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The Sumter banner. (Sumterville, S.C.) 1846-1855, July 05, 1854, Image 1

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WILLIAM -EA S i ItIlITOI:S .~i~i~ b*
WOL. 1i. S.-.- ----- -LE S. U. .3 --. C - __, _______________________
is ituisn::li
Every Wriednsday Mlornling
Lewis & Richardson.
T E RiMN.,
TW'VO J)Ot,.A RS in ailvance, Two Dltlars
and Filly C'enti :tt the expirationii ix.j.c iinonatls
or 'lir. ei ll lart: at the etil of the year.
No paper discontineil until iall arrearages
are r\11. Inile:-s it t he 11 in of tl' l'ropri-tir.
Q Aclvertise nisiiis inser!"l Iat S i.V l.NTV
FiiV E Cents per sepiire, (1'.: liine or lets.) for
the first, and al f that st1n for e:icl su i ntji.ent
insertion, (Oliit advertisenients the saitme
earls limte).
' The number of insertions to be minirked
on all A vrti einents or they will be published
until ordered to he discontinuel, anti chargetd
g; ON E )OI.A l per square for a single
insertion. Quarterly otl Miailnhly Advertise
nents will lie chirgel tie same :tt a .ingle in
sertion, and seini- iiontlily Ie saine as new oiue
(Concluded froi last 11inner.)
Butt the' next dayt passeod, andl the
dlay ft)llwiig-r.l! '!leis (':ie not.
Oi the third be, passedl her inl Ilhe
street vit it a distanit bow. II e litoked
wrt ihid lv, howei('ver--andul tIi: m gtve
his ihaniglty mist ress 1ni. slight sat isthe
tion. -(onihiileit, in the p-aver iift.ier
char)ms, site had not the least Iear of
loo sing him; but. that. she should yield,
or mi iake the sm. allest ad vance towards
a reconciilia.tion, was nolthoughIr;1t tf.
T ulii~gIthe she ha w oiuntel lis feelink
iii the poiint. louSt sesiltilve to a l1over
atnd a moan if honor. it w\a his bnsiness
to sue tor piardt n; anti Floura had in
her own min l ileterntlletil ipi tin the
time and placee that was to witness ler
There was ini a :ay or two to : a
large prts'y : liit' lion- or ie otr
(htarles's intimate 'rienitd. h'll uti gi
ie had not alpearil In i cmpnilly smt,
their quarruel, there he mutt ertainly
lie; a1nd F1loa--wio r'a! I ltd1i:I.:ti 1~or a
renewal iof the ien urse-lI.iiked tor.
ward to the party with the tgraecat.
A few beers before it. was time to
Coimtnelie her toilet, l:e t hrew her
self on the sifa bfore tie tire, in lier
chamber; aidt gav": herself ny ito happy
reculleetionis of the past ainl liopes fir
the fiture. 'TiC bie autiil Iriess inl
which she was to apphear \ wa-, lai
across the hed]; her maid h: t'l anged
on the d ressing tal ble tih ii ; rs. laies,
uid jewels, that, were to adiorni her
hair, neck, and arms; and Ite y- .iung
beauty-even lovelier th:n cver in her
careless dishIalille-hal throiwnt one
fairband across her brow, and'. wOa oc
cupied in weaving a g.lei welb (if
future happiness in the busy loo: of
her own phantasy.
She thought of Charles--of the deep
and ardent passion with which site
had inspired him; of t:e noble, gener
ons nature which must make the balp
piness of all concerned witl him; litf
his talents and acquirements, that
necessarily msts!, work thtir way t.i
independence, if not weal tih. And,
withi a sigh over his present poverty,
anid another over his st rong self will,
she jumped over the dillictieis ini theirt
pathi, anid pi~tctue herself thle priesid
ing geius of his home-then wvife thait
shatred1 his inimost, thoiughits 11md4 feel
ings-his comf oiter in the hur iof1or
row, and his sytopath lising friiend in
that of joy, until teais of haippiness
bedewed her checks, and shte felt that
at that mnotnet she coulid sacrifice
anything for his sake. Just. theni tihe
door opeined,' and her miaid ranl il,
" Oh, Miss Flora ! Thle monst magv
nificent bouquet ! Not, one like it ill
the whole blessed winter ! Eigthit
teamelias, besides roses and( winnmyc/s;
and-and I don't, know what beCsides!"
