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The San Francisco call. [volume] (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, July 20, 1913, Image 23

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85066387/1913-07-20/ed-1/seq-23/

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Things Worth Knowing
ANTI-TOXINS ARE AMMUNITION OF THE DEFENDERS OF THE BLOOD
OERUMB seem destined to take the
place of medicines In the treat
ment of diseases. We have all been
familiar from childhood with the
serum used in vaccination against
smallpox. Of recent years we have
heard much of vaccination against
typhoid fever, and such of us as are
oemDcrs of the army or the National
Guaru have had this anti-typhoid
serum injected into us. Diphtheria
is being cured with an anti-toxin, and
only lately a serum has been used
most successfully in curing car
buncles.
All the world has been discussing
Dr. Friedmann s serum that he says
will cure tuberculosis, and two conti
nents are anxiously watching the re
sult of the tests made in New York
by him.
Within the last few weeks it has
been announced that a serum that
will cure pneumonia is being per
fected at the Rockefeller Institute for
Medical Research, and that Prof. Beh-1
ring has so improved upon the diph
theria anti-toxin that it is now per
fectly harmless and lasting in its
effects.
These serums are the result of
study of the action of the blood in
health and disease and of researches j
in microscopy. To discover a serum
It is first necessary to isolate the
bacteria or bacilli or germs that cause'
BLOWING BOTTLES FULL OF AIR TO CURE VARIOUS LUNG AFFECTIONS
rxtEP breathing exercises, so bene
facial to persons tn ordinary good
health, are often too tiring for those
to whom they would do most good—
those, for example, who are suffering
from some disease Of the lungs. Dr.
Pescher of Paris, having to treat a
child with pleurisy, desired to give
her pulmonary gymnastics, but found
it impossible to make use of the or
dinary procedure. So he deviaed a
novel scheme of his own, which he
calls the "bottle system."
When one takes a bottle full of
water aad reverses it into a vessel
containing a little water the bottle
does not empty. But if one take ft
rubber tube, insert one end into the
bottle and blow through the other,
he can drive out all the water, the
place of which will be taken by th«
air he expires. Upon this elemen
tary fact of physics Dr. Pescher bases
his system.
The quantity of air that ordinarily
circulates in the lungs of an adult is
about a pint; in those of a child it Is
about two-thirds of a pint. When one
blows a quart of air into a bottle he
is performing an intensive act of
respiration, for he has doubled the
normal quantity of air circulating in
his lungs.
In this case of Dr. Pescher's child
patient he gave her pint bottles to
blow the water out of, making her
repeat the performance twenty times
in the morning and a 9 often at night.
PLATINUM WHICH IS TWICE EXPENSIVE AS GOLD
Robert Francis Nattan
PLATINUM Is among the most pre
cious metals la existence. It is
now more than twice as expensive as
gold. The metal has been utilized
more extensively during the past few
years than ever before in the Jewelry
industry, in the chemical laboratory
and In the scientific and the industrial
world.
Notwithstanding the fact that plati
num is far less ductile than silver
and gold, It has, nevertheless, been pos
sible to utilize it for wires as fine as
.0000 mm. in diameter. At this fine
thinness it Is Impossible to finish plat
inum wire without impairing it, so the
platinum Is insulated with silver, the
wire is drawn to the required size and
the sllrer coating is removed.
Platinum wire is used to excellent
advantage for electric light bulbs, the
co-efflclent of expansion of platinum
and glass being about the same. Its
high melting point also makes it very
GAS STOVES, AND SOME VERY EXCELLENT
POINTERS ON HOW TO CARE FOR THEM
* F a gas stove is cared for properly in
1 the everyday routine H is a simple
matter to keep it clean. It need never
be blackened, but a weekly washing
ingJue aud out with soap and water and
a stiff little brush, followed by a thor
ough drying off, with the oven burners
lighted, will keep it bright.
