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The Sumter banner. (Sumterville, S.C.) 1846-1855, January 24, 1855, Image 2

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P R O P R IETOR_ _-__taE M - - 2 A D V A N C E
Every WediEancday MIornaang
John 3. Richardson, Jr,
i'WO t)OLt.A iS in adtvance, Two Dollars
au[i Fifty Cents at tle ex pirit ion of aix moniths
or Three Doltars at the end of the %ear.
No paper diseottitued until all arrearages
hre r A a , tness a t Ie opt ion oftIte troprieaors.
B'V"AiIvertisempeits inxeriect at SEV .NI'
FIVKl Cents per sqniare, (1:. lines or less,) for
the first, anti hallf ilmti snmt foreach subseemnen
I iertioit, (Otlicial advertisetiests the vuite
each time).
t-.-}" The nituber of insertions to lie marked
on atl A-t ertisenets or tley will bie puiblisiel
until ordheret to be liseuntitited, and charged
b ccordingly.
g" ON E DOLLA It per sltatir for a sinm
gle insertion. Quarterly and 31mthly Adver
tiseinents will lie e barge I the same as a siigle
insertion, and semi-nithly the same its new
2:" Obituarys mnd Triites of Itiect,
over twelve lines, charged u advertisenents
The iM ensories of thae PvusL
nR y 0 It I E N.
'Tis Night ! and day's fierce eye hath set,
And lonely frotm yot tree,
The Whippowill, in sadness yet,
Sings her harsh litllaby.
'Tis Night ! anmi muaeu'ry onl the wing
Leads forth ier misty tiironr,
And back recalls each valtied thing
My heart hits cherished long.
Thou, on whose arm my head reposed
Ito lite's uncionscious hours.
'Ere yet my sickly fra ne disclosed
Its future healthy powers.
Thce, first ioesq faithful Mlem'rv brintr
A more Ih-in .Mother thou,
Who nursed tile in hile's enrly sprig
Can I forget thee tow
Whocan forget the eve whose light
First sparkled int his roul,
And cheered him on, when shade and
[Hung o'er his path abroad ?
IVile Mim'ry wits her ma:tgic powers,
Forget it, lie who can,
The love that nursed Iis infant hours,
And reared hia up to man.
And, sisters-brot hers ! ye :re, ton,
Here with tmle at tier call ;
A heiart.that once rejoiced wit you,
Still ftodly loves you all.
What, though ye are estrniged by years
From the fur distamt one,
What thou2hi your hearts have lost their
For otte who stands alone
Yet once agaii around the hearth
Of chiddhtood's home we stand,
Anl Mem'ry paint tie scene of mirth
'Mid our uibroken ban.
Alas ! our fonmdest hours are gone,
And I, forgoieni, tread
My pathway in the world alone,
A4 tmther--d witlh lthe dad.
G, re.
siding tnear Germantown, Obio, ila
exhinig the bodies of his wi(.* hi8
grinachild, and (t hr dvee isel miteI.
bers (If his fiamily, fromt a burtial gNatitnd
on his farm, ina order to iitca titm ith
tihe Ge mantowit Lemeteriv, ihtandi tht
thes bo(dies( were aill mt ote ~or less pet.
iied. The wi fe hl beeni bi ed
twventy lryes, b-a thi bdy wa
in an excel let state of pireservattio n.