'And she latid the costly offering
before her happy mistress.
In ian instant shu decided it, came
from Charles; aud, thonugh much mocre
gorgeous and expensive than those lhe
was in the habit of seniding, she saw
in this an iundication of his anxiety to
atone for the olfence hte hiad given her.
'Shie was lost in adlmi ration of its beau
ty, and had just. decided that. one of the
splendid white camnelias might. he
wvithdraIwnI, withiot, injturinig the sym.n
mnetry of the arran~tgemtiCl, to adortn
lier dark hairi, when, in a mnoment of
silence-diuring which shte was induilg.
itig iln some~ very tcnder thoughts oif
thle doinor-the mnaiid sudhdenly ex.
ci'aiimid thait she huad diroppeid the card
tl e boy had given; ando, Ileaving the
rqomi, returined di11rectly, and placed it
it Flora's hand , whoii read, "~ For Miss
Orn ~s~ , with Mr. Ho.swell's comirpli
TJheo reviehloinorf feltling wa' ton
great for l'ht's. I emper. IIier~ eyes
thlaihd, and. ~i ~ t-i excla~ rnaiti ofl
deep disgust, she filing both card and
flowers into the fire that was blazinir
before her. lhe maid wrung her
hands in despair, and tried to save
them from the flames; but Flora pre.
vented her; and stood enjoying their
destruction, until they were entirely
consumod. Soon afterward's shin coin
ieneed the labors of tle toilet. The
maid sighed deeply, as she placed the
artificial flowers in the hair that was
to have been adorned b)y the eaielius;
and, after she hail arranged every fold
of her cotl v dress, and placed the rich
h:n.I kerclief and fanil in :'loLa's hand,
she ventuircd to sigh forth
" Now it' you had but the flowers,
\iss Flora, vou would he the coin
pletest (ressed lady there !"
" I would not have carried them ihr
the world !' said Flora; anl, viti a
t riuin plian t. glance at her ll e:ltifiiI fitre
in the miiror, sie was soon in the
I ier eves wanidered restlessly round
the brilliant assembly as she entere I
lie room on her father's ara-but no
Charles met her view. At. last, after
working her way through the folding
doorway, she saw himt standing in
clkse coniiversatliim With a eitleim an
si) much cngrossed by it in fact, that
it. was sne time before lie perccived
her; andi thei lie inerely bowed, and
continuedl his co~nver .at ion. Flora (elt,
Mi. l;ioswt 11 jiling hie, she bestowed
iin himi one it her most, bewitching
smiles-said sle wa ;just biginiing t.o
think the part-iy stupid, but would
cei t aiily fiiind it idenvait iow; and, on
his expresline :'omen surprise at not
seeing till io iwers ie had sent her, she
regretted deeply she hal not reci e I
them, at1(l sugg*: ee that they had
prob:tlbly hin-en l".'i. at ano11thier lousn e InI
inist:Ike. Verv soon after she all.yu.ed
\l r. lioswell to lepl her to a seat in a
corner o)f thi. rii:,i, a:nd to ili, ipli ise
hr ionversationii duii the 'ro'ter
part of the evenIing.
Tliece times in ti' cnure': of it her
eye res"ted lugulirin:gly upon~l h1'r, anl I
she at '''ee ioldly a vceeI his. A
week before, hw ililY.nerit it. hadl bui!
ll iw sweet waS (eei th1e Imimeint:rv
interehiaunige of .icaliteiit that a ghmee
eoivey, ed! Hlut, still detcr:nii f that
i ven by a look she would not make
tile Ii:rt. aidvilfee ti iwaiiis a iC i 11
duilnRihe onil1' flirted' more:', desperaite'l
witthl M r. linswell1 tkhan bc. re, m11:'
hiad' rarely appearedUL inl n1oe1billm
hiut, oh ! the storm that rage' v ith
in that fir mail seeinin_ly tira 1toil
heart-the stirmi it anger, of disap
po.intmient, oft bi, lled- h':pe! But
amiidst it all, she preserved the same
gay exterior; and no Iainug could ?ne-s
that while she exchiniged a bright
repartee with one, ab a:lectionatte ali e
Willh :nothier. ad a gnlie reply to the
stR speeches; wt ith\ which M11r. iDoswell
was regaling her, shie was almo- t
suUicated with the violence of the
feeliiigs she so perf:etly repre.ed.
liit wihcn the restraints ,t society were
rei noveI--when, after throwing 0tP
her gay alppareb. she dashed hrself
on the bed in a paroxysmn if izndiina
tion against him of w h)iii a few hu iiis
befire she had tliiglht so tediii'v
all hr formier lve stee:ne.! turne I to
ha:treil-nd how to be nitot, kafetidly
ievenged on him iii was her only thoug:.h1 t.
