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ANTI-TOXINS ARE AMMUNITION OF THE DEFENDERS OF THE BLOOD OERUMB seem destined to take the place of medicines In the treat ment of diseases. We have all been familiar from childhood with the serum used in vaccination against smallpox. Of recent years we have heard much of vaccination against typhoid fever, and such of us as are oemDcrs of the army or the National Guaru have had this anti-typhoid serum injected into us. Diphtheria is being cured with an anti-toxin, and only lately a serum has been used most successfully in curing car buncles. All the world has been discussing Dr. Friedmann s serum that he says will cure tuberculosis, and two conti nents are anxiously watching the re sult of the tests made in New York by him. Within the last few weeks it has been announced that a serum that will cure pneumonia is being per fected at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, and that Prof. Beh-1 ring has so improved upon the diph theria anti-toxin that it is now per fectly harmless and lasting in its effects. These serums are the result of study of the action of the blood in health and disease and of researches j in microscopy. To discover a serum It is first necessary to isolate the bacteria or bacilli or germs that cause' BLOWING BOTTLES FULL OF AIR TO CURE VARIOUS LUNG AFFECTIONS rxtEP breathing exercises, so bene facial to persons tn ordinary good health, are often too tiring for those to whom they would do most good— those, for example, who are suffering from some disease Of the lungs. Dr. Pescher of Paris, having to treat a child with pleurisy, desired to give her pulmonary gymnastics, but found it impossible to make use of the or dinary procedure. So he deviaed a novel scheme of his own, which he calls the "bottle system." When one takes a bottle full of water aad reverses it into a vessel containing a little water the bottle does not empty. But if one take ft rubber tube, insert one end into the bottle and blow through the other, he can drive out all the water, the place of which will be taken by th« air he expires. Upon this elemen tary fact of physics Dr. Pescher bases his system. The quantity of air that ordinarily circulates in the lungs of an adult is about a pint; in those of a child it Is about two-thirds of a pint. When one blows a quart of air into a bottle he is performing an intensive act of respiration, for he has doubled the normal quantity of air circulating in his lungs. In this case of Dr. Pescher's child patient he gave her pint bottles to blow the water out of, making her repeat the performance twenty times in the morning and a 9 often at night. PLATINUM WHICH IS TWICE EXPENSIVE AS GOLD Robert Francis Nattan PLATINUM Is among the most pre cious metals la existence. It is now more than twice as expensive as gold. The metal has been utilized more extensively during the past few years than ever before in the Jewelry industry, in the chemical laboratory and In the scientific and the industrial world. Notwithstanding the fact that plati num is far less ductile than silver and gold, It has, nevertheless, been pos sible to utilize it for wires as fine as .0000 mm. in diameter. At this fine thinness it Is Impossible to finish plat inum wire without impairing it, so the platinum Is insulated with silver, the wire is drawn to the required size and the sllrer coating is removed. Platinum wire is used to excellent advantage for electric light bulbs, the co-efflclent of expansion of platinum and glass being about the same. Its high melting point also makes it very GAS STOVES, AND SOME VERY EXCELLENT POINTERS ON HOW TO CARE FOR THEM * F a gas stove is cared for properly in 1 the everyday routine H is a simple matter to keep it clean. It need never be blackened, but a weekly washing ingJue aud out with soap and water and a stiff little brush, followed by a thor ough drying off, with the oven burners lighted, will keep it bright. Th,e daily care means an immediate removal of anything spilled or spat tered on the stove or in the ovens- The stifle tray under the burners should be washed da'iy and scrubbed, if neces sary; otherwise It soon becomes crust ed over with dust and grease. If the gas flame is red or blows try relighting. the disease. These are so minute that they can be seen only when artificially colored and looked at through the most powerful of microscopes. Some of them are so small that they have ( not yet been found. These germs get Into the blood, either by way of the mouth or through some wound or cut. They at once attack the red corpuscles, which MM the life-carrying principle of the blood. They eat up the red cor- puscles and multiply with the most extraordinary rapidity. But the white! corpuscles—or certain forms of them called phagocytes—which are the po- j licemen of the blood, attack the in- ' 1 truders and eat them up. When there ( i are enough of the phagocytes and j these are strong enough, they soon' rout the attacking army. But if the; I white corpuscles are weak or not nu-; 1 merous enough the invaders destroy ■ I the red corpuscles and cause death. The body has also a second line of j defease against these enemies. There . < are within it certain organs or ceils ;1 which secrete fluids that actually 11 dissolve the disease germs or that j neutralise the poisons which they: i produce. These fluids are called anti- j j toxins. The more poison tbe bacteria ' \ pour into the blood the more the cells < that produce anti-toxins are stimu- 2 lated to pour them forth. So that \ there is really a double battle going', on in the blood. |i Wben any animal has a certain die- < After a few days he increased it to thirty bottles, and later on to more, at the same time increasing the size of the bottles. The child enjoyed the game and was soon emptying half gallon bottles with one expiration. The result of these pulmonary gym nastics was astonishing; the pleurisy diminished rapidly, the lungs became normal, and in a few weeks the chili was cured. Dr. Pescher was so encouraged that he has made this bottle system s regular part of his treatment, gradu ating the slae of the bottle and the number of "doses" according to cir icumstances. Dr. A. Cartaz reports to ,La Nature that in all cases in which desirable for this purpose. The use of the metal in dentistry has been somewhat curtailed in recent years because of the high price. Platinum is now finding favor among artists, who use it to embellish picture frames, in which it makes an excellent contrast with gold. It always retains its color and is not tarnished by sul