Uptn at cltose eixainattiont, it wats fouid
itat the rinhs wvotuld ntgivye way
under' thle pressure oi (f a p iece of bot~tard
whfich otte of thle getl emtent placed
uponli thea cor~p-c; antd t his Niranlge
etntstatice hedi ta still futheri it.
vestigatiotn. TIhie shrotid, tand inideed
althe coveinag w hich was tupotn lie
body at thi- timie of Itintetet, twentty
funri years*. ago, htad disaplpeatred not ia
vestige (If thtemi reminted. Tliohuibdy
was perfect, exept thle rigrht le, fromt
the knee to the aink lejatimi, whlere the
flesh seetmed to have waste~d awa y. and
lay at the bottomn of the coflint ini a
sutbstance reseambtlit'g satd. W ith
this exceptitta ofi decay, the boidy atid
limtbs ex Iiitetd the same p-efetatess
oIf exterior the~y (lid when hife anid an.
imnatian were ini the bod ly. 'lThe bodlv,
laudeed, liad beetn petrified ! It was
by somae strantge qanalit~y of the earth,
and othter causes of' wthich we can1 irm
nlo conjectture, t'uned into stotte of a
d rab, or tmorie ptaoperly speatk ing, flesh
c' oo ; atnd the chisel oaf the artist
ttight, itititate bit contld tnot make so
(close ia resem1 bbmeetc to t he '- hnmaniti
for dliv ine."'-.-Ch arleston Mlcery.
A Ils~xariwo. Fr-~ow.:a.--'The Daih.
lia is a tat ive of. the arshes aof Perti
Mxwedish botaistt. It is mnore thua
thairiytyuanrssinceu its itroduction ito
Erope, and~ it is nt'iw thf., alniversal
tv'it 0ate offriut s. 'lTe munbt ler ofi
I"y thu Editor.]
DeimI Ini g .
I every ago, and among every peo.
ple, men iflaned by anger, have
lqtnld a congenial f'elinrg in assaults,
imre or less ferocious, iceording to
tihe circumristances, upon the persons
and lives of those against whom their
anger was directed.
The tendency of humin natuire is,
aid always has been, towards the gira
tificationl of any passioll which Imnay be
exeited. The i:flence which society,
is it approaches nearer to enlighten
ed refinlemient, exerts, is of restraint
ui porn all tie passions. Every man
who has at all observed his owin emo.
tions and impuilses, should, in hi calm
el lilieits fe gratel toProvidence
for those varions restraints which have
so frequently preveinted acts, either of
6-ally or imadies-, whose consequetences
tmight have ieen, to ot ers, wretched
ness, to himself reimrse. IHow marny
a Imran, whose hand is n1ow unstrainned
by bliod, can recall oceasions, whenr
but for some apparently formiturns,
really privideintial circuistanrce, ie
might, now have 1 im iderer" burnt iii
uponi his voiscieceIC. i'i uom the time
when Ca-n was sent forth, a disgraced,
wretched, panic striken waiderer, Inen
have known that, the frown of Ileaven
rested upon him who in : anger rai::ed
his hand against the life of his fellow
man11. The teachins of expeoience
warn to the saine restraint swhtich the
comm roand ol' God imposes, and sho w
that not only holinress, buth appiesS,
demands the practice of that di vine vir
tire, FORIvENErs. "To err is human."
It is mneh less diflicuilt to act or speak
.o as to offend than as to please.
\'hat. a sliaught er pen would this c-irt h
beem iW tiue lri usl passion, er:hger,
s9 friequently excited, perhaps a
dliy oafeU ... - .', l *ife. were permitted
to ladulgo it-.' .a atsi suited to its
nature. Muide., reliated till the
'eart wmnid siuken, Woilid h. the re.
rnlt. TIho G reat ILIarier oaver Ileaven
:urn earth directed th:t "h-Jv man sui ''ild
his bloiid be shed wI Iwds tihe bioo d
.f mn:." and inexorabl Necessity has
f. rCed mikind to sutbeniet the divine
direction. Tihe frearid pen.tty or death
hai been held rip bef'ore the angry pas
sionr to fright it from tihe deed. An
if the sword of Justice be eseiiedi,that
flrilnmanlity which is withih tire man as
well as inl tire rm illionirs of tile iiver
0al brortherhood, ha, its death perralty,
rurore nnerring than tire other. Ii ma.