* * * a *
"'Ilave y on hetard [lie news, Chiarlie.
said young Staniley, as lie enitered his
friend's ollice, a few days after the
iniicients we hav-e related. " F. ora
(Ormsbiy is engage] to Mr-. lDoswell !"
It was wvell that Charles was seated
in his large ohlieL chair, oir he crtainily
would have ihaleni. At length lie
"Are you sur-e of this, Stanlev ?"
" Su re! Wi by, I heaird it from unI os
well h iself, man ! Never saw a
llouw so delighted ini my life. It is
as fixed as tate--and (certainiily nii one
can be surpriiisedi at it., after t he way ini
walihi she has received lis; attentions
all the winitcr. It is a capital mat -h.
She will doi [lie honors of his graid
niew house elegaiitly, anid t here is nio
end to thie part ies she wvill gi ve-suchi a
lin, dshinig, spirited creature as she
is! ut, I see you are hard at work!"'
-for Charies had again bowel his bead
over the parieiineiit with whichl ho hail
beeni occupied when Stanlev enitered
--" ando I will not dIistiirb'i you! I
only lookod in to tell you thle news?
Anad Charles was left aloiie-alonle
wi th his breakiing hecart-the bieau tifl
lhric of' his oiiee imagined happi i iess
siv ~eed to atoms at is feet.
Coul this indeed lbe true? Couldii
she, who but little morme thaii a week
helbie had been his pl ighted wile -
whose vows were still his, mid from
whom, though for a while estraniged,
be had neve'r direamed of withidriaw img
his allegiance--thus gave himii up with
ouit, a siinglo look endeavoring to recall
lki first impulse wvas to rush to her
-----0 t oaconh hicr with unim -, t1. ei
treachery, anti to let, ler witntess t ho
agony she had caused1. lint his pride
-that pride which ill thiir last initer
view she had so wouunded, anid w!.I"idi
hatd detert iii ed hi nt, thu ghi stillering
deepily under their estraligetneni , LIo
whit 1i)1 Sm)ile signh to) show that shte
regretted iL also-restrailell himn, even
in that morn i cot of' desp>eratil, fro in
such an titlc.
.'etcarne the lion 1hJlng rjltestio)1
had site realIly ever 14oved himi ' Ai~d
%% icii the first 1)11 r:t (of anguti s was
over, anld he was al do to review the
last snolre calm ly, lhe began to 111114lit
whletheri lhe hri ot fr'rt Itt: Hirt A Menl
the iiere vitim io(f hecr eItjut ry;
\\ heftier she 11:11114" f,1 nol the first heeti
silortii! wIith his :Wtina111 ii la1i
est feel ings of' his htar it, onl l ur tire
pleasure (,. h~rcah(nit L t last.
As Charles had h~I20e~ !evcluteLd fiomt
revealing to aiiy onei hi; h:1ljlne s, Ilia
iiiiserv wa~i ti\1 e(jiilIIl h lis own ; .11111,
carefully burying; it, \ ~itii his own ho-.
soi aIhe coon re.-aillwcar'ed atnn h10: ii
friends, it shlade haleir andi miore stioiis
than before, but. out'.ardly cxli Lii
11o tracie, of tlisallointinlei~t. 1"1111;
\\1r: d Ieji eni of uic greait s U r'e
of1 tritnl~h ; hut, thoughI she saw\ hill(
unsa blued, sire K 11m" hint Ltoo well1 toI
d.0ut lt hlt lie Silltle deeply-a ii d
this (!Olscioll iiiI*M e1n blt'd her still to)
Il he. acejt aine (f M'\r. I 1 ' l5VlI,
w ho hl ad 11 I iessel lrher h ~ :ill~ -
inflict nljln hnt ; but the delight w\ith
whtichi lie rc 'ci cd hoer asent. tilt .j
of hlt~ parents at the hatch, anid thle
:>,leindi.I 'iiflhlishllictlt. t111L t a iiar
ria,;e w1ithi lot W\tIlihI Selire, Wa~is 1111L
lI 415 wil I a.l i eitiarkca hly soft :ill-! ill
5n141t I i liatliers, a111l was icar!v
111011 in hove with her, sli 11leI;nhI tsl
beit ale to~, ie~ W~Irin ctti e4lic-t!y: she
LI efr; 1KIii to forgect tint ,.e \,"a"
Ilied !! :.'e' l~~ i! , 1lihIifsvea., sir! litt.'e.-.
