THE Mf CALL
F. W. KELLOGG, President and Publisher
JOHN D. SPR ECKELS, Vice President and Treasurer
"A Berth at the Dock Is Worth
Two in the Bay"
San Francisco's Commerce Is Developing Rapidly Now.
How Will It Be When the Panama Canal Opens to
Us New Markets? Can We Handle It?
Total exports from San Francisco to foreign, Hawaiian
and Atlantic ports during October, 1913, $12,677,577; the
same during October, 1912, $11,379,854: increase, $1,297,683.
Tonnage arrivals. October, 1913, domestic and foreign,
sail and steam, 656,708 tons; October, 1912, 611,651; in
These figures may stand by themselves, without editorial
No one needs a more effective argument than is contained in
that record of the port for the month of October, compared with
the record for the month of October, 1912.
It proves a prosperous year has been had by the farmers, even
though they have talked of lack of rain. It proves a prosperous
year for the railroads and a prosperous year for the shipping men.
Now, these are encouraging figures, stimulating figures. But
here is what San Francisco must consider, what California must
This big commerce has just started. The commerce of the
year 1913 is just an ordinary California commerce, the result of the
development of California industries, and not the result of the dis
covery of new markets for California goods?
The Panama canal, which is to revolutionize the commercial
routes of the world, has not influenced this year's exports nor
But within two years, possibly within a year, the Panama
canal will be the great waterway of the world. Then California
will discover new markets; ships will clear at this port for harbors
which the commercial men of this city now scarcely realize are on
the map. A new commercial geography is to be not only pub
lished, but created.
Then how can San Francisco handle the increase commerce?
Even now the docking facilities are cramped. What will they be
when the commerce of the port is doubled in a year?
San Francisco bay affords a haven to the ships of the world.
In its extensive reaches there can be found anchor room for all
that floats. But modern shipping isn't so much interested in a
place to drop its anchor as in a dock to tie to.
It may be inspiring to see the bay filled with ships, but that
sight will not inspire the shipping man, for whom a berth at the
dock is worth two in the bay.
San Francisco must have docks ready for the shipping that is
coming next year and the year after that and the decades that are
to follow. The state of California is responsible for San Fran
cisco's docking facilities.
Will it have done its duty by the time the ships begin to
Father Dearborn's Daughters
Chicago Women, Lead by Jane Addams, Preparing to Run
for Election as Aldermen, or Alderwomen
Miss Jane Addams, who is wiser than most women and much
wiser than most men, presided at a session at Hull house in Chi
cago at which the preliminary steps were taken for the active entry
of women into the municipal affairs of that city.
At that meeting it was indicated that there would be women
candidates for the council from four wards, anyhow.
It will be quite a change from the system which used to name
the leading saloon keeper of the district because it enabled him to
do favors for his political friends and was good for the saloon trade.
The four women named as candidates for alderwomen—if that
is the word that is going to designate them —are Miss Mary Mc-
Dowell, head of Chicago university settlement work; Mrs. Joseph
T. Bowen, treasurer of Hull house; Dr. Marie Schmidt, doctor
and sociologist, and Miss Sophronisba Breckenridge of the Uni
versity of Chicago.
"Women who go into the council," announced Miss Jane
Addams, "will not be affiliated with any political party, according
to our plans. They will either be elected as free agents, able to
vote for the best measures and the best men and women, or they
will not be elected at all."
Father Dearborn is going to have his house set in order, and
is going to experience some strenuous housekeeping when in the
council appear these women with their woman's sense of order,
economy and efficiency, without strings by which the political boss
can pull them down, and without slavish loyalty to a machine that
makes men willing to follow whatever leader the organization
A Victory That Is Clinched
Southern Portion of State Will Profit Greatly by Low Rate
on Lemons, and Central Part Will Share in the Gain
Congratulations to the lemon growers of southern California,
who have won in the supreme court of the United States the last
and conclusive battle of their long, firm stand for just and equitable
freight rates upon their lemon shipments overland.
The dollar rate, twice imposed by the interstate commerce
commission, has been upheld by the court of last resort.
It is estimated that the enforcement of this rate will save
$200,000 a year to the lemon growers. Besides, it presages a rebate
of the difference between $1 and $1.15 paid under protest for two
Which will go far to encourage the lemon grower in continu
ing in business. We of central California, with our own citrus
groves, will share in the advantages of the rate, but chiefly we are
pleased because of the good it will do to the industry in southern
THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL
Farewell, high cost of living, a local florist is advertising orchids at
50 cents apiece.