rv, many, solitary, livii g deaths has
the (oom111 of tine first mnanlslayer been
terribly realized, since tile black day
wher mrrrder first was done upon tire
earthii. Murder has for its emipanion
IHorror. All thi has marked the
histoiry of man. IHow their can tire
did, tiad its plaee inn iuimain history,
its lmanidafion in Imnain natrr, be
exuilainecd ? Carr buod, sied in a fair.
equia emn.tLest, be garthered up argarin to
rearnirmate imr fromr whose hneart it hra
prouredi lfrthn ? s tire wife less a wid
(3w, a re cil d rein less orphianis, is tire
dea'hi giloomi to suirvivonrs less oppress.
'.vm, because tire ihusbarnrd arid fhthrer
has been struck fromrr life, not iiy a
sava~Zge, uinsein, assarssinr, bunt by air
adveisanry fill ini front, calmi, cor
pocsedi, obrservalnt, to tire nricety otf a
hair, of tire rirles ofC etiqurette Is tire
fallenr oine less destroyed, less lost, to
tire joys of tis life arnd tihe hopjes of
the lifec to comre, breause tire eomrbat,
was dendberate, plann1 red out, and ire
thn slairn bieealse hre could rnot be thi
slayer'? Is n le killing done with less
determ.rratiojn, less mraliginanicy of'
prpose, because tihe slayer harzarded
his own lifer for tire opiportunrity to
comniirit tire deed ; arid can that, which
cumrprises both murder arnd suicide
witin itself, lbe less in enormity of
crrile than eithrer ? Alars fir poor
hrumnarn hnt're when it is thle enl ighrt,
ceied, the refinled of' miankcind who an
swer " Yes " to all thiese questions.
Originmated in an a-.e when suiperstitin
assigned to tire Duelc, the pious ofle
olf diecidinig tihe Righrt anid punishing
tire WVirnng ; whe~n "~ God preser ve tire
Rigiht " wras the cry as tire doer arnd
tire redresser oif wrongs closed in up~on
each othrer in deadly cormbat, and all
belevel that by Jil decr-eo it was
that defiat was visited upon the guilIt
one-it has come down to us disrobed
of its superstitions investiture severed
from pious justice-a game of hazard,
in which the injured one may have
fearful odds against hi m, and the stake
the li tof one or both. The men of the
Dark ages, who believed that Heaven
presided over it and awarded justice
by its result, should not be condemned
by those whose ignorance has beeni
enlightened : hut how call we pirdon
ourselves? Do we believe that by it
wrong is punished and light re.
dressed ? No such pious superstition
somiubres the mind of this age. Thein
it had its foundation in the confessed
inability of human tribunals to read
the secrets and detect the guilt of tht
heart ; and the Great arbiter, to whomn
all secret things were known, wa
invoked to) make manifest the trtil
by the issue of the comnat.
Now that reason does not support it.
The duelist, of this day knows, if ht
thinks at all, that God, unenvoked, L
there, but only to be insulted and an
gered by the violation of'his own coin
mandment. The duel now is, confess
edly, no Court of Justice. The chance!
are, perhaps most freIiently, in hi:
favor who has spent a life in insultin;
and iniuriing,-aid has skilled himnsel
by practice in the art of destroving;
those who resented the wrongs don
But it is absurd to reason and des
cant upon this subject. Common sens<
revoits at it. One who reallyfeels -
wrong or insult may be willing t
hazard his lif'e for the chance of re
venge. It is but a chance, he knows
but life and its concerns the' seew a
cm pared with the ,'ariicatio
of' thu Ln I And th
a rongdoie--C miay inieet him, e'ither frost
a Wish to injure him more, or froi
reeklessness-or frequently from feni
of what the world would say were Ii
to refuse satisfaction. And this ver,
fear is the cause of iny duels. Me:
fear to do right by making ackniowl
C Igements and reparation when the,
have done wrong ; the others fear to
do what God himself does constantli
towards man-show merev aiid Ar
give--; iiiisuinde'rstandings and difliciI
ties are complicated and ini'lamed unti
they end in blood, because of fear tha
the world wiil selier at their want. ol
courage und spirit. A chivalrous inl
stitution to be pro~pped up by fear!
