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The San Francisco call. [volume] (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, July 23, 1911, Image 6

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HOW
UNCLE SAM
LOOKS
to the
FEEDING
or his
FAMILY
IN no country are the people fed so well, on the
average, as they arc in the United States. The.
universally acknowledged energy and achievement*
of the .American people and their general good
health and physical prowess would prove this be
yond question, even if a scientific study of the food
supplies of all lands did not do so.
This is the statement, in effect, that has just been
made with the sanction of the government, by Dr.
C. F. Langworthy, the expert in charge of the nutri
tion investigation** of the agricultural department.
Beyond a doubt he is the man who is best fitted in
this country to express an opinion of this kind. What
he says he stands ready to substantiate by facts de
duced in long series of experiments in every part of
the United States under every sort of condition and
facts gathered in a most careful study of similar in
vestigations in the other countries of the world.
Coming as it does at a time when the federal gov
ernment is more actively engaged than ever in its his
tory in the further development of the national food
supply, this statement is of the utmost interest and
importance. It shows that the government is not
pushing this work with increasing energy because the
people of the United States need to be placed upon a
level with other nationalities in the matter of physical
nourishment— it is not undertaking to cure an
evil or supply a deficiency brought about by a back
s'
wardness of the American citizen or a want in the
American soil or the American climate that it
is determined to give the people a still greater ad
vantage over other peoples in this exceedingly im
portant respect.
The nation's food experts are not the sort of men
who deal in mere generalities. A bulletin of the
agricultural department is so full of facts and figure*
that it has come to be a kind of joke among the news
paper and 'magaxine correspondents at Washington,
who are continually looking for something sensa
tional. "Dry" such a bulletin usually is to the man
who skims hastily through it, but there is, as a matter
of fact, nothing more interesting than one of these
THE INTRUDING VILLAIN
Tudor Jenks
s LL was ready for the wedding ceremony. The
bride, a ready for the wedding ceremony. The
bride, a very queen of youth and loveliness in
her rich point do Valenciennes and brocade, ad
vanced to the altar of the little village church to take
that manly arm which was to support and protect her
through life. * - ■"/.','
* There seemed no sign of any cloud upon the bright
ening horizon of her future, and the aged rector re
joiced that he was to pronounce the words that would
seal the happiness of one he had known from child
hood. He enunciated the beautiful words of the mar
riage service with peculiar sympathy and feeling.
All went smoothly until he called upon his hearers
to state any just impediment to the uniting of the
candidates for holy matrimony, "or else hereafter hold
his peace," when there rose from a pew on the center
aisle a tall, dark stranger wearing a heavy cloak.
This ominous figure pronounced these amazing sen
tences: s
"Hold! These lawless nuptials shall not proceed. I
denounce yonder bridegroom as a criminal, a fugitive
from justice, a married man (at least once), and there
fore an attempted bigamist v
Where but a moment.before was idyllic happiness
consternation reigned. Stalwart men advanced threat
eningly toward the audacious stranger, while lovely
women wept or clung in trembling terror to the near
est man.
"Back!" exclaimed ,the intruder, producing a .44
caliber revolver from beneath his cloak and holding
it ready for instant action. The bravest recoiled, and
the stranger, in a voice hoarse with malevolence, de
nounced the amazed bridegroom at the very altar.
"Tremble, hypocrite!" he went on. "Here'are the
legal proofs that establish beyond cavil all I have al
leged!" He waved' a formidable bundle of papers en
wrapped with red tape. "In vain have . you sought,
by shaving off your luxuriant beard, to disguise your
self, Henry Brandon"
"Henry; Brandon!" exclaimed the bride, tossing
back the folds of her snowy veil. "And who, may I
inquire, is Henry Brandon?" V
"The villain who stands yonder," declared, the
scowling stranger, "ready to betray youth and inno
cence. Despite his smoothly shaven cheek I can pen
etrate his disguise and will unmask his scoundrelly
plot!" , BhR
"One moment, sir," insisted the bride, with the
haughty dominance of .her blue blood; "I think you
are in error. This is not Henry Brandon, and he
never had a beard in his life." Then, appealing to the
venerable clergyman, she demanded: "Am I not right,
Doctor Goodheart? You have known dear Charles
from boyhood. Did he ever have a . beard, or "side
whiskers, or even a goatee? I beg of you—speak!"
' "kTcvcr'—as I am rector, and superintendent of trie
Sunday school," was the simple but convincing tes
timony of this good old man.
