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The Sumter banner. (Sumterville, S.C.) 1846-1855, January 31, 1855, Image 1

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JOHN S. RICHRDON JRt., C"ou-all Our~ uatibir ?Ian-fj.
Every W1ednesday M1lornuiuig
John S. Richardson, Jr.
rWo DOLLAItS in advance, Two Dollari
and IFifty Cents at the expiration of tix mntli
or 'lhree Dollars at the end of the year.
No paper discontinued tmtil all arrenragep
hrePA ID, tnnless at the option ofthe Proprietors,
2, Advertiseinentst inserieul at SEV ;N''Y
FIVL Cents por sqnare, (1*2 hines orless,) foi
the first, and hal fithat suin for each subsequen1
Insertioi, (Ollicial advertisements the sann
leach ti e).
tw l 'lie tnhmber of insertions to ie marked
6n all A-ivertisements or they will be pnlhiished
Mntil orderctt to be uiscontiniued,ad w mcharged
EV' ON E DOLLAR per square for a sin
!gle insertion. Quarterly anil Monthly Adver
timetfnts wijl lie charge I the satne as asiigle
\nsertion, and semni-muunthly the sane as new
E"P Obi narys and Tributes of Respect,
over twelve line, chargedaus asdvertisemnents.
Mzssns. Enron'S:
The following is a b~ma. fi,le corre spon
dence which oceurre:l a short time since, w ill
you please give it a place in your excellent pa
.per for the edification and atusement of your
patrons et. ai.
To Mt1iss J.
\Velcome welcome lovely maid
Welcome thou to this heart of mine
]low oft indeed haro I said
Thou art the finest oh the ite
Welcome welcome lovely miid
For indeed yo' cant io how be excelled
Therefore never be disin iye.1
For to love you I ai conpelled
Welcome welcome lovely maid
To please your afyiect ions upon me
And if I could I would lond yon aid
For I am daily inclined to thee
Welcome welcome lovely maid
AVelcomte are you to be imy bride
'The visits I owe -you, shall he paid
And to love you, shal I be mly pride
D. M. E.
To D. Mi. E.
Yes sir ! Yes sir ! I). .\. E.
I received those verses you sent to mne
I care nothing for tit hemt of thintie
.For you have no part of mine
Listen! Listen ! D. -1. E.
J care not for thy flattery
-And to love you I dont inclinte
So you may cease your foolis~a whine.
Lackey ! Lickey ! Oh may Oh
From ih'se verses you will kinow
That all yonr woomg i in v.itin
&.) do not trouble mi .in
Goodbye ! Goodhye ! D. .. E.
Sir your bride I'll lever he
'ie visits yil rowe need not he paid
3I e'er I ilay-. ou, I' n2ot ced
Liaes to N -.
'The vernant primrose spreads her sweets,
ler pallied blossoms charnm the eye,
-Such roftness rare with beauty meets
But none, fair N -, can thee but vie.
.In vain thme ionet strives t'excel
'The primurose faiir in dainty hneat;
F'or N--, let te hillocks tell,
Displays superior charmns ho y'ou.
- liharme so henlignant ats t imtpart
Th'ie ratph'routs bliss of ntrdent !ove
~Thtat bliss whaich vivilles the heart,
And makes the mxind obedient prove.
WVili.& ianu. Rail Rtondq.
We~ i~ hve made11 a .buttL extract, front
the r'epor)t of L.. J. F'LEMItNo E-tq., chtief
-Sttperiuntendatt of the- X Wii ngton and
Manichester Rail Road, for our ilast
'issue our space did not alloiw tus to dli
'mote at that time. We are inidebtedI
to the samte souirce for the follIowin
linteresting descripition of what we
't~hitnk, witht Mr. Flmu1to, a new and
-useful discovery. Ini speaking oft the
passafge ovetr the Pee Dee River, Mr.