uliellinig is really the most ridicullo:
absurdity of the age-ifithat could b
called ridiculous which has destrovce
so many thousands, not ('nly of repro
bates. but of the really high souled ani
noble minded. To treat a man liki
a gentleman when you are about t
kill him because you say he is not one
to give a m1,ian means and opportunity
to inflict an irreparable injury upii
you, because lie has already injurei
yoiu :to be cabai anid coimposed, wheni
if' your feelings at all consort wit bi tI
act you arle about to commit, you
heart is boiling over withI hot, wrath
all tis may~i be very linec anmd clival
rous, but, it, is unnatural. An angri
tmain, when lie acts naturally and withI
out afl'eetationIl, assaul ts his foe irniimedi
at ely and withI violemnce ; his feel inii
fo.rce him to corresponidinig action-h;
uses no0 soft, woirds, assumes nto easy'
Iingl ifi'erenmt miamnner, bumt looks and act:
the angry mnan. Yet for him t hern
are laws, that will be enlforced too.
Should lhe not be able to meet his in
jurer then-should a (lay, though il
may not abate his wrath, yet delay hh
veiigeance-then'i the law against, miur
derers wtoulld be enforced in his case
Let bhim receive thle sanme injury, (de
lay his revenge for as long a time
avow his purpose ; deliberate, mnalig
nant, calmi in his resolution from thic
knowledge that a quick eye, a steady
hand and superior expertness will ena,
ple him to kill his adversary as safe,
ly to himself as if ho too were no;
armed-and the laws of Ihonor will
shield him from thle penalties of hi:
country's laws. Oimght these thing:
to be soi? What justifies juries ir
distingish ig between these two casem
in favor of the latter ? 1IThe one o nao
guilty "-t he ot her '"guilty.".'! Does
the . law justify thoim? Does Om=
11on Sense ? What lifts from their
Consciences their solemn oath? We
labor in vain to imagine a reply.
The plainest of all murders is the one
most easily found to be no murder.
What bloody delusion is it which,
u1pon this subject, has so crazed the
public mind, that it makes void the
laws which Heaven declared and 1Hu.
inanity approves, makes that honora
ble which is the highest crime, and
declares that chivalric which is unnat.
ural and affiected. And how much is
each individual. whose sentiments on
this matter go to make up a public
opiliol in favor of duelling, answera
ble to his own coiscipnce for the
)erpetuation of the practice, for the
lives it has sacrificed, for the suffering
and angnish of heart it has caused, and
for the perversion of mroral sentiment
it has eflicted ! Howl many there
are, especially of the youthful, who,
in the unreflectiveness and impetuosity
natIral to their age, become compli
cated ir. " ailiirs of honor," that find
themselves, almost unconsciously, car.
ried onward by the ponderous ina.
chinery of the institutiuon to thedread
consummation ; oft times fheing each
other with deadly weapons in their
hands, but with no malice in their
hearts-one perhaps to f1lll, a victinm
to false principles of honor, the other
to lead a life of bitter regret. We
eul conviiced that, in the majority of
fatal duels, it is not the unhappy sur
--ivor who is the real murderer, but
Society. which by its perverted moral
sentiment has set in actiui. inflitences
imechanically, as it were, ,"duo.ive of
the disastro-os efflects.
We ask not to be. -oned for
avingihught tih
rested in) but, ve feel that, pr hapS,
we have trespassed by the to(. olg thy
expression of our imperfect and rain
- big tholiughts. The Colsd a.lol .a
tle Subjcect at this timie m, was suggested
to us hy the fillowing which we Lke
- omn the corresjpondenice of the
Charleston Courier :
Nhy-01arLASS, Jan. 19.