And at this, psychological moment the form; of
Jawes Spriggins, the respectable negro barber of the
village, rose modestly yet firmly'in the gallery to re
mark: '-
"Dats so/boss. -It sho'ly is! Massa Chawles never
had no beard; and, what's mo', he -can't hardly yet
rajse no mustache!" . '
The stranger gazed uneasily about him and seemed
at a loss. _________P''
"Then, what in the name of heaven;is your name?"
he demanded of the bridegrooni, who was facing his
AMEMCA AS THE BEST FED NATION
fXCEPl "the Few Who Live Below the Poverty
line, the People of'the'United States Fare Better
Than Others, According to Federal Experts
..>*3«_________________H_____________M
Taking a Test Meal in Studies of Digestibility and Nutritive Value of Foods
accuser with calm and defiant disdain upon every
lineament of his aristocratic features.
:. "My stainless name,* quoth he firmly, "as all the
world may know, is Charles Livingstone Debevoise
Dawson./ Only that and nothing more. And my chin
is no more innocent of whiskers than my heart is"
guiltless of those dastardly crimes and misdemeanors
j^^ave slanderously imputed to me! You ought to
be ashamed of yourself!" ";
--* : These bold, brave words were provocative of a sub
dued applause that even the sacredness of the edifice
hardly availed to restrain from rising to an unbecom
ing demonstration..: ";'
The stranger was visibly shaken. pocketed his .
heavy revolver wearily, muttering under his breath,
"Foiled again, Marmaduke!" His next speech was
addressed to the bride:
" "Miss—or madam, whichever this half completed^
ceremony warrants I ask whether your maiden
name is Claire Montmorency?"
"Sir, you may. It is not. I am. Hildegarde Elaine
Bothwell—soon, I hope, to be Dawson./ What, then?"
"I fear that I have made some strange error. Lis
ten. I came," the stranger admitted, "provided with/
forged papers, intending to interrupt the -wedding of
Henry Brandon,,the hero, and Claire Montmorency,
the heroine, of a love story for a popular magazine.
In that story I have the dishonor to be the villain,
But now, after what you have said, I am so doubtful
of the proper course to pursue that I hesitate to shoot
the bridegroom through the shoulder and then to es
cape through the window, as originally-planned. Some
thing has gone wrong—though I don't see what!"
There was a pause. The intellectual brow of Hilde- :
garde Bothwell was bent in deep thought. Suddenly,
as they watched her, they saw, light and intelligence
flashing into her eloquent violet eyes.
"Hal I see it all I" she cried. "Let me explain."
Eagerly they drew near and hung on her lips.
"You," she declared, turning to 'Marmaduke, the "
intruding villain, "don't belong in this story' at all. *I -
believe you have,slipped out of another story by the
same author. In putting together the pages of his
manuscripts he has mixed one page of your story
with ours."
* "It may be," said Marmaduke, breathing '.' deeply.
. "Donlt-you see?" cried the happy Hildegarde.
"You're not the villain and hated rival of this story,
but of the other. Our villain committed suicide in the
tower of the haunted garage, on page 37 of the man-.
uscript, and we're at the happy ending- very last
page. There are only three more paragraphs in our;
- story." „- *._ .
"Hanged if I don't believe you've struck it!" was
Marmaduke's response. "For this is only page 28 of
my story. Now I recall it, I don't • think ours was a
church wedding, either. I'm out of this entirely. With '
your kind permission I'll skip out, with a thousand
apologies for my intrusion." -
But as he slunk out of the church door the.mis
placed villain muttered between his teeth: -•"....-'
"Curses on the careless author! lam foiled in this
plot and may be- too late in the other! Two plots
spoiled by the merest chance! I hate this villain busi
ness anyhow. If I should ■ reform, what would be
come of his manuscripts? Ha, ha! That would be'a
sweet revenge'indeed!", - * ' ~
..And with these words he muffled himself in the
folds of his cloak and hurried away-to trouble thc
coursc of true love.
Lumberman in Maine Woods Whose Habits
Eating Were Studied
publications, representing;as it usually does the ear
nest work of years of some scientist or group of ex
perts, who go upon the "show, me" theory from start
to finish. " """"".'■;•"-/ ■
It has been carefully figured out that men at hard
muscular work in the United States, such as artisans
and laborers, eat: food each day which represents
6,485 calories of energy value for each man and that
of this, energy 6,000 calories are" actually utilized.