* * *
Should the man who signals the grand march at a ball to start be
called a train dispatcher?
* * *
A woman is prouder of her husband when he fixes the electric bell
than when he builds a steel bridge.
* * *
A man who hid $500 in an old shoe had it stolen from him. Now
his attitude toward burglars is soleless.
* * *
In Africa Colonel Roosevelt visited the hippopotamus; in Argentina
he contents himself with the hippodrome.
* » *
These are the mornings when a man begins to question the efficacy
of a cold bath as a means of eternal salvation.
* # *
Professor Loeb is soon to publish a book about "fatherless frogs,"
Haven't we had enough of that sort of literature?
* * *
Sergeant McGee of the park police has found a hybrid duck in the
park. Looks like a violation of Mr. Mann's famous law.
* * *
The Oakland police wear caps like the Salvation Army. Want to
make the backsliders feel at home in the patrol wagon.
■* * *
People do incomprehensible things—several million stay in the east
during the winter when California is right here all the time.
* » *
If your wife hasn't voted yet, go right now and hold the baby until
she can run to the corner and do it. The polls are open till 7 o'clock.
■s * *
The mayor elect of New York wants Colonel Goethals of the Panama
canal to clean up the city's police department. But the colonel only
tackles jobs he can accomplish.
THE LOST CORD
Footnotes of Humor
Sea! Sea everywhere, as the great
liner made her powerful course over
'*Oh, captain," came a disconsolate
groan from a seasick passenger, half
reeling in a deck chair, "how far are
we off land?"
No answer came to this remark,
which had been reiterated se\'eral
times that day.
"Oh, captain, do answer me—how
"Mile and a half," came the gruff
"Thank heaven! In what direction,
A twinkle came for a moment into
the eye of the brusque old seadog.
"Straight down!" he grunted.
# # *
It was an arduous task for the
teacher to drum into her youthful
pupils the principles of arithmetic.
"Now, listen," she said. "In order
to subtract, things have to be in the
same denomination. This is what I
mean. Now, you couldn't take three
apples from four peaches, nor eight
marbles from twelve buttons. It must
be three apples from four apples, and
so on. Do you understand?"
One youngster in the class raised a
"Please, teacher," he inquired.
"couldn't you take three quarts of
milk from two cows?"
* * *
The man of great financial promi
nence had met with an accident.
"We'll have to probe," said the
Just at that moment the man re
covered consciousness and exclaimed:
"If it's a surgical operation, go
ahead; but If it's another investiga
tion give me an anesthetic."
* * *
Doctor Gore, the bishop of Birming
ham, was standing on the curb wait
ing for a cab one day when two little
street arabs came up behind and be
gan to discuss his black cerical attire,
one of them being especially struck by
his lordship's episcopal gaiters.
"Wot's 'c, Bill?" asked this youth of
"Oh," was the reply, "don't you
know what '* Is? 'E's a Scotchman in
mourning, of course."
* * #
"Dear men, dear men, he was that
kind!" said an old Scots woman of
her husband, who had died and re
lieved her of the necessity of living
longer with one of the surliest of
husbands. "I shall never forget the
last walk we took together. He says
so kind like, says he:
" 'Come along, old Draggle-tail,'
says he, so kind like—dear mon!"
NOVEMBER 11, 1913
The Wonders of
Photographs Now Re
veal the Hidden Or
gans of Creatures
Whose Entire Bodies
Are as Minute as Pin
GARRETT P. SERVISS
THE great value of radi
ography, or X-ray photog
raphy, consists in the fact
that it enables us to see the in
side of things. It virtually real
izes the old paradox of "seeing
through a stone wall." There
is, perhaps, no achievement of
man that smacks more of magic
than this. We can look at our
own bones and hearts and lungs
and watch our blood coursing
through the veins and arteries of
the living body.
I have recently described the
improvements by means of
which instantaneous photo
graphs are now made of the in
ternal organs, and motion pic
tures are produced which show
them in action as if the bodies
of men had suddenly become
transparent. But there is an
other thing, hardly less surpris
ing, to be added. Radiography
is now being applied to micro
If. Pierre Goby of Grasse, in
France, has invented an appa
ratus by which magnified X-ray
photographs of the interior of
minute objects, and of the inter
nal microscopic parts of larger
objects, can be obtained. As
lit. Goby says, his process is, in
effect, an "optical dissection."