The duello has at last, Ieni decreed
a crime by ajury. Juani Pages, who,
aS I mentioned iml my letter of vester.
day, kilb-d some three years siice a:i
oither Spaniard, named J1uanm Paiter
in a diiel with knives, has been Col.
vieed of mansla ugiter by twelve im,,.
partial citizels. The verdiet, though
lempered by a recommendaLiol to
mercy, consequenlt oi the chivalrous
mnanner in which Pages con(lcted his
portion of the alliir, by givin.g up to
his adversary an advantage which he
had ill weaponms, yet. establish..s a
precedent whih it is to be hoped will
have a good efleet in deterrinmg imanyuiv
from1 ? eing in such hliorrible utch.
cries as have at times disgraced this
sectio' n of' tle coilitry. " Up to his
period," says the Ciecent, " it has
been next to impssible to obtin i
jury that woul conavict ill any case
where a fhir duel had beeii fought
niotwit hstanidinag the nmniielrouas laws'
hat have been incorporated inlto our
di fli.rent conist-itiutin s, anud str i ngent
statutes that have been piassed bey
different Legislatures oni thle subaject ofi
We ha~ve thought this aI fit time for
these connnuments, b)eaulse there are no0
Icontem.Jporaneouis circumllstanc~es to
wohichi they can11 be applied, and we
cainst therefore be charged with per.
In conludl~ling we would, to corrobo.
rate our oIpinion as to wvhere tile sin
ties, advert to what has been stated of
lilinois: that the survivor of thec first
anid only duel in that State was conl.
victed of' murder by the Jury. it
stopped there. Shahl this degenerated
fe.ature of' the Dark Ages longer darkeni
this enlightened age ? It is for the
mien of'thle country, the sworn Juries
of the country, to say when it shall bie
nIYTEnIIAs. -Baltimore haus one Pres.
by terian commitemiat, to 118 of the
population ; PhIiladelpia~ one to 78
Pittsburg one0 to 47 ; Richmnond one
to 59 ; Louisville one to 25 ; Nash.
vilie one0 to 22 ; Charlestonl 'one to 56;
Cotlummbial, S. C., one0 to 35 ; Midi
onie to 45 ; Newv Orleans one to 128
Cincinnati '1ne to 153
Edwin Barnes was elected Sheriffrof
Kershaw District on the 22nd uit.
Trauspiauiag Frnli Trees,
nY H1. C. VAIL.
The autumnii is a favorable time for
Making plantations of hardy trees,
snch as apples, pears, cherries, quinces
and plums. The inore tender varie
ties of fruit trees are frequen.tly set
out in the fall with success, yet the
spring is the better season for rernov.
ing the peach, apricot: nectarine, and
even the plum.
The taste for fine fruit is becoming
more general, and we believe that as
men become inore civilized and refined,
they will give a greater share of their
attei.tion to the cultivation of the soil
-particularly to the propagation of
line varieties of fruit. Thousands of
acres of land have been devoted to
orchards within a few years; still the
price of fruits in our great cities is
probably higher at the present time
than it was ten years ago. even it we
allow fur the scarcity of fruit this sea.
Son, which has caused an advance in
price. In short, the public taste is
rapidly undergoing an edicational
course. which renders it almost an im
possibility to overstock the markets
with good fruits at remunerating pri
Fruits should be grown more ex
tensively for home consumption.
There are hundreds of farmers whose
families know nothing of the luxury
of having abundance of finle fruit on
their own farnis; who probably, never
plucked a lucious pear or a ripe, blush
ing peace from a tree of their own.
Too often we see a few fruit trees
carelessly set, alongside a stone wall,
or im some neglected corner where
they never receive attention, instead
of having a field set apart and cultiva.
ted especially for the production of
fruit, which inny be thus obtained in
any quantity and to suit the taste of
the most refined amateur.