A LEMINo says :
"Among the many plans suggested,
may a~tttntion was directed to the
pnteailtie pratcess of diving piles, in
F~ebrutary, 1850," and a correspond.
t-he pre'sent ablIe Chief' Enaginteer of' the
-ldiatiore Water \Vo~r.ks, who wa.ts
then intere'tcd in te piateng right, attd
N to wlhm, in Oetloher, .185Q J express
-ed te opaiinion thaut i; wonu '~Ynot hesi.
tatu to recommi'ieitl this pruocess, if,
ptJm an tl e'xamuihntion of the lbed of' tha
qi ver, '" the suind shold'n~ exteni to a
deth~ oft twenty or thirty .feet."
itn .iJtlv, o-,il, --.h na sod
auger, i icunber of hodles were hored
into the bed of the river to a depth of
nine fleet, within which distance sand
only was enicintered. In conmunii
eating to aij. Gwyan a copy of the
profile, with the result of these exam.
inations, I expressed the opinion thict
" the best plan for putting in the
foundations of the ' Piers' will he
by the use of Dr. Potts' Pneumatic
cast.iron Piles, filled with concrete."
ThoI plan was subsequ~ently adoppted
by the mad3 , iuipon the recomnenda.
tion of Maj. Gwynn ; and it is my
purpose now to explain some of the
results which were obtained, md to
desec ihe part icularly the improvement
and discoveries, which, I conceive,
were made dulring the progress of the
work. In the I'eport of Maj. Gwynn,
imlade at the last annual meeting, the
motdus operandi is very accurately de.
seribed, but the dilTerence between
tle plan a d principle upon which it
was commecnCed, and upon which it was
fini-hed, was not clearly delined. The
Pneumati Process," upon which the
work was conn.cnced, consists in cre.
atiig a vacutim within the cylinder,
which causes the water, sand, &c., to
rush ip, and. inl its course, carry with
it the rtiaterial from the bot tom of the
tube, causing it to de-cend by its own
weight. lhe vacuum ii first created
inl at cliamber, Which is placed in com.
munication with the cylinder by ordi.
nary suction hose, and closed or open.
ed by a valve on a projection attached
to the vacuum chamber. Tle power,
therefore, which can be used by this
plan is governed by the relative ci.
bill conitenits (f the vacuum chamber
aid that portiun of the cylinder above
tle snurface of the water, and the per.
fectioni of the vacuum. In the opera
tions at the Pee Dee, the vacuum
hiaichmber consisted of two sections of
eyinder, 18 fect, in letgLth and, gene.
raly, the cylinder pile was 10 fect
above the water line, therefore the
power (hydrostatic and pneumat'c)
was only 8. IS of the vacuumen, obtained
it, the chamber, which was usually
abllut equivalent to 2u iienes or iner
enCry, a perfect vacuium being 32 inch.
41s. The efeetive power, therefore,
was that due to 11 10 18 inchesi of
mnerclly, or Ibott 8 2-10 lbs. per
sqliare inch.
fin sinking the first cylinder it en.
coinitered, at a depth of about 8 feet
below the bed of twoe river, a tree
aboit 5 feet in diameter. This, for a
little, arrested the progress of the
work. ar.d until the Air Lock (which
had arrived inl an imperfect statc)
could ie completed.
The A ir Lock, as it is usialy call
ed, is not, strictly a part of the Pnieu
mIatic plrocess, hut was first used in
France Icy M. Triger ini sinking a
shaft through i bed of quicksand to
a coal muine, and is nccuratcly decrib
-d in the supplemetit. to Ure's Diction.
a ry of A rts and Sciences-A rt Venti.
lation. 'lhe plan of Air Loick, simi
lar to that. used at the I'ee Dee river
is well described ill a paper read be.
crc the cstituitini oft Ci-. il Engiineers
in Loindo-n ,n May lath 18.51, "on
the Plic-lniatie mow h"d adopted in
conlistruicti ng tihe fodainel1ils of the
new brid.e across the Medway, at
R ochester," anid froni which the t.1l4ow
ing, is extracted: Afler de.,crioing the
hstrucctiolns encoillitered in sinking
the cylinder<c, the pape, states. "4i
was, thcerefore, decidced that the Paeo
cmatic process shiuild he reversed, so
as to give each P'ile the character cof
a diving hll , for whcich puros on
of' the cy liinders 7 fe'et in diameter,
and 9) fee~ t in lengi hi had-a wrought iron
(*over securely bolted to it thuro ugh
which tw cast. Ircen chambers, D)-shap.
