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New Telephone to Catch the Sounds of N and M. WE all talk through our noses. There are certain sounds that cannot be produced except through the nose. If we never knew this before, we learn it when we have a cold In the head and our noses are stopped up. Try to say "Many men, many minds" with the nose stopped, and it sounds like "Beddy bed, beddy bides." That is because the sounds of -'m".and "n" are produced with the mouth closed— by the lips in the case of "m," by the tongue in the case of "n" —and the ex pired air must pass through the nose. '' The geniuses who perfected the tele phone forgot or neglected this fact Dr. Jules Glover, physician of the Dr. Jules Glover using hie new nose Telephone. ' Paris Conservatoire, where young men and women are taught the arts of act ing and declamation, observed that the purely nasal sounds— which there are many more In French than In Eng lishwere poorly heard over the tele phone, and wondered whether this might not be due to the fact that the telephone transmit* only the sounds that issue from the mouth. To test 'how much sound came from the mouth and how much from the nose, Dr. Glover fastened two mirrors together at right angles, the polished sides out ward, and placed these so that one was below the nose and the other in front of the mouth, as shown in the accom What the Air Is Like Twenty-Three Miles Up. »*r»HE highest point ever reached by i * man-made mechanism Is 87,700 j metres, or about 23% miles. No man has ever been anywhere near so far away from the earth; but a balloon sent up on Dec. 17, 1912, from the ob servatory at Pavia, recorded this alti tude. The balloon was of rubber, In flated with hydrogen and furnished with a parachute. It was 1,900 milli metres, or about 8 feet 3 Inches In diameter, and carried automatic meteorological Instruments. These re-; corded a minimum temperature of — 66 9-10 deg. C, not, however, at the highest point reached, but at 19.730 metres, or about 12% miles high. Until 14-5 miles up the thermometer fluc tuated between 10 degrees above zero C, the temperature at which it started, and zero, which it reached at about two miles. Then came a rapid drop, until Just above the usual level of the cirrus clouds, or about seven miles up, — 65% C. were registered. At this the thermometer remained steady for sev- 1 eral miles, then rose slightly, again > descended to —56 9-10 C. at about 12% j miles, from which It steadily rose. At I the highest point It reached — 51 3-5 C.j came a rapid drop, until just above the usual level of the cirrus clouds, or about seven miles up, — 55%* C. were ; registered. At this the thermometer remained steady for several miles, then ' rose slightly, again descended to — 56 9-10 C. at about 12% miles, from which it steadily rose. At the highest point It reached — 51 3-5 C. The earth is surrounded by air called the atmosphere. How thick this Emotion, Not Insanity, in Militant Suffragettes. r\R. T. CLAVE SHAW, the famous *-* English physician and writer on medical topics, has just made a study of the psychology of the militant suf fragette. Many people say the women who commit arson, hurl bombs and starve themselves In prison are in sane, because lunatics may act in the same way. Dr. Shaw says this is Illogical, because the actions of the insane spring from a different class of motive. "The actions of the In sane," he writes, "are the Impulsive or the deliberate working out of their false Ideas, and the result generally shows the invalidity of the motive, but the militant suffragette has in many particulars justified her actions. She has gone on hunger strike and has been successful in procuring the abandonment of artificial feeding and in getting the term of her imprison ment shortened, and by her polemic panying diagrams. Then he made the; person to whose face he had applied them speak various sounds and/sins various notes: while he watched the j clouding of the mirrors by the breath. j A person/ singing the nasal "an"'j (which is pronounced like the English j "ang" with the "g" cut out) on middle j C produced with his nostrils two clouds ; on the upper mirror and with his i mouth one cloud on the lower. As be , ascended the scale, however, the nose- j made clouds diminished in sise, for the nasality of the sound became less and less as the voice rose higher. By the | ! time G immediately above the staff was j reached the "an'.' sound became "a j i and the clouds on the nose-mirror had : vanished- Dr. Glover constructed a diagram of tbe vocal passages showing that as the note goes higher \ the soft palate is stretched tauter and gradually narrows the passage from throat to nose \ until this is entirely closed. The arrows on the diagrams point to the soft palate, leaving the nose open in the . picture on the left and closing It In the picture on the right. -'"-= . The sonority of the sounds that Issue directly from the mouth differs from that of those that issue only from tbe nose, and when as in' the French nasals and in many of our words which a vowel is closely associated \ Diagram showing how we apeak through our noses in making certain sounds. blanket Is no one knows, but it baa certain definitely defined layers or strata, the thickness of which hag often been measured. The pioneer -in this atmospheric exploration was M. Leon Teisserenc. de Bort, who founded the j observatory at Trappes, France, and j died only a few weeks ago. As one rises from sea-level, either In j Diagram of this cur; figures below are temperatures at varying heights indicated by broken lines. measures she has made many think that the best way of pacifying her Is by treating her as a naughty / child and giving her all she wants. There is no evidence of insanity In this— on the contrary, It has all the charac teristics of very sane procedure." Dr. Shaw