We are highly gratified at the in.
creasing denand for flue fruits, and to
notice the number rf trees sold annu.
al!.'- 'inr leag. il nursery men. We
Ire niulv..ievted to witness the
I . lr.:k. inir i:i ii nie s
of them ar iIed ,ut, under ti.e
naimei of settuig, which is vert proper,
air they are set with r more care
thimn if they were posts, or some other
lifeless dihing. It never seems to en
ter the brains of some people that a
tice is an organized body, possessed
of vital y, and the roots, etc., actingr
as coinduiLs for supplying the means
uf sustaining its vitality and increasing
its mnais. Such is the iase, however,
and therefore, after having used the
proper discretion in selecting the right
kinid and quality of tree, as to vigor,
forim, etc., thu best mode of transplant.
ing should be understood and acted
upon. Take two plots of ground of
eqiul size and transplant trees, equal
im every respect, into both. Plant the
oie with care, the o'.her in the ordina.
ry manner and at. the end of ten years
the fo taer will be so far superior that
no amoutt of care or manurinar will
bring the latter to the same state.
Those persons who are about to
transplst, fruit trees would do well to
(.bserve a few facts. Nurseries, in
which trees are grown until large
eiouglh for the orchard, are generally
in excellent condition, the soil made
rich by frequent and plentiful i manur.
ing, and kept clean by cultivation;
hence in removing trees it is well to
select as fertile a soil a possible in
which to set thiemi. T:.ecs should nov
ebe pulled or twisted out, of the
ground, tbut al ways carefuzlly taken up.
If' necessary to sever roots, it should
be (lone with a sharp spade or oither
proper tool. Care should always be
taken to preserve all the small roots.
lfor lhey are invui uable to the health
and prospierity oft ithe tree. Exposure
tom the sun and wind will so shrivel up)
thme roots as to unfit, thema faor the per.
forimnce of' iheir regular functions.
Ilundreds of' trees are lost annally
from this cnuse alone. All injured
rooits shoul d be removed carefully,
with a clean eut made by a sharp
knife, the tops trimned just in propor.
tion to the muutilation of' the root.
The practice of removing all or near
ly aill, the top of trees transplanted is
injudicious. Th leaves are reqIuired
to perfect their organ'ization, and these
are more readily developed on the
younger thani on the moure matured
portions of'a tree. T1he holes for the
reception of the roots should be spa.
cious-from four to six feet in diame
ter, and never less thani two and a half
feet in depth. It must be recollected
that if the spot where a tree is to
stand be not well prepared before it is
set, it never ca.n be done aiflerward, and
that their roots extend wider and deep.
em' than those of' ordinary crops, hene
the soil must he loosened to a greater
extent to enable them to travel without
hindrance. Th'e soil removed from
the bottom of the hole should never
be returned to it. Its place must be
supplied with that of a better quality.
Where rich earth can be readily ob.
tained, the surface soil about til hole
may be taken off'and plma fn t, -a
at any and 6ll sendons with p eiflcit
safety. Other plans. may suggest
theniselves. to the ingenioutcultivator.
One word concerning dwarf pear
trees. In selecting pear trees.gratted
on quince for the purpose of dwarfing
theim, be careful to choose those graft.
ed close to, or even beneath' the sur.
face of the soil. When grafte<\on the
quice above the surface. .thyj are
subject to destruction Iroin high Winds.
Thib precautio) in selecting, naypr'e.
vent the loss of iumy, he7ide the pear
may throw out younig rootletsi and in:
ime be growing on Its ovn roots1
The tap root of the quince should be
cut out, for if left it will soon decdy
and leave tLie tree in in unhealthy
clip the following fiom ohe of our ex
changes. If true, it is a useful discov
ery and well worth trying.
