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THE Mf CALL F. W. KELLOGG, President and Publisher JOHN D. SPR ECKELS, Vice President and Treasurer "A Berth at the Dock Is Worth Two in the Bay" San Francisco's Commerce Is Developing Rapidly Now. How Will It Be When the Panama Canal Opens to Us New Markets? Can We Handle It? Total exports from San Francisco to foreign, Hawaiian and Atlantic ports during October, 1913, $12,677,577; the same during October, 1912, $11,379,854: increase, $1,297,683. Tonnage arrivals. October, 1913, domestic and foreign, sail and steam, 656,708 tons; October, 1912, 611,651; in crease, 49,057. These figures may stand by themselves, without editorial comment. No one needs a more effective argument than is contained in that record of the port for the month of October, compared with the record for the month of October, 1912. It proves a prosperous year has been had by the farmers, even though they have talked of lack of rain. It proves a prosperous year for the railroads and a prosperous year for the shipping men. Now, these are encouraging figures, stimulating figures. But here is what San Francisco must consider, what California must consider: This big commerce has just started. The commerce of the year 1913 is just an ordinary California commerce, the result of the development of California industries, and not the result of the dis covery of new markets for California goods? The Panama canal, which is to revolutionize the commercial routes of the world, has not influenced this year's exports nor imports. But within two years, possibly within a year, the Panama canal will be the great waterway of the world. Then California will discover new markets; ships will clear at this port for harbors which the commercial men of this city now scarcely realize are on the map. A new commercial geography is to be not only pub lished, but created. Then how can San Francisco handle the increase commerce? Even now the docking facilities are cramped. What will they be when the commerce of the port is doubled in a year? San Francisco bay affords a haven to the ships of the world. In its extensive reaches there can be found anchor room for all that floats. But modern shipping isn't so much interested in a place to drop its anchor as in a dock to tie to. It may be inspiring to see the bay filled with ships, but that sight will not inspire the shipping man, for whom a berth at the dock is worth two in the bay. San Francisco must have docks ready for the shipping that is coming next year and the year after that and the decades that are to follow. The state of California is responsible for San Fran cisco's docking facilities. Will it have done its duty by the time the ships begin to come in? Father Dearborn's Daughters Getting Ready Chicago Women, Lead by Jane Addams, Preparing to Run for Election as Aldermen, or Alderwomen Miss Jane Addams, who is wiser than most women and much wiser than most men, presided at a session at Hull house in Chi cago at which the preliminary steps were taken for the active entry of women into the municipal affairs of that city. At that meeting it was indicated that there would be women candidates for the council from four wards, anyhow. It will be quite a change from the system which used to name the leading saloon keeper of the district because it enabled him to do favors for his political friends and was good for the saloon trade. The four women named as candidates for alderwomen—if that is the word that is going to designate them —are Miss Mary Mc- Dowell, head of Chicago university settlement work; Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, treasurer of Hull house; Dr. Marie Schmidt, doctor and sociologist, and Miss Sophronisba Breckenridge of the Uni versity of Chicago. "Women who go into the council," announced Miss Jane Addams, "will not be affiliated with any political party, according to our plans. They will either be elected as free agents, able to vote for the best measures and the best men and women, or they will not be elected at all." Father Dearborn is going to have his house set in order, and is going to experience some strenuous housekeeping when in the council appear these women with their woman's sense of order, economy and efficiency, without strings by which the political boss can pull them down, and without slavish loyalty to a machine that makes men willing to follow whatever leader the organization gives them. A Victory That Is Clinched for California Southern Portion of State Will Profit Greatly by Low Rate on Lemons, and Central Part Will Share in the Gain Congratulations to the lemon growers of southern California, who have won in the supreme court of the United States the last and conclusive battle of their long, firm stand for just and equitable freight rates upon their lemon shipments overland. The dollar rate, twice imposed by the interstate commerce commission, has been upheld by the court of last resort. It is estimated that the enforcement of this rate will save $200,000 