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stock a lot of material which was to be used at irreg ular times extending over several months. For con venience of access, it was advisable that it be stored in cabinets. The purchasing agent did not think it necessary to spend one hundred dollars lor cabinets; so the material mi piled on the Boor. Daring the next three months, according to actual tally, the time used by the Workman to pick out the material needed amounted to forty dollars, and thirty-live dollars' worth of product was spoiled by the weight on top. Alter losing seventy-live dollars in three months, the hundred dollars was expended for cases. Often men will bfl seen standing in line to get requisitions signed, when Frequently these requisi tions call for very small quantities of the articles desired, or when, perhaps, the "requisition" System is not needed at all. In a Courteen-slory building, the writer has seen a carpenter at three dollars a day spend half an hour in going to the basement for nails. And if you go into some of the branch de partments, you may Bee <i tune of a dozen men idle. or doing Something "just to keep busy"; because the department bead is bttsy talking to somebody, or making out reports that a clerk should take care of, or attending a committee meeting and can not be in terrupted for the instant that it would take to give approval to the tiling needed, though a subordinate might just as well pass Upon the subject. Some times you will find foremen doing the tasks of ordinary, unskilled workmen — using their hands instead of their eyes ami brains, or spending their time on tilings that should bo done by messenger boys or cheap clerks, or that need not be done at all; or you will find them trusting too much to their memories, thereby becoming monopolists of infor mation of possibly tremendous importance to the house. This is a common condition in all businesses where the custom is not properly to develop under studies for all important positions. It is to the in terest of the employee, whether an ordinary work man or the head of a department, to obtain all possi ble information bearing on his line of work, thereby insuring his continued employment, and increasing his chances of promotion. But, looked at from the point of view of the employer, this custom usually means considerable loss, sooner or later. If the em ployee monopolist should be taken ill, or should go away on a vacation, or be subject to other inter ruption, it means that the work of his department will be sadly crippled during his absence; and, in the event of his death or resignation, the develop THE. MONTHLY MAGAZINE, SECTION Watching the clock for quitting time ineiit of another person to take his place becomes a serious and expensive task. One brighj younir man who, after years of study. had worked out a new line of business, was at last able to interest sufficient capital to start out flourish ingly; and. alter about a year, had built up a pay ing institution. Then he was suddenly taken ill; and. because he had not taken the precaution to train some one to take his place, so that the business could go on without his personal direction, the con cern failed. It" lie bad properly developed an understudy, this could scarcely have happened, and he would have been in an independent con dition today, instead of again working for a salary. Another more or less serious ailment is office jealousy the foreman, superintendent and niau ager sidetracking the suggestions of the workman, foreman and superintendent, respectively; thereby stifling progress, and causing all to lose interestiri the linn. It is a fact, nut generally considered. \\& the employee who does not earn more than he is paid, is of no value to the man who hires him. He must make a profit on the Wages lie gets. There is a manufacturing establishment in West t-iii l'euiisylv"iiniii which does nol encourage inde pendenl investigations bj its employees. One of tbe latter, ■ mechanic invented an appliance; hut tbe superintendent docked tbe man for the time "wasted" in perfecting his apparatus, and unified him to confine himself to what be was given to do. A competing manufacturer saw tbe invention; saw at once that, with a little change, it would be of real value; ami offered the man a higher salary, as well as agreeing t<> pay him a royalty on the profits of the tool. That mechanic is now superintendent of I he competitor's plant, and has crippled his former employer by the further improvements lie has made in reducing the cost of manufacture. In another institution, a clever mechanic was paid nineteen dollars a week. llf asked for an advance of three dollars; did not get it. and resigned. Now the factory is paying twenty-four dollars a week to a less clever workman to do the same work. "Chasing the boss" wasting time by consulting him upon every unimportant ami needless detail. toadying to him, in the hope of favors at the ex pense of the house is another prevalent ailment. There are also chronic strollers, always on the way to do something, but never getting there, and watch u\IX the clock for quitting time. Then in almost every establishment some of the employees are lim ited in their productive capacity by having to do work that they dislike. The proper distribution of floor space is of more importance than is generally comprehended. Too frequently, employees will be found so crowded tjLt gether that they can not do their work to the b<*^ advantage. The ventilating question, which many business men consider to be worthy of consideration only by cranks, may easily become of much im portance where nianv persons are at work in one room. If the air is not fresh, it will not be long be fore the workers will he yawning and somnolent, ( Continued on Page 18 \ GIVERS Marguerite Ogden Bigelow ~~2~ (HERE are a few men and a few women n^_B^L= who stand forever at the doors of life, dispensing plenty. Their hands are * *MljT~- always busy in the distribution of good ~*-\ things. Their hearts are always tree, to be yielded on demand. They offer food to the hungry, shelter to the homeless, clothes to the naked, cleanliness to the lilthv, svin pathy to the sad, courage to the cowardly, and peace to the distraught. To them each festival is an opportunity for making gifts. To their homes, in the dead of night, runs the frantic mother who would get a doctor for her stricken child. To their homes go men who are out of work, for a meal or a word of cheer with small chance of a sermon. To such homes go the old and weak, who are not understood by the young and fresh, and do nt understand them. To such homes go, also, the young and fresh in their turn, eager for aid in each new project. The givers are wearied by many demands on strength and energy. They are tricked and cheated. They becomes the dupes of other peo ple's laziness. Their days are busy, and their nights are not free from interruption. They a* c laughed at by friends and neighbors for being too credulous and kind. Hut they are I lie nlrlit'inisls who niiinutactiirc optimism. Tlipv uc tin' foundation <>n which wt m;iv vet build our faith.