Th,e daily care means an immediate
removal of anything spilled or spat
tered on the stove or in the ovens- The
stifle tray under the burners should be
washed da'iy and scrubbed, if neces
sary; otherwise It soon becomes crust
ed over with dust and grease. If the
gas flame is red or blows try relighting.
the disease. These are so minute that
they can be seen only when artificially
colored and looked at through the
most powerful of microscopes. Some
of them are so small that they have (
not yet been found.
These germs get Into the blood,
either by way of the mouth or
through some wound or cut. They at
once attack the red corpuscles, which
MM the life-carrying principle of the
blood. They eat up the red cor-
puscles and multiply with the most
extraordinary rapidity. But the white!
corpuscles—or certain forms of them
called phagocytes—which are the po- j
licemen of the blood, attack the in- ' 1
truders and eat them up. When there ( i
are enough of the phagocytes and j
these are strong enough, they soon'
rout the attacking army. But if the; I
white corpuscles are weak or not nu-; 1
merous enough the invaders destroy ■ I
the red corpuscles and cause death.
The body has also a second line of j
defease against these enemies. There . <
are within it certain organs or ceils ;1
which secrete fluids that actually 11
dissolve the disease germs or that j
neutralise the poisons which they: i
produce. These fluids are called anti- j j
toxins. The more poison tbe bacteria ' \
pour into the blood the more the cells <
that produce anti-toxins are stimu- 2
lated to pour them forth. So that \
there is really a double battle going',
on in the blood. |i
Wben any animal has a certain die- <
After a few days he increased it to
thirty bottles, and later on to more,
at the same time increasing the size
of the bottles. The child enjoyed the
game and was soon emptying half
gallon bottles with one expiration.
The result of these pulmonary gym
nastics was astonishing; the pleurisy
diminished rapidly, the lungs became
normal, and in a few weeks the chili
was cured.
Dr. Pescher was so encouraged that
he has made this bottle system s
regular part of his treatment, gradu
ating the slae of the bottle and the
number of "doses" according to cir
icumstances. Dr. A. Cartaz reports to
,La Nature that in all cases in which
desirable for this purpose.
The use of the metal in dentistry has
been somewhat curtailed in recent
years because of the high price.
Platinum is now finding favor among
artists, who use it to embellish picture
frames, in which it makes an excellent
contrast with gold. It always retains
its color and is not tarnished by sul
phur fumes.
When a high temper and elasticity
are required in platinum it is neces
sary to add iridium. This alloy offers
great resistance to intense heat and
strong acids. An alloy oi 90 per cent,
platinum and 10 per cent iridium is
tsed for writing pens as well as for
points of fountain pens.
In the silver industry platinum is
used for the construction of distillery
covers. These must be made from a
material which will resist various
acids and high temperature. There is
no other metal which possesses so
many advantages in this respect as
platinum. Notwithstanding its great
first letting the gao How rt few secomis.
ll this does not remedy the trouble
there is probably a collection of dust or
other foreign matter wnich Interferes.
Brush out the burner openings care
fully and then light the gas directly
at the cock in order to bum out the
dust. A persistent trouble of this sort
should be referred to the gas company.
In lighting the oven the torch or
pilot should always be uted and then
turned off. This is simply for lighting,
not for heat. Another precaution
which certain housekeepers have been
known to neglect is never to leave the
broiling pan in the oven when it is not
In use. It becomes roughened and
burned If left in the heat when empty
ease Its body produces large quanti
ties of the particular anti-toxin that
will fight that disease. If the blood
of this animal be introduced into an
other animal the latter will get the
disease, but In a milder form, and will
at the same time be stimulated to se
crete large quantities of the anti
toxin. It is now capable of resisting
any atack by an army of powerful
germs and become "Immune" to the
real disease.
If its blood be drawn and filtered to
free it from red and white corpuscles
tbe serum that is left is merely the
watery part of the blood heavily
charged with the anti-toains of that
disease. This, injected into the blood
of a person suffering from it, rein
forces the anti-toxins already there
and speedily routs tbe enemy by neu
tralising the poisons that the toxic
germs are liberating.
Serum is prepared in two ways—
one by taking it from the blood of an
other animal, and the other by a cul
ture from the blood of the patient
himself.