X-Ray Photos Reveal the
Veins of a Leaf in All
Take, for instance, a leaf, with
all its fine interior veins. These
veins are invisible to the eye, but
"microradiography" reveals them
in all their complexity without
the necessity of destroying the
leaf. This is a great boon to
the botanist who wishes to study
the interior structure of plants.
M. Goby has produced magni
fied radiophotographs of the
little creatures called forma
nifera, which are mere pinpoints
in size, and in these photographs
the internal organs of the minute
animals can be seen with aston
ishing distinctness. So, too, he
has photographed small animals
like snails inside their shells.
The X-ray eye sees straight
through the shells, and, by vir
tue of the different degrees of
transmissibility which the vari
ous parts of the little animal
present to the rays its entire
internal structure is revealed in
a sort of shadow picture, beauti
fully graduated, and from which
nothing seems to be omitted.
These photographs are so sharp
'that additional magnifying power
may be applied in examining
Natural history, biology and
geology all gain something from
this new method of investiga
tion. Hitherto it has been neces
sary in examining the interior of
many organisms under the mi
croscope to destroy them by cut
ting them Into slices thin enough
to be penetrated by ordinary
WILLIAM F. KIRK
V APPY days!" the young man said,
IH With his drinking friends around him.
With no sorrows to confound him
As the priceless minutes sped.
Breasting the mahogany,
Full of artificial glee,
Telling stories, singing songs,
Telling of imagined wrongs.
Heedless of the world's grim troubles,
Babbling, boasting, blowing bubbles,
O'er and o'er this toast he says:
"Happy days!" the old man said,
Sitting friendless in the park
in the dusk that seems so dark,
When the spark of hope has fled.
"Yes, I knew of happy days,
Days of mirth and strength and scorning,
When my life was in its morning;
Days that mock me through the blur,
Xow I see them as they were;
Days when I was not dejected,
Days of chances I neglected.
I can see them through the haze—
DREAM-laden sleep hangs heavy on the flowers
Down where the lilies sway—
Night tolls her slowly passing hours,
Love, we have lost a day.
Into that dim and far away tomorrow
Drift I, yet linger here—
For of its store of hours I may not borrow.
Love, we have lost a year.
In this way it is impossible to
see them just as they are in na
ture. Important parts are de
stroyed in the process of dissec
tion, and the true relations of
one part to another are often
Nothing of this kind occurs
when the objects are radiopho
tographed. Everything is seen
in its proper place and form.
Every step in the internal devel
opment and growth of the or
ganism is revealed as if the
observer were furnished with
eyes that can see the inside as
well as the outside of things,
and at the same time magnify
what they see.
Even a Snail's Shell Is
No Barrier to the
When a minute snail, half as
long as the nail of your little
finger, draws himself into his
shell he doubtless thinks he is
safe from prying eyes. But to
the X-ray he is no more hidden
than is the body of the tradi
tional ostrich with its head bur
ied in the sand. Not only does
the microradiograph reveal him
in his spiral house, but it brings
into plain sight the internal or
gans of his body as well. He is
naked, he is translucent, he is
deprived of all privacy within
and without; the refuge of
opacity is no longer for him; he
is disclosed to the very center
of his being. And withal every
part of him is magnified into
greater conspicuousness. The
same rays that reveal the secrets
of his hidden body show all the
convolutions of the shell that
incloses him, its delicate grada
tions and its graceful interior
curves. House and inhabitant
are alike thrown open to a new
mysterious day in which nothing
can lie concealed.
The ancient life of the globe,
the life of creatures long since
erased from the roll call of ex
isting species, is revealed in like
manner by microradiography.
Fossil Animals Sealed Up
in Rocks Are Readily
The internal structure of little
animals that perished millions of
years ago and were sealed up in
the rocks, preserved like the
Pharaohs in their mummy rolls,
is thrown open to the curious
eyes of the naturalist. He can
put aside his miniature saws, he
no longer needs to cut his speci
mens into films, for now he can
see them as they are, inside and
No more is required to show
how immensely important to
science this new branch of radi
ography may become. And a
better example could not be
found of the spirit in which dis
covery and invention have
clasped hands in this twentieth
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