lays emphasis"upon the importance of feeling in acts of the will, and says "both feeling and emo tion are strongly developed elements of the female mind." So Is "mono ideism" or devotion to some subject that carries with It a strong emotional tone. ■ ///- . It is, according to Dr. Shaw, the personal character of women, of which men are comparatively Igno rant, which makes them commit theso voluntary and impulsive actions/We still know little of the real character of women, and Dr. Shaw believes we shall have absolute full knowledge with an "m" or an "n," the sound is sues from both mouth and nose, this sound Is a combination'of- two sonori ties.' t , '- : ' From his experiments and his, analy els of. their meaning: Dr. Glover came to the conclusion that, as "m" arid "n" are among the most commonly / used sounds, | these are not; transmitted over the telephone at all, or only indirectly. The syllables "ma" "me," "ml,"' "mo," "mv,'' "am," "em," "im," "om," "urn," "na," "ne," "el," "no," "nu," "an," "en," "in," "on,"' "un" are also Im perectly transmitted through the con sonant /sound being, lost. Dr. Glover set. to work to / devise a telephone receiver that would transmit not only the buccal sounds, but the nasal as well. 'The result of bis labors was shown and/ described by Prof. rsonval;to the French Academy of Sciences in April. It was a telephone with a* double receiver—one for the nose, \ one for the ' mouth. Each of these contains a microphone, and these microphones are differently sensitive. There are many other/ interesting de tails about its construction, but these are too technical to interest any ; one but an: electrician. The combination if them, however, makes a telephone of such keen sensitiveness that it permits the prediction of transatlantic tele phoning In the not distant future. I a balloon or in climbing a mountain, the density of the air sensibly de creases and the temperature dimin ishes. , ; / _ . ; ' :'<■ The atmosphere may. be divided Into three parts. The first extends from sea-level to about 10,000 feet high. ■ In this layer is almost all the water vapor or cloud and all the dust in it all the storms take place. The tem perature tends to decrease, but very Irregularly. The second layer extends to between six or seven miles high. Iv it are the cirrus clouds; the tem perature decreases uniformly. Man cannot go beyond it. On July 31, 1901, Berson, In a balloon, rose to a height of 10,800 metres, or 35,434 feet, the highest ever reached by man. ■ These two layers together are called ' the troposphere, because in them all the vertical movements of the air take place. Beyond them is the strato sphere, in which any movements of the air are in planes parallel to the earth's surface. The temperatures recorded at differ ent heights by the balloon sent up from Pavia are approximately those found in the upper regions all over the world, but it has been found that near the poles rib such cold is found at in the air over the tropics. The: tem perature of the tropical air falls more rapidly, because the air is dry, arid it continues falling for.a.longer time, be cause the troposphere is thicker than in the arctic regions, and it is always coldest where the troposphere ends and the stratosphere begins. At nine to ten miles high over the equator It is 20 or 30 degrees colder than it is over Lapland, according to observations made, in 1906, 1907 and 1908 by W. Teisserenc de Bort. thereof, "but," he continues, "recent events have made it clear that the personal factor contains elements of l an intensity and range hitherto unap preciated, and we have been aston ished at what has been seen, though still allowing that further develop ments of action will probably widen our knowledge./ And just ,as men have underestimated the /emotional strength and Intensity of concentrated j Idelsm In women, so have women been —and still ; are—mistaken in their es timate of the character of men. Until |it is evident to them that their efforts to obtain what* they want by violent means / are ineffectual they will pur s sue their present tactics, When they ' find men are not to be beaten Into ; compliance they will stop t their futile I practices—-not before. Meanwhile, as i long as the present attitude of /the . male "element: lasts the war of the LET ME TAKE YOU TO THAT RAG TIME BALL Copyrightl9lß.byßdgarSeld«iMtt»ioPab.*ProtlucUonCo.NewYorlt. UtHHfttMti Copyright Sewed. AH Bights BettTvtd .... * ■.-, -'...-■ - ... ■'■■-.■-.■ * ...-■--.-■..-..■ sexes must continue." The old Idea that women were; nor mally "better" than men is now ex | ploded. Men /at last recognise ' how far 1 strong (emotion will, lead women, I arid have I ceased ; /tc be astonished \at j anything they may do. Just as .criminals f pit their clever i ness against/ society they find Words and Music by nil Herbert rki/nes out that society Is too 'clever. for them, so the crime of -v the militant / suffra gette "is founded On her non-compre hension / that V. men /do not Intend //to give ; her what she wants; but .when she is found out in her criminal acts and %Is sent to prison she //discovers that \by a \ strong ; display of " personal character in refusing food and endur 1 ing the resultant bad health she ob tains her discbarge, so that punish ment only confirms her idea that the remedy for her wrongs is in her own hands, and 'that she will ultimately compel men to change their personal |factor as it stands at present. Herein ; lies| her mistake >in all / probability." I Emotion. ] not ~ insanity THE MINUTENESS OF MOLECULES. If /we try to count the number of molecules contained in one cubic mil limetre of ' hydrogen gas, first: arrang ing them in groups of a billion each, it would take a thousand years to count these groups. So writes M. 8011, a French physicist, in Illustrating* the powerlessness of • figures.