jlitertt 1)iisliti toI al l4i.~ c0.i ieC1 ,
Mid sep1t. in a (l'it-taut whirl (,f ''Cii,'.
tacif. Iv,c,' i 'I'if i''gtii.Z t hat \"~
rail oidal,;til t' i tlis e- -'h
t ) lieVCt 1' ':;tase Ii te c 1'as , y1 r ('l ti" v
Ii11 t~ i tho:,t" i i.lya riseil 1quie ha
l~no in 11 1her yl~ %.; l,t (ti 11. tit
.h, ';imite of devt nIl sh e i,a il
L)Ii. It \+i as~ shie"as teve t ,Lsl
ofh a'tL ho hvi~ns Iy011 ltiilieic te
he .s IrC 's ' : \ -1.l i .iitt ., ri-i sIto-c l her in . ,
tain:illo tit: tly.t11,, n1!. ttel XI I
It1so)t lui S~il It it'.cryv di'in itlgt y-I;;.k
rIvelillgcnscn t~ u shin e ( :11 sd% ;tll ;.i1;'.
11 to li I :1lnher :1 )'il t ret tad ginyc
hint. :il aslie. frlrlet t he tes s Us -
he, thlie hi j\ist"~ ot till Lu tcre .ht
wtitll' l th~Iie .1whe~ as' l eav~~r ite'
Ther~ c'releosslyu t;tri '' \u\o Illi t cf
''I"C L\s'llihiL tIv i. ltl lt att A eli
" ( )ll, tt"l4 i'tt la!'' nai 'ti 1'1 l I Is '\1nt
sh le sjIJr, i e rig 'I'l ' II- 't- iIti lL ;il
hur riid( up st air;.
\\ fail the toilet Was coin ~ltl size
agaizi dluseenc(i to thec tailor, whzere
irutisbanzd wvas sit U ig reain~zg the
lIit\\'pifir, andzi a~s lie shziwe-d Iia)sg,,
heL haid yielded, ant! I hzcifbre 'hiess et]
Mii a s thzought no(thzing. lhad lut;iied.
"'Ai l 0 1hn! Itlok wecll to
Iiiht' " ' sIze saiidits hewas Lsr'Isti In
hici to) zziii p a.. Il i lt iI, ii hier iurnz.
(' hzrni;iitli !(, ' ~ie !" lie z'tjthjeil.
"1 a~i uzlz'ii l.lI'v ytii.:jjteuzl
ClJiziizg to ytour lov )* 11((21 !"'
lint I wvonIz r th fall Clriiie (1(1+ iiiit
coice!" saidi F lu'~ ' I cit~e'itd aLtt
' het camri:t ?"' c'xclaiioeii h,"1
zul):l. 11h" Can ryo. wadi :L:j,.,titiih
thie aiage ?"iz' olLi ci
(iAr sil (.%;t Mr 1. '\Vev'. Toii
intl litl it it-ci; t iil heir !"ti~.A
c~Iilt tif~ }",) ih.l pm*~~ici
se f lii t ll III t 'it, ali t m \a1 '111
hae :tt j p1:11; lire ii~ z'*i~tr ! '' c
li 41 i lty I'"! lut.' \i V I \
C a .I. \'i" 'ill
ICd tailc+ tv i :t(neo tb .lel
the itzor \C' llWl t l an irii n 'rn-I i
l:I lto hi r cinii:t :. Inu~.y zzzil
Iti itd Iii~i 111th;'-i, ! 'l '"i i' . ! . !t
f~ial -i z t ' . M-l r. z, u ci \'t
: , iii z n It t")e i eir :1 t i Ii :e A
la t i s v l-- lii I- *'tn l ai. si i .