From Galignani's Messenger, al
quoted in the Franklin Inlstitute for
December, 1854, we learn thaL adis
covery, which is likely to be ofgiru
advantage to agricuiture, has been -ei
ported to the Agricultural society at
Clermont, France. A gardener whs
fiames and hot houses rehired 0in
ing decided on makin ltfiei"b ao
as likely to attract the heat bettr
and from a principal of 'cdfom y he
muade use of gas tar instead ott black
paint. The'work was performed dur
ing the winter, and on the: aporoach
of spring the gardner was: surprr.
to find that all the spiders and-insects
which usually infested his he6t.hoiuses
had disappeared, and also tha , e
which for the last two. ycars:'hada,
fallen off that he had intended oto re
place it by another, had acquired fresh
force and vigor, and .gave everfy sigl
of producing a large crop of grapes.
He afterwards ued the smgna sub -
stance on. the posts and trellis-work
which supported the tiers in the oge
air, and met with the same resuts
AlI the caterpillars and other insctsI -
conuletaivi disappe-,.ed.-It ' Sid
that sim ilar-e.periminents ibe
idIUJe in sine of thevincyards in
(ronde, with similair results. We
commend these facts to American
horticulturists as equally applicable
to.otier growths than that ofb. vine.
strange Story now floating oL the
great sea of literary table-talk.
Nothing less, let me tell you, than
that an unpublished fiction by Sir
Walter Scott has turned up, and will
be published in Paris, where - it Was
found. The story runs, that a rich
old German, who lived in Parislwhen
Scott visited it in 1526, hid a.m9no.
mania for collecting autogiaphs, -apdP
wanted otie of Scott's; that -_Au
Scott give him the manusciit -of a
historical romance by her,. fatiibr
which he had determined not i.
lish; that he prized this very midh
kept it in a box by itself; and prormis
ed to bequeath. it to his private secre
tary; that he quitted Paris in 1830
and was lost sight of; tha la
months ago, the German's daugoht.er
forwarded blhe writing case fromi Bava
ri; that the secretary opened it, Rrd
found it to contain, "Moredun, a Tale
of the Twelve Hundied and TJi;"
that it is of the usual thae volume
extent; that it is being translated fr
publication in the French, and thata it
has the genuine life, spirit; and realrty
of the best of the Waverly romances.
-London Cor. of the iV. Y,~ Sua
Times. a
SiiANoHiAs.-This breed of. ula
very subject to a disease iatambling
warts, and which somne perhons ny~s.
call gout. It is an excressence whicha
appears upon, and rapidly extenids it
self over the shanks; rendering the
subject very inactive and, inhealthy,
and if not removed, in time pfross
fatal. The disease is speedily ~ued
by-first, washing well the part eit
lected with warm wvater andt Tayp -
wiping dry, and then smeslring'thield -
over it, a mixture of tar and lt--..
'1he first application oftin efletj a
cure; if it does not. in ten dhys or a
fortnight after, apply, the mixture ai
second time, and it will rarely faul
Lord Lindsay states that, In tljirse
of his wdniferings amid the' fds
of Egypt, he stumnbld mne I~muy -
proved by its ,hieroglyph~a9b
least 2000 year~ of age 9n4 .
ing the mrndtmny after .Jtwaip
ped, he found inone ~mrt, dt~d% a J
a tuberous or bulbous aroot~ w~
interestedin t~e uesio
vegetable lif mooedhien. 'h there.
fare-took thi 'ubrsioy10 r~ga the
asummy's lhagd1::pipn4is
sq~l, allow
1ieav~a dish.
the subsoil removed from the hole
maI'iy be substituted for the sut face soil
so removed. The exposure to sun and
air will so ameliorate its condition
that it will soon become surface soil.
It is an excellent practice to place
bones, horn piths, woofen rfgs, leather
sha1vings, and other refuse imaterial's,
such as old mortar, bricks, etc., in the
bottorn of the holes as a deposit of
materials for the future use of the tree.