a year to the lemon growers. Besides, it presages a rebate of the difference between $1 and $1.15 paid under protest for two seasons past. Which will go far to encourage the lemon grower in continu ing in business. We of central California, with our own citrus groves, will share in the advantages of the rate, but chiefly we are pleased because of the good it will do to the industry in southern California. THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL Evening Calls Farewell, high cost of living, a local florist is advertising orchids at 50 cents apiece. * * * Should the man who signals the grand march at a ball to start be called a train dispatcher? * * * A woman is prouder of her husband when he fixes the electric bell than when he builds a steel bridge. * * * A man who hid $500 in an old shoe had it stolen from him. Now his attitude toward burglars is soleless. * * * In Africa Colonel Roosevelt visited the hippopotamus; in Argentina he contents himself with the hippodrome. * » * These are the mornings when a man begins to question the efficacy of a cold bath as a means of eternal salvation. * # * Professor Loeb is soon to publish a book about "fatherless frogs," Haven't we had enough of that sort of literature? * * * Sergeant McGee of the park police has found a hybrid duck in the park. Looks like a violation of Mr. Mann's famous law. * * * The Oakland police wear caps like the Salvation Army. Want to make the backsliders feel at home in the patrol wagon. ■* * * People do incomprehensible things—several million stay in the east during the winter when California is right here all the time. * » * If your wife hasn't voted yet, go right now and hold the baby until she can run to the corner and do it. The polls are open till 7 o'clock. ■s * * The mayor elect of New York wants Colonel Goethals of the Panama canal to clean up the city's police department. But the colonel only tackles jobs he can accomplish. THANKSGIVING TURKEY THE LOST CORD Footnotes of Humor Sea! Sea everywhere, as the great liner made her powerful course over the Atlantic. '*Oh, captain," came a disconsolate groan from a seasick passenger, half reeling in a deck chair, "how far are we off land?" No answer came to this remark, which had been reiterated se\'eral times that day. "Oh, captain, do answer me—how far?" "Mile and a half," came the gruff reply. "Thank heaven! In what direction, captain?" A twinkle came for a moment into the eye of the brusque old seadog. "Straight down!" he grunted. # # * It was an arduous task for the teacher to drum into her youthful pupils the principles of arithmetic. "Now, listen," she said. "In order to subtract, things have to be in the same denomination. This is what I mean. Now, you couldn't take three apples from four peaches, nor eight marbles from twelve buttons. It must be three apples from four apples, and so on. Do you understand?" One youngster in the class raised a timid hand. "Please, teacher," he inquired. "couldn't you take three quarts of milk from two cows?" * * * The man of great financial promi nence had met with an accident. "We'll have to probe," said the doctor. Just at that moment the man re covered consciousness and exclaimed: "If it's a surgical operation, go ahead; but If it's another investiga tion give me an anesthetic." * * * Doctor Gore, the bishop of Birming ham, was standing on the curb wait ing for a cab one day when two little street arabs came up behind and be gan to discuss his black cerical attire, one of them being especially struck by his lordship's episcopal gaiters. "Wot's 'c, Bill?" asked this youth of his companion. "Oh," was the reply, "don't you know what '* Is? 'E's a Scotchman in mourning, of course." * * # "Dear men, dear men, he was that kind!" said an old Scots woman of her husband, who had died and re lieved her of the necessity of living longer with one of the surliest of husbands. "I shall never forget the last walk we took together. He says so kind like, says he: " 'Come along, old Draggle-tail,' says he, so kind like—dear mon!" NOVEMBER 11, 1913 The Wonders of X-Ray Photography Photographs Now Re veal the Hidden Or gans of Creatures Whose Entire Bodies Are as Minute as Pin heads. GARRETT P. SERVISS THE great value of radi ography, or X-ray photog raphy, consists in the fact that it enables us to see the in side of things. It virtually real izes the old paradox of "seeing through a stone wall." There is, perhaps, no achievement of man that smacks more of magic than this. We can look at our own bones and hearts and lungs and watch our blood coursing through the veins and arteries of the living body. I have recently described the improvements by means of which instantaneous photo graphs are now made of the in ternal organs, and motion pic tures are produced which show them in action as if the bodies of men had suddenly become transparent. But there is an other thing, hardly less surpris ing, to be added. Radiography is now being applied to micro scopic objects. If. Pierre Goby of Grasse, in France, has