A calorie is merely the unit used to measure the heat
or energy value of food, one calorie equaling nearly
.1.54 foot tons. This average for the working men'; of
the United States was reached after a study- of 24
cases in as exhaustive a manner as* possible. A sim
ilar study in Canada shows that the average energy
value of the food eaten by a laborer in that country
'each-day is-about 3,735 calories, of which 3,480 cal
ories are utilized. -
For the English working man f there is no figure
showing • the actual energy value of the • total diet
each.'day, but it has been estimated that the amount
of energy which he expends each" day, and which, of
course, he must get from the food he, eats, is 2,685
calories. " In Sweden and Russia" the average is
slightly higher than in England, but it ; does not ap
proach that ofthe United States. The German work
ing man's diet is also less valuable as a producer of
body energy than that of the same class of men in
the United States by approximately 40 per cent. In
France' it is still less. In Japan -it approaches the
average in the United States, but it is still fully
15 per cent below it. /'•-/■-,
- Doctor Langworthy '.says of his more - recent
studies: , " '- r
"It is interesting to notethat the results of dietary
studies made throughout the United States do not in
dicate any probability of /general undernutrition. In
many • cases families were living on " a very limited
diet, that might be much improved as regards the
kinds and amounts of food'eaten, but such cases were
almost exclusively.found in studies made with people
of such limited incomes that"fh"ey were living below
what has been termed; the 'poverty line.'.ln the great
majority .of families- and groups' which' have been
studied the food has been abundant, though it can.be
said with. equal fairness that many opportunities
exist for improvement as regapdY the rational selec
tion of foods, their economical preparation and use
and. along other similar lines."'
■"; It is these opportunities for improvement that fur
nish the excuse for the existence of Doctor Lang
worthy's office. The eagerness with which the publi
cations of r the office are sought by persons all over
the country is evidence of • the value the
country attaches to the work. Doctor Langworthy
has expressed some of his views on dietetics in this
country in thiswise: v
"That persistent overfeeding is harmful no one
would deny. That grave errors also may attend: the
long continued use of a diet which is markedly de
ficient in nutritive material seems clear from the con
ditions which are, noted in families or larger groups
forced by circumstances to live for long periods of
years on such a diet. It seems almost invariably the
case that such families or groups are in less satisfac
tory physical condition and have a lower productive
capacity for useful work than similar families living
under more- generous conditions. As one instance
may be cited poor families'studied in New York city,
whose diet „was limited, and whose physical , con
dition was much inferior to that of families similarly
situated except for a more generous diet." ,"/.
A distinguished German physiologist named Rub
ner, who has studied this subject in Europe, believes
that the long continued use of a diet of low nutritive
value, and composed largely or exclusively of vegeta
ble foods, such as are commonly eaten by the poorer
people in many. parts : of Europe, is responsible ;. for
their defective physical' condition and lessened ca-
pacity for work, increased' amount of illness, higher
death;rate, lower resistance to epidemic diseases and
similar undesirable results. Numerous inquiries which
have been made "under government auspices abroad
point to the almost unanimous conclusion that phys
ical deterioration is connected with some form of
undernourishment. .'. . * ' ._' • '
Similar studies of farm animals by Dr. H. J. Waters
at the government experiment stations in Missouri
and Kansas indicate that the food supply materially
influences the development of the animal body. This
is regarded ;as of special importance in respect to the
growth of young children, and in ; Doctor Lang
worthy's opinion , clearly shows that there is a good
reason for the general belief that in childhood f the
diet should be generous as well as composed of the
right sort of materials. . ■'-.•'■-'•
* "A special phase of this question," says Doctor,
Langworthy, "which has recently received much at
tention is that of ' underfeeding among the children
in the public schools. . There seems to be little doubt
that many, children in -the ' congested sections of
■ American cities are decidedly, undernourished, though
this;condition seems less widespread than in some
European cities. .; Wherever it exists underfeed-!
ing, is an important factor, in'the arrested physical and
mental development and also in the .tuberculosis and
diseases which are so prevalent {in such con
gested quarters.
"It is not only that many, parents can not.provide
sufficient food for their children, but also that 'they'
frequently provide the wrong food or give the chil
dren pennies with {which to ' buy their own lunches,
with the natural result that they are spent for candy,
chewing gum or questionable,pushcart goods."