t i t Ii ' - - ti I:' ! i --'i i r ii irriii
'ii\ i ' 'i! itiL . , t l~ iiis 3' :I
Eri ai ti"l a *r
In'thiiig i1) t 171_ :z t . ( : :lle l
Ctt theIwith'
t 1.1):1it t\\ i (t' e~;. nr I l-.t'i tot
Ill Mull' Il ti ;1, : ! in you- t tlttt L:1
tht' n \ ,tii' i t1 t "v't. ii, l v I ltseih"
it i i""ii Otti ti e l Wj:111 nty ! t:':" it.
wuzllt, uit- I 'iii, h iti wit, jI I .laz lull'-zi
:::1' Ii I iii, oilt~ s itl lci~
v. i :u i atttiz I i' h u~uit i.'.-e
Butoto l : t iclit-loo i-o t l ulled\
t hiitiitii5 i ;' celzo CI.ti ' IL it i ill
tail!i sit: ti'.. Ilitot tihituLiihttti t ti hl;
li i-ti l~ -z1, I t: :l:it,iu the iltth-c' ez-z ;
(:i jtil i uit wa~r c id i *t n.-I'. al Izt'
:te 1:t a: ,I aljiiitlil int the hit.his it
-lii itti1',:111li- er g~-..iiiiii stut
Itty ii i. lil e h iI I tie " 1: . , i li '
w h,'iez! it 1 li t'I. -i :' a vr it im t I !1i;'ii
attul t iii. gut: lit'any' h is -i I i'll il
thf u il i; t i:1 tr'; Ii -ri r . s:zz iz
i1vuz-u ciuljit ) Si th 'i. :i iu' uzi tint;1.
process of melting it down into a
liiqid state, viz: that of' water.
I contempliate that the earth is en
dlowed with the principle of li fe ; that
the signs of the life thereof, would be
iperceptile to our senses-that is
to ;ay, in a latent ctate, were it not
t')r the irritation of the sun upon its
surfilce ; that, its productions, to wit:
the vegitable, and animnal kingdoms as
well as thunder, lightning, (ew, wind
and rain, are but its signs of life,-the
result of the irrit:ation prodneed by so.
Iar heat ; and a- evidence ot this pro
position. so far as tho polar regions of
the gi' ho have been explored, there
exists nothing! of the Hint. It is scnsCC
ly necessary to Ilentin in this place,
the Iatet, that :ttiial and vegetable
life, a, well as iiete'rie, and aerial
jlehlLoluella. dirnii:lI, from the central
lint, tioVarI1dS the poles, until they, at
a certain line, entirely cease to exist..
I co!iteiiLate that these produ.ctions
alt pheno inIela, are the result of a cer
tain 1:w, recognized to be the samale
with which, sciencfe is quite famIniliar,
in the anirnal anid vegetable eceonomv;
: i'l that this law, is the best evidenice
to our senses of the existance of' a
lprincilple if vitality in the earth.
I thereibre. farther contemplate, that
tihe i:eeting of tilt icy surface of the
glob. was the first. step of the opera
t;n of Phe fo:ce of the law ill question.
by tray oftI 'rt ati i' for sterner re
,istaliwt' aga^:i:st the power oftlie burn
,g sins. T he tuii ngill of the water
.1t", was tile next step. which was
nly a Ipreparation for the growth of
tegi table and aninial inatter. These
ptrocess ,first 3onliiitleed in the re
Eitls of the cents:ri. or eg jinuxial line;
a: : 'e' d':e: that at one period,
thCI.: was b-ut Jittle or no air, greology
unhornis us L::::t the fiest, prodnections
. '0f the rthl eNistedl, andl Ie-Iniredl for
thir e.r t:.i e, but, very little of that,
leniieit. '.1 lie sCcond required inore;
and so ll, till inl the pleselt geologi.
tar 1i oeb, tue liiiy orgaiLed rmarm
h, re.nr:e : atmlosphe-e, for their
\i.t lance. to e-.tehi tit the Lhei.ht of
eilie F0 rty_ eight iniles ~
I titelphiate that the water on the
'il ah te n, :inal . a is 've ) now, di.