phur fumes. When a high temper and elasticity are required in platinum it is neces sary to add iridium. This alloy offers great resistance to intense heat and strong acids. An alloy oi 90 per cent, platinum and 10 per cent iridium is tsed for writing pens as well as for points of fountain pens. In the silver industry platinum is used for the construction of distillery covers. These must be made from a material which will resist various acids and high temperature. There is no other metal which possesses so many advantages in this respect as platinum. Notwithstanding its great first letting the gao How rt few secomis. ll this does not remedy the trouble there is probably a collection of dust or other foreign matter wnich Interferes. Brush out the burner openings care fully and then light the gas directly at the cock in order to bum out the dust. A persistent trouble of this sort should be referred to the gas company. In lighting the oven the torch or pilot should always be uted and then turned off. This is simply for lighting, not for heat. Another precaution which certain housekeepers have been known to neglect is never to leave the broiling pan in the oven when it is not In use. It becomes roughened and burned If left in the heat when empty ease Its body produces large quanti ties of the particular anti-toxin that will fight that disease. If the blood of this animal be introduced into an other animal the latter will get the disease, but In a milder form, and will at the same time be stimulated to se crete large quantities of the anti toxin. It is now capable of resisting any atack by an army of powerful germs and become "Immune" to the real disease. If its blood be drawn and filtered to free it from red and white corpuscles tbe serum that is left is merely the watery part of the blood heavily charged with the anti-toains of that disease. This, injected into the blood of a person suffering from it, rein forces the anti-toxins already there and speedily routs tbe enemy by neu tralising the poisons that the toxic germs are liberating. Serum is prepared in two ways— one by taking it from the blood of an other animal, and the other by a cul ture from the blood of the patient himself. There are only one or two diseases that can be cured by medicine. In »11 others the medicine Is given mere ly to stimulate the natural production 3f anti-toxin. If we knew how to nake an anti-toxin for every disease we should have no more use for medi cine. Tbe uumber of diseases for which anti-toxins are being discov sred is multiplying year by year. | the lungs are affected in a way to produce shortness of breath the treat ment is most effective. It is neces sary to begin gradually, with pint bot ; ties for children, quarts for adults, progressing to quart or even half gallon bottles for tbe former and gal lon bottles for the latter. The air should be slowly and 'steadily inhaled through the nose; it i should be blown out slowly and stead j lly through the mouth. Between each action there should be a few moments |of rest. Twice a day, with from ten to Jifty "doses" at each, regulated ac cording to the strength and age of the patient. Is the method of applying 1 this "bottle system." resisting power platinum must be pro tected against certain elements. These Include phosphorus, brimstone and glowing coal. It will be well to remember that platinum when brought in contact with j melting metal will easily form an alloy. Lead and zinc when combined with platinum make it brittle. In color platinum is bluish-gray, and although to the inexperienced eye sil j ver, nickel and aluminum look some j thing like it, the flrst two are attacked ! quickly by nitric acid, while alum j mum is so very light In comparison I with platinum that it would be difficult j ro mistake one for the other. ) Platinum ia the heaviest commercial j metal known. Its specific gravity is L'l.S, as compared with 19.26 for pure jgold and 10.53 for silver.. Briefly, plati i turn is 21Vs times as heavy as water, more than twice the weight of silver i and heavier, bulk for bulk, than pure gold. It is softer than iron, but aome wbat harder than copper. One little habit of ill regulated burners is their "popping" when light ed. This lg the result of an oversupply ol air and can be regulated by turning the "mixer." the open cap-shaped ar laugement close to each handle. After seven or eight years* use the oveu may ueed a new lining. It is economy to have it put in as soon as It Is needed. With proper planning a gas range can be used very cheaply, and that without deprivation in any line of ccoklng Some appliances which make this possible are the steam cooker, which cooks many dishes over one burner, and section .saucepans in groups of two or three, which can also be used over one burner. HELLO HONEY V7ORDS BY MUSIC By GEORGE V.HOBART RAyMOND HUBBELL Copyright MCMXIU by T.B.Harms & Francis, Day & Hunter, N.Y Inmnational CepyxigW Seottrcd. All Rights Reserved. Many housekeepers have found a j one-burner oveu, which sets on the | top of the range, a decided economy, i and say that it soon pays for itself in the gas saved. This also solves the problem of a warming oven, the ab sence of which is tbe one objection to the gas range. For most families it is worth while to have sheet iron baking sheets made to fit the oven, and a slide tray for the Miss Elizabeth Brice Suncr bottom of the oveu, like tbe one uodar the burners, makes it easier lv keep tbe oven dean. Another appliance, whiun it new, is a wire screen for the top ot the broiling oven This is of wire, strengthened at the four sides with Strips of sheet iron or tin. It acts aa a flame spreader and preveats the scorch ing of any food which is being broiled or roasted in the lower oven. It slips in on the upper support }ust below the flame, while the meat or toast is on the shelf below. A toaster for the top burners is made on the same principle, the toast being held on two wire* just above a small wire screen of similar construction. A cast iron lid for the top burner is a great convenience for boating flatirons and for cooking griddlecakes, while a sheet iron lid, which becomes nearly red hot, is excellent for toast making. The range should be set o" zinc tm convenience in cleaning, and its posi tion in the room should be carefully considered. If possible have it ueaf the meter, thus saving superfluous pipe laying; also have it near enough to the window for coolness, but never in a draught. If one will take the trouble to ; read her own meter, which is a sim ple enough matter, she will find it quite worth while.