invented an appa ratus by which magnified X-ray photographs of the interior of minute objects, and of the inter nal microscopic parts of larger objects, can be obtained. As lit. Goby says, his process is, in effect, an "optical dissection." X-Ray Photos Reveal the Veins of a Leaf in All Their Complexity Take, for instance, a leaf, with all its fine interior veins. These veins are invisible to the eye, but "microradiography" reveals them in all their complexity without the necessity of destroying the leaf. This is a great boon to the botanist who wishes to study the interior structure of plants. M. Goby has produced magni fied radiophotographs of the little creatures called forma nifera, which are mere pinpoints in size, and in these photographs the internal organs of the minute animals can be seen with aston ishing distinctness. So, too, he has photographed small animals like snails inside their shells. The X-ray eye sees straight through the shells, and, by vir tue of the different degrees of transmissibility which the vari ous parts of the little animal present to the rays its entire internal structure is revealed in a sort of shadow picture, beauti fully graduated, and from which nothing seems to be omitted. These photographs are so sharp 'that additional magnifying power may be applied in examining them. Natural history, biology and geology all gain something from this new method of investiga tion. Hitherto it has been neces sary in examining the interior of many organisms under the mi croscope to destroy them by cut ting them Into slices thin enough to be penetrated by ordinary light. "HAPPY DAYS!" WILLIAM F. KIRK V APPY days!" the young man said, IH With his drinking friends around him. With no sorrows to confound him As the priceless minutes sped. Breasting the mahogany, Full of artificial glee, Telling stories, singing songs, Telling of imagined wrongs. Heedless of the world's grim troubles, Babbling, boasting, blowing bubbles, O'er and o'er this toast he says: "Happy days!" "Happy days!" the old man said, Sitting friendless in the park in the dusk that seems so dark, When the spark of hope has fled. "Yes, I knew of happy days, Days of mirth and strength and scorning, When my life was in its morning; Days that mock me through the blur, Xow I see them as they were; Days when I was not dejected, Days of chances I neglected. I can see them through the haze— Happy days!" ABSENCE CONSTANCE CLARKE DREAM-laden sleep hangs heavy on the flowers Down where the lilies sway— Night tolls her slowly passing hours, Love, we have lost a day. Into that dim and far away tomorrow Drift I, yet linger here— For of its store of hours I may not borrow. Love, we have lost a year. In this way it is impossible to see them just as they are in na ture. Important parts are de stroyed in the process of dissec tion, and the true relations of one part to another are often lost. Nothing of this kind occurs when the objects are radiopho tographed. Everything is seen in its proper place and form. Every step in the internal devel opment and growth of the or ganism is revealed as if the observer were furnished with eyes that can see the inside as well as the outside of things, and at the same time magnify what they see. Even a Snail's Shell Is No Barrier to the X-Ray When a minute snail, half as long as the nail of your little finger, draws himself into his shell he doubtless thinks he is safe from prying eyes. But to the X-ray he is no more hidden than is the body of the tradi tional ostrich with its head bur ied in the sand. Not only does the microradiograph reveal him in his spiral house, but it brings into plain sight the internal or gans of his body as well. He is naked, he is translucent, he is deprived of all privacy within and without; the refuge of opacity is no longer for him; he is disclosed to the very center of his being. And withal every part of him is magnified into greater conspicuousness. The same rays that reveal the secrets of his hidden body show all the convolutions of the shell that incloses him, its delicate grada tions and its graceful interior curves. House and inhabitant are alike thrown open to a new mysterious day in which nothing can lie concealed. The ancient life of the globe, the life of creatures long since erased from the roll call of ex isting species, is revealed in like manner by microradiography. Fossil Animals Sealed Up in Rocks Are Readily Exposed The internal structure of little animals that perished millions of years ago and were sealed up in the rocks, preserved like the Pharaohs in their mummy rolls, is thrown open to the curious eyes of the naturalist. He can put aside his miniature saws, he no longer needs to cut his speci mens into films, for now he can see them as they are, inside and outside. No more is required to show how immensely important to science this new branch of radi ography may become. And a better example could not be found of the spirit in which dis covery and invention have clasped hands in this twentieth century.