l:iihinig iin -! : S:unle raithat the
S""s'ihere has ben. anti is even now,
ilai ng' iit ; that one period of tiune the
Ud of watt'r Wias very narrow be
tt'ueen t'e N 3ri-11 an.1( lu t I muargins
.11f ice ; :1n that ini the salme ratio that
the ai w'a; increiamls in tliatity, the
llrutii' (f tal: ligi lo'in of the
:t' tiil coan Side of the central line,
undecr the sons, b~eea1ne slower inl its
lIIgres'. in ii snilh as the air, in the
rai of its .o''. iii, (alb et, to us it a s
arhs tr:niillent) .int out. the fiery
lcait :naul light if the sun ; vet still, I
inttnp:late that the :,t;, will continue
to expatil tile so!idi inatter of the caith
: l :ill Ie planes, tirst, into a liquid
an.u th;n into a ga nsi '11 stalt', nhtil
:ta ;1 n 1:t hi l ; t- will~ lo-re hee
1:a-s, af al taii worlds in the arcliet
1:11ivtr -. The IjIrticc'ss is slow anj
i 3rgr'.'irt. A tler the twater is all
r.:n ertedl into air, this air will becomne
aunen:uated! by degrees, moreit and moure,
a:l I n Hl, te entually, bect:ne unfit to
u-i tain aiinial andil vegetable life.
aiiimalia will dteenlirate deuwi in
the .seale ot' zoophiitie existan;,ce ; then
3 lidi giran i te itsel. 1..and all the
liintv liuon'en'.'c"m t e tint' tihe
csib iited e:-rth,' wi, byV tihesame
stai~, wich, illi, byi the samiie pro~cess,
a~nmino tile ga:sseoe.4 aintl w'ill ev.enitu.
ally i 1121 the spacne of' P,000,000 of
milets--thje <11istan'e'rom our' globe to
te slit. Whai!t powert i'Wll thlen t wirli
ihithia mi'hlty nebIuloits malss of1 mat
ha.it, in:to worLilds, is head wor ~ k fo the
So. onehtl ini the firmi of pr'elimninary
rtemgark:, e~ssetianl, I itn nlr to at tempj t
htot':iswer:s to the fol lo.in lg geologi.
eal I itecrro gaitoies li(propoundeld, aind
ha~ve neveri~i been ainswaeredl ; at least,
have ne'ver' been satisthetorily'i.
Qia.ui I. WVhat i~s the causc of'
Ass\'w iu. On'i a principle of Natal
ra1f Il 'iosophyi~, heal ex painds all
blies ; awi' as fire. ('n 13ne side of' a
kett le couta:ining water, formis a curre'nt
ofi thei s ame therecin, (i. e.) makes the
kettIeI boih, to use a morei' domestic
phae;the ia/,us' oper'andi of' wichu
is, aliterte.ihi expanlisioni of' the watery
itoleen h's 3on thle side of thle kettle
lit'.t 132 ile tIre ; thus , loicoiiotting and
onl the waat eir ml ltrgioni (of tihe equi
no,<h , ill like mannh~ler, 1ihrm1 a eur-'
r'ent. I'hi is en1 r rent is~ imp) ercLeptablle,
Ce.\eept w'en i iomie impedutimencit, like
the NorIth A Iaer'it'anoti nen.i~iitlt, con
eenItratie-, its fo, and~111( tereby maikes
it v'isib!e.
If thle ca3.1st A of(Cntral imdi North
A 9iet!ila a:s well ais ail thc W\Tit In.
lei:t it-Ilh Aithimtie fie. iin fil ei.)
bability, the gulf stream would never
hIve been heard of, much less laid down
in our charts; for those coasts, and
islands, do concentrate the entire cur
rent of the vast Atlantic Ocean, into
one snall stream, some three hundred
males in breadth becoming visible in
the gulf of Mexico, and traversing the
coast of North America til it re-iches
Norway, whence repulsed by the
Scandianican coasts, it turns North
west towards Greenland, and dies
away in the North ocean.
Time was, when this same Gulf
stream, passed over this continent de
positintg in the middle and northern
states, vast quantities of vegetable
matter from the mouths of'great riv
ers, in tropical continents, to be form
ed into coal by the process of sponta
acous combustion, and on its return
from the.Northern hemisphere, brought
ice bergis, studed with rich jewels, and
bowlders, which were deposited in its
course. The stream, I contemplate,
was then imperceptible. I deem it
needless to illustrate, by any farther
fatmiliar example, o:, the piinciple of
Natural philosophy, the theory in
question, to w it: oceanic currents;
since it. may readily be conceived to
be, as an axiom, already demonstra
ted (i. e.) denonistrates itself.