There are only one or two diseases
that can be cured by medicine. In
»11 others the medicine Is given mere
ly to stimulate the natural production
3f anti-toxin. If we knew how to
nake an anti-toxin for every disease
we should have no more use for medi
cine. Tbe uumber of diseases for
which anti-toxins are being discov
sred is multiplying year by year.
| the lungs are affected in a way to
produce shortness of breath the treat
ment is most effective. It is neces
sary to begin gradually, with pint bot
; ties for children, quarts for adults,
progressing to quart or even half
gallon bottles for tbe former and gal
lon bottles for the latter.
The air should be slowly and
'steadily inhaled through the nose; it
i should be blown out slowly and stead
j lly through the mouth. Between each
action there should be a few moments
|of rest. Twice a day, with from ten
to Jifty "doses" at each, regulated ac
cording to the strength and age of
the patient. Is the method of applying
1 this "bottle system."
resisting power platinum must be pro
tected against certain elements. These
Include phosphorus, brimstone and
glowing coal.
It will be well to remember that
platinum when brought in contact with
j melting metal will easily form an alloy.
Lead and zinc when combined with
platinum make it brittle.
In color platinum is bluish-gray, and
although to the inexperienced eye sil
j ver, nickel and aluminum look some
j thing like it, the flrst two are attacked
! quickly by nitric acid, while alum
j mum is so very light In comparison
I with platinum that it would be difficult
j ro mistake one for the other.
) Platinum ia the heaviest commercial
j metal known. Its specific gravity is
L'l.S, as compared with 19.26 for pure
jgold and 10.53 for silver.. Briefly, plati
i turn is 21Vs times as heavy as water,
more than twice the weight of silver
i and heavier, bulk for bulk, than pure
gold. It is softer than iron, but aome
wbat harder than copper.
One little habit of ill regulated
burners is their "popping" when light
ed. This lg the result of an oversupply
ol air and can be regulated by turning
the "mixer." the open cap-shaped ar
laugement close to each handle. After
seven or eight years* use the oveu may
ueed a new lining. It is economy to
have it put in as soon as It Is needed.
With proper planning a gas range
can be used very cheaply, and that
without deprivation in any line of
ccoklng Some appliances which make
this possible are the steam cooker,
which cooks many dishes over one
burner, and section .saucepans
in groups of two or three, which
can also be used over one burner.
HELLO HONEY
V7ORDS BY MUSIC By
GEORGE V.HOBART RAyMOND HUBBELL
Copyright MCMXIU by T.B.Harms & Francis, Day & Hunter, N.Y
Inmnational CepyxigW Seottrcd. All Rights Reserved.
Many housekeepers have found a
j one-burner oveu, which sets on the
| top of the range, a decided economy,
i and say that it soon pays for itself in
the gas saved. This also solves the
problem of a warming oven, the ab
sence of which is tbe one objection to
the gas range.
For most families it is worth while
to have sheet iron baking sheets made
to fit the oven, and a slide tray for the
Miss Elizabeth Brice
Suncr
bottom of the oveu, like tbe one uodar
the burners, makes it easier lv keep tbe
oven dean. Another appliance, whiun
it new, is a wire screen for the top ot
the broiling oven This is of wire,
strengthened at the four sides with
Strips of sheet iron or tin. It acts aa a
flame spreader and preveats the scorch
ing of any food which is being broiled
or roasted in the lower oven. It slips
in on the upper support }ust below
the flame, while the meat or toast is on
the shelf below. A toaster for the top
burners is made on the same principle,
the toast being held on two wire* just
above a small wire screen of similar
construction.
A cast iron lid for the top burner is a
great convenience for boating flatirons
and for cooking griddlecakes, while a
sheet iron lid, which becomes nearly
red hot, is excellent for toast making.
The range should be set o" zinc tm
convenience in cleaning, and its posi
tion in the room should be carefully
considered. If possible have it ueaf
the meter, thus saving superfluous pipe
laying; also have it near enough to the
window for coolness, but never in a
draught. If one will take the trouble to
; read her own meter, which is a sim
ple enough matter, she will find it quite
worth while.

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