If a hole be dug near a vigorous tree,
and a fresh bone be placed in it, at the
end of a year the bone be dug up, it
will be encircled with fibrous roots
thrown out from the tree and feeding
upon its substance.
The field devoted to fruit trees
should be underdrained, if wet, for
no tree can do well in wet, could sour
soil. We would advise the deep and
thorough underdraining of naturally
dry lands a p! actice which is now
pursued in Eigland with great success,
and which we have not the: least doubt
would prove an excellent investment
on American farms, particularly on
those portions which are expected to
yield so abundantly as orchards.
Deep and sub.soil plowing must nee.
essarily precede the transplanting of
trees, for with the exception of the
middle portions between the rows of
trees, they can not afterward be done
thoroughly without great injury to
Compost manures are best adapted
to trees. Unfermented, concentrated,
anmonical manures, are highyly inju.
rious, disorganizing the spongioles and
rendering the tree unhealthy. Large
amounts of mulch, river or pond mud,
turf, sods wood, mold or other refuse
vegetable matter prepared by the use
of the salt, and lime mixture, or char.
coal dust, mixed with ordinary ma.
nures, or with guano, hen dung, or
other concentrated fertilizers, may be
used with safety, and should be min.
gled with the soil, not placed in im.
mediate contact with roots. -
Trees never should be set deeper
thai where they grew in the nursery.
If Ahy ;g, th' yt-hiould stand an im ta
,r .wo higher. to allow fr tho set.
tling of the soil, which will have them
at the proper depth. Care mu.t be
taken to give every rootlet its natural
ljosition, and when all ready, fine
miold spriinkled over them, so that
every crack and crevice may be filled.
When properly covered, a Iew quarts
of water thrown on from a broad spout,
so as to give the strearns a flat, thin
form, will carry the soil about every
root and insure success in its future
growth. The practice of shaking, re.
commended by many writers, is ex.
tremnely injurious. We know from
ample experience in pursuing both
methods. During the operation of
shaking, the roots are drawn out of
place and are left in a cramped posi.
After having carefully planted a
tree, set a tall, pliant stake near it,
and make the tree fast by means of a
wisp of straw, or a soft tow string, or
strong bast matting. The object in
using a limber stake is to give the tree
an opportunity to move when attacked
by winds, and yet remain firm enough
to prev. nt being nprooted or having
its roots drawn from their proper
A mulch covering of loose straw,
coarse litter, seaweed, coarse manures.
spent tan bark, stones, bits of' boards,
ebips, ete, illaced around the tree, pre.
vents rapid evaporation of moisture,
and thus enhances the likelihood of
success. Trees may be freely watered
when mulched, but when not so treat,
ed, it often does much injury by com.
pacting the soil anad preventing the
access of air.
Diluted guano water, solution of
night soil,. improved superphosphate
of lime, anid other co:acentratedl fertili.
zers, may be applied to trees with
profit at almost any season of the
W hen guano alone is used, it should
be dug in the ground in the .fall, so
that the autumn and winter rains may
dissolve and disti ibute it through the
soil, andi de'stroy its virulence before
the season of rapid growth commences.
Should it come in contact with the
spongioles in its concentrated form, it
would result in their destruction.-~
Superphosphate and improved super.
phosphate of lime are valuable as
application to fruit trees of all classes.
and may be used at any season with.
out tear of evil results. Indeed, fine
fruit cannot be grown without the pre.
sence of phosphates In the soIl, and
we have every reason to believe, both
from theory and actual experiment,
that the use of the soluble phosphates
is productive of the greatest benefits
to fruit trees ofevery description.
Probably thb best method fo.r wa.
Loring trees is to bury a piece (or two
of pipe tiles, with one poInt below the.
body of the tree, and the other coming
to the surface of the ground one~ anad
a half or- two feet from it. In this
tubehus formed, water, ry dilato.
solutins of manureb~rna ha nn'aurc

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