QueroN, If. Why are bowlders
Ilund, inavariabl-, as seemingly hav
ing drifted in icebergs in a direction,
fronia the poles towar ds the equator ?
Arnsw-:u. IBowlders, in icebergs,
f'llowed the current which now run
deep and powerful, being composed
of cotdensed tohlecules, invariably,
from North, towards the equator, un
less thrown out of its course by con
tilnenits or islands. In the early peri
ods, the wind had no influence on the
course of the drift, inl as much as
there was bit little air, hence it is,
their direction was less deviating thatn
that of the icebergs of the present day
in the Northern ocean.
Qt.s-ros, Ill, - Why are boulders
not found near the Equinoxial line ?
A.1 s: Ti m l . hn h u
had not mlncted down the ice so far on
either side of the Equinox, but that
the water, or ocean was quite narrow;
so it is evident enough that the cur
rent, at, that time, was more rapid, and
so it follows that icebergs rode in it,
quite to the equinoxial line, and re
turned again towards the poles, with
out having had tiine to melt, and de
po-it their contents, to wit : bowlders
&e., until they raive, on their return,
to within a certain distance from the
Ques-raos, IV. low did tropical ani
mals and plants ever find their way
to Lngland and Frt ne.', and to the
liozed regions of Siberia ?
AxswEaR. The icebergs, in all pro
hility were much larger, at the peri
od of time, in whieb, the North and
South margins of ice, or the frozen
regions, v ere nearer the equinox ; and
thme crrent being. thence more rapid
in its mto tio'n, these islandc of ice, Gould
have floated to tropical lands, and may
have run into the mouths of great riv
ers, and have been wedged up there
for a short lime, so that immense
quanltities of plants, branches, and so
lorth, besides, elephants, rhinocerross
es, and c:ery l:ind of tropical animals
may have collected and congregated
upon them ; and so soon as they be.
come loese by tliminaishing in size,
fronm the heat. of' the vertical simn melt.
ing themi, lie current may have taken
them Northaward, and deposi ted them
in t he amutd, int Enugland and in Francce.
It was buat seldomt thast Cuvier found
tan enati re skeleton ; there was nothing
t.hinost, but a heterogenions mass ci
hones. The deposit ini Siberia, i tap.
pears, va's of miore recent date, in as
mu Ich as, 1st. Siberia is furtherci from
the equinox. 2nad. the animuals are
(manya') still in a state of' preservation.
I coantenmplate that the deposits in
Franace andl England, ait one period of
timen., to wvit: whlen it was as cold as
t now is ia Sibleria, could have also
bevrn fotund in a state of preservation.
Teeare very few deposits in Si.
beri, ini compfarison to thec immense
quatity found in f'rance and int Eng
Uind. I his 1 contemplate, is owiung to
the circumtstaincetof the latter Coutieis
beinag situated ntearer to the tropical
regions, thian the formero, anid hence
more convenment, depositorie.
I amii awvare that it, is the opinaion of
many geologists, thant the tropical de.
posits ini England and in France gene
rated tad flourished~ therae; hut there
is no evidlence of this, onily that such
renanins are found there. .Some, the,
Ilhyena, f'or instance, may have out.
lived others andi preyed upon their.
dlead bodies ; butt there is no evidence
that, the elimtate wias congenial to themi..
Astronomy, and dbmmn sense
scofT at the idea, viz thant the poles of
tile globhe have been shilled.
QutEmToW, V. .it is a question with
geologists whether ther coal -ladela,
sot abnlttdantly dlistribuoted .over the.
globe, weretha deposits of' drift,.or
othet wise ; rherefbra in whmat manne
were they formed ?