Under Doctor/Langworthy's direction a table show
.".'.-'.• . . '. , . ...- .... '„..■■....■
The San Francisco Sunday Call
MllliiiiiiPlil.il uW Imm WillHill 11' ill' lll*-Plllil___ a
ing the different food materials composing the average r
American dietary and their food value has been pre-<_
pared. It is interesting to note that the total of anU^v
rriai foods is considerably less than the total of vege
table foods. .Doctor Langworthy apparently has not
much sympathy; with the purely vegetarian idea of
living, however. He thinks that when, through many 5}
centuries a race of people has become accustomed to
a certain kind of diet and has thrived thereon, aa
the English speaking peoples have done, it is reason*.
. able.to believe that it is the proper diet. '
,', In the American dietary the proportion of beef and
veal is 7.2 per cent, lamb and mutton nine-tenths of
1 per cent, pork and lard 7,2 per cent, and peltry,
seven-tenths of 1 per cent. * When milk and cream,
which furnish 16.5 per cent of the average American
meal/arid fish, eggs, butter and cheese are added, the
proportion of animal food becomes 38.5 per cent. This
may be 'compared with the 30.6 per cent of food mate
rial which the American obtains from cereals, chiefly
wheat, corn, oats and rice. Including fresh vegeta
bles and fruits, sugar and starch, the total- of vege
table foods is brought up to 61.2 per cent of the whole
diet.
The food of a country, a family or an individual is
to a great extent determined by circumstances. Doc
tor Langworthy believes it is unreasonable to suppose,
as many popular writers have done, doubtless led
thereto by Plato's reasoning on* the subject, that in
some remote age of the past the race lived on fruits,
nu*s and other similar foods exclusively, and that,
owing to circumstances which are not set forth, it
was diverted from such an existence and adopted the
omnivorous habits which have,characterized it for so
long a period. •
It is asserted by anthropologists that man in his
first stages of development lived without much choice^ |
as to his food, eating whatever he could obtain the
most easily and being fitted by his rise from earlier
forms of life to live on an exceedingly large variety
of foodstuffs/ If he happened. to be an inhabitant of
seacoast regions shell fish and other sea food were
eaten. in quantity. If he lived inland, where nuts,
wild roots and seed bearing grasses were abundant,
these -were used for food. No one can doubt also that
in all localities birds and their eggs and any other
animal food that was available were eaten.
Doctor Langworthy says there are three great
epochs in man's diet, namely: The early hunting pe
riod, in which he depended entirely on a natural sup
ply of both animal and vegetable food; the cooking
period, in which man still* used a natural supply of
food, but prepared it for use with the aid of heat, and
lastly, the so called "cibicultural," or food producing
period—that is, the period in which man has de
pended upon the cultivation of both flocks and herds
and field and garden crops to supplement a wild sup
ply of foods.
Fish are still obtained in great quantities from the
teas and rivers by civilized man, but with this ex
ception he depends almost altogether on food which
is produced'through his own efforts directed in vari
ous lines of agricultural and kindred pursuits.
Cracked,: charred - and j broken marrowbones . are
found today among the remains of the cave dwellers,
showing plainly that wild animals were used as food.
In the same way the remains of the prehistoric lake
dwellers of Europe include the grains which made
Home of Family in Tennessee Mountains
the bread of -that, remote period. .If early man can ;
be judged by the customs of very primitive races still
extant, like the Australian aborigines, insects, seeds,
animals, roots and, indeed,.anything which could be '
eaten were readily used. A theory exists that the ',4?
polar inhabitants of today;are the direct representa- '
tives of the glacial epoch. If this is the case the food >:
habits of the Eskimo of North America and other *\
polar: regions should provide data regarding condi
tions in that prehistoric age. The Eskimo from ne
cessity lives almost exclusively on animal food, the
energy yielding blubber arid* the other fat, together. '
with the meat, making a more or less well balanced
diet. BB__MB_f__m
: ' Studies along "similar lines of the diet of the Ameri
can Indian, orientals of various and other peo
ples over the world have led Doctor Langworthy to
his opinion that in general the food habits of the hu
man race are an expression ofHhe thousands of years
of experience in which man has sought to bring him
self into harmony with his environment, and food
habits have been determined, so far as the materials
selected i are concerned, by the available supply, man
being by nature an omnivorous animal, desiring and
thriving on as great a variety of nourishing food as it
is possible to obtain.
He is convinced that no country today, is able to
furnish "__d does furnish its inhabitants with as great
a variety of these nourishing foods that are required
to make up a well balanced diet as the United States.
He is equally certain that there is great room for im
provement , even here. There ;is no more enthusiastic
man in the department "of agriculture over 'the great
work that is being done there to increase arid improve
the quality of .the food supply for the American peo
ple ( than Doctor Langworlhjf,

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