seat like i the]*, wind shield of a torpedo type motor car.':, The steering and sta bilizing devices will'be operated by the hands of, the operator, the control of the engine be managed by his feet. But how do we know;; maybe designs and' different kinds of aeroplane from any we ever dreamed of will be used in the years to; come, or something may hap pen so that the aeroplane will be aban doned ?; for ; something else. Who can tell? - ■...:_-_■: OPEN LETTER SECTION Universal Peace JASPER B. SINCLAIR 8 "When the czar of Russia failed to the nations of the earth to gather their representatives: in "an International peace congress at The Hague, the first step had been taken toward establish ing universal peace, for arbitration Is its basis. J • '■' -;' ■'-• * - — ■'■* 7 4-""';7'" 1 Universal peace Is a broad term. It means a groat deal..* It Implies a Utopian .existence and relation between the governments of tin- : world. But this Is a remote possibility at .present. An,everlasting world peace Is a prac tical impossibility, so long as thena- ; tions continue maintaining and increas ing their armies and navies. Each na tion Is crying "Peace!,-; Let- us; have peace," yet they Increase their, armies and navies. *• Universal: peace, must be preceded by International 'disarmament, but the trouble is, no nation is willing to set the example by disarming Itself, thus exposing It to annexation by the other countries.-. The strongest advo cates of universal "peace are those na tions that* are, taxing their energies t to the utmost .to support, and increase their armies and navies. Every na tion. is striving to ..'outdo the other In naval 'and military..supremacy. Does this *J tend toward the - realization of universal peace? .", ■*',',• * Has the world reached that stage in its history When universal, peace may be regarded as a probability? No! It has,not. Arbitration has prevented many wars,, it Is true; but the; world has riot yet" seen the day when peace . -. .-'■■ .',-','. .'■.-•;"'""■'. •-.■- "..'"*.'_.■■•'■■,.,,. , ..'.■'. °^ 77' ; S@efin@i_ Is a near reality.; it is still the dream of philosophers and statesmen. As the Scriptures say: "There shall be*wars, and rumors of ware." The clash of steel, the,rattle, of musketry, the deaf ening roar of v the cannon, and the sulphurous smoke of.battle are not yet" a romance of the past. Each year sees the Invention of some new weapon for dealing death in war; is this an indi cation of an approaching era of peace? Are the well disciplined, machine like "armies and the powerful navies of to day indications'of peace? The attain ment of universal peace .means .the realization of the highest possible de gree of civilization. ** But universal peace Is a practical Impossibility until the nations of the world agree upon a plan of . international disarmament, and until the time "that man -to man the warld o'er shall brother be for a* "•that."' *""-* *'• '.-'"* -* ,' .: - *," - . Prison Reform ROSA BIARKUV; ..Mission High School. Age 14 Years One of the greatest topics being dis cussed today Is whether imprisonment for crime has ever, at any time or in any way, reformed the one concerned. In nine cases.out of every 10 it has not. It has only tended.to render.the char acter of the ] one convicted of a : small crime, thrown. among men more vicious and., hardened than * he, ..worse, than *it was before his imprisonment. The wife and children of a man imprisoned, if he has any, become a -burden to the com munity. Its citizens are compelled to pay for the maintenance of prisons and for the support of strong, able bodied men. when the money so uselessly spent might be given to greater : things—to the building of more and better school houses, to .the erection of, libraries and universities and to the maintenance 'of institutions for the poor,'the blind and the disabled. :.- Our country has many evils—evils which years and years cannot correct but let us. hope that; this Will be • the next one attended,to, am! that our gov ernment shall learn that putting a man upon parole can do and has'done more than placing him behind iron bars. -. » ' '. — '— - ■ Sunday Shoes Some persons, like; one sort of shoo and some. another, but the kind which was desired by Pierre, the : French- - Canadian millhand, has never enjoyed a wide popularity. .-.•■., "Shoes for ,*; Sunday," Pierre stated to the young man who"'advanced to meet; him as he, entered.the salesroom of the big: shoe factory.:-/:*'.,._.. .-.-• He'then sat heavily down on one of the red plush seats and ; allowed .the salesman' to insert his 'feet in a pair, of bright yellow shoes. When 'they were'fairly; on, Pierre stood,, moved his feet this way and that, took, a.few steps, and, shaking his head, sat down again. * ". • -'■ "What's .the,, matter?" , asked*, the clerk. "Do they" hurt you? . Are they tdo,tlght?"?^^#^r*^gpßffl^S_^pj Pierre, shook,his head, violently. : .. "She no tight," he.said, "but also she **- no talk.. Shoes; for Sunday must talk,: talk, all the; way up in church for to,soun* stylish, see?".