ANswnI. The current'of the ocean
hitherto, by geologists, and geograph
ists, are supposed to be produced and
influenced alone by the winds.. They
appear not to be aware, or to suspect
that the currents have their. origin in.
the espandiug heat of the tropical sut,
and this is the reason why the drjft
formations present so many pheiomue
na, to them, that are ntterly 1icrm
The current running from the equa:
tor towards the poles was composed
of light and expanded- water ;.and the
drift of the current was co'mposed, in,
Coto, of light vegetable matter, in la,
mellated and regular masses, deid
of all foreign substances, (i.e.) snb
stances whose sptcifio gravity would
cause thetn to sink-and now constie =
tutee the coal beds whithersoever they
were deposited. The other :eurreu
ran from the poles towards the equa
tor, and was composed of heavy water;
and the drift that followed this current,
was for the most part underneath' the
surlfce of the water and was composed
of icebergs, containing the various me
talic substances, bowlders, conglome
rate &c. Huge masses of this -kind,
riding in the current, uidernath-the
surface of the ocean, would'ascend the
sides of high mountains, grate <n' their
flinty pinaoles and crags, rull-over, d
scend, and then go onward in their
course. : .
Lyell, Richardson, "dd others, esup'
posed that from the perfect and unbro-'
ken state of preservation inawhieh
many species of tender bulls and limbs
of plants aire found, in the cohl bed;
they are not accumulated on the' prinh
ciple of the drift formstion; 'and Rich.
ardson states, as farther objection to
the drift principle, that "the-coal in
t hat case would have been mixed withi
foreign substances, whick is not'the'
liet" "tho uniform thickness of-ea'ch
coal enn (wonulers of Geologyby the
author of Pet Par) presents anothei
ifgtae- bein-g washed.away, the,
vegetable matter deposited, woukd'
have been found disposed., in unequal.
layers, heaps, and hillocks,' which is
fhr from being the fsct. .tlhe great.
ness two, of many -of the seams, for
bHls the suppesiion of so violent ad,
tion as that which the drift theory sup.
poses. The enormous depths of many.
of tihe seams is likewise considered an
insurmountable objection."
In our ignorance of the.cause of the
oceanic current; and thence- our. ignor
ance of the fact, to wit: that there are
tr.o kinds of drift very difrerent from
each other in all their aspects and
characteristics, and having for..their
cause of differenco, ...the, diffre 'nce in. . -.
the' currents. nell - may we raise up in
superable objections.to the Drift origin -
of the coal formaticus, rest quietly in
ignorance on.them,. (which --is: worse
than ignorance) conchde that the earth,
had received at one time or another, a.,
most immaculate pelting, and:
turn over on the wrong side, in o
that we might aceount for the imn-,uta- .
be state of the preservation of- tropi -
cal elephants, fruits,. buds, and bogghs
of Sigillitrae Stigmariae, and othe spe
cies of vegeta matter in coal dams,.
and in the frozen regions of iorthern
Whoever has been a fisherman or a~
hog-minder, in Santee swamp, . or.
(perhaps) almost any other swamp,.
after a freshet, in all probability, may
have had "oeular demonstrations" of
the principle of the deposits of trash,
flakes. There are na brick. bats, or. ,
"foreign s'ibstances" in these layers
and there is as much uniformity in
their thickness, as i~n thie coalbeds.
generally. We fi~id acor,ns, lileuy
nutts, crab apples, piiipkins,-buds, and
branches of trees, delicate in texture,
yet unbruised by the violenco of the
de ift principle.
Another objection (they tell-us) to
the drif, theory, is that clusters of talt
forest treps, standing erect as they 9,
grew, mi a.statie of coal arc found.(per
haps) in England., They might. as,
well t611. ns that the char-coal, which
our bhiek smiths use in their:.. f orges,.
and~ make themselves, is anothei-ob
jectitn to tho Drift, theory.
hiany deposits of vdget~l liatter,
by the ranified current, .a4 aelltion,
whiqh in this..place, I findaicessary to .
coin, may have b~een made i~ceta~
valleys amidst theoforest treso tha
in process of time, the tops of the te
may have been cu'yered.; antheZh
process of spontaucons.cibuto
may have begun, and covarted the en
tire manss into coal.- Tis ~prooess
might (it is tiota-Vyy great stretch of,
imaglnaion-to coniceive ii) go on in
Santee Swar~ap, or. any otheravsamp,
wore it not for the&. freqtient- r~petition
of the freshot.s.. Su the answer tio the
question before me, is that the matter
which formed the coal beds in vari
parts of the b~owels of the earth, drin
ed im ino flakes, from the centra hmi

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