eel in plan, with a sectiont era of
abcout. 6 sqicare feet, apprpriately
called "Air Loceks," projecting 2 f'ect
6 inches above the tocp of the cylin
der and 3 f'et 9 iniches below the cov,
er. T1hie teop of' eaLch Air Liek wats
prcv dcd with a circular opencing 2 feet.
mi dmmcneter, wiahI a Flap wvorkincg on
ai lhorizointal hinage, and( an iron do~or 2
feet, by 3 feet 4 inches, with vertical
hinges below the cover; each Air Lock
wvas also furnished wvithc two sets of'
coceks, the one for fourcming a comui.
cnication between the cyliicders anud the
chaber, arid the other between the
chainbe'r and atmiospchere."
Early ini July, the Air Lock wvas
comrpleted and1( every thling in readi.
nes-, to excavate the sand above the
tree and cuct it away. At first it was
extremely diflicult to induce the ope.
ratives employed on the work to enter
the Locck, while the coindensed air was
escapiing from impefe.ct joints, very
mcuch like the escape of steamt fr'om a
leak in a Boiler. Ini addition to this,
dutrinig the process of equalizing, the
ebnec of pressure onl the tyimpjatln
of the ear wias for some titme exceed.
ingly painful; and in sonie instances
pro duced hemilorrhiage frocm the Lungs.
Owners of hands, and indeed somne of
lie principal operativyes, believed that
the .constant inhaling oh' the saecc air
deived it of the Oxygen ntecessary
te einnortL li fe mnn genneaned, Crb.L
ic Acid Gas, which is exceedingly
deliterious to animal life, and would
eventually produce serious c-musequen
ces. Although it was well aseertain.
ed that this gas which is thrown from
the lungs at each respiration is much
heavier tihan common air, yet the law
which governs its elasticity under vat.
rious pressures was not so well defin.
ed, while present, I therefore closely
observed the appearance of the light.
which by a peculi.ir halo around its
top always indicates the presence of
this Gas, when in sufficiei.t qu-ntity
to injure aidmal life.
No serious difficulty was encoun.
'tered in removing the sand or in cut..
ting away the tree which arrested the
decent of the Cylinder, and which
proved to be a large Cypress perfect
ly sound.-As soon as the tree was
cut away and the compressed air dis.
charged the Cylinder settled down
about 4 feet-and a freshet coming
about the same time. operations were
suspended. Tue second Cylinder was
lowered to its place as soon as the
freshet subsided, and by the Pucumat.
ic process it was driven to a depth of
about six feet. At this depth, the
friction counterbalanced the power ex.
erted by the vacuum and it therefure
became necessary to remove the inte.
rior column of sand. Efforts were
made to pump out the water and re.
move the sand, but it was found that
the waiter could not be reduced by
Pumps more than six feet below the
level on the outside, and the Air Loek
was again used and at the expiration
of the first day's work (when about .1
feet of the sand had been removed)
and after the operations were suspend.
ed, the Cylinder was observed to set.
te several inches. On the succeed.
ing day, the removal of the sand to
the bottom of the Cylinder was con.
pleted, and, with a view of observing
the effect, a man was stationed at cach
valve with directions at a given signal
to open it that the compressed air
might be suddenly discharged. The
result was that the Cylinder was driv.
en six feet, which exceeded the great.
est efTeet. produced by the exhaust or
vacuum.-In reflecting upon the cnnse
which produced this effect, I discov.
ered that it was the hydrostatic action
(of the water which scoured out the
naterial beneath the bottom of the
cylinder, which partially relieved t-he
friction and caused it to descend lby
its own gravity. In adition to this,
after the air in the cylinder had been
compressed until it was equal to the
force exerted by the water in the out.
side, the interior pressure could not
be increased, and the air which was
pumped in by the continued action
of the pumps. escaped under the bot.
tom of the cylinder and become ineos.
porated with the sand,-sonie of il
rising to the surfhce. When the com.
pressed air was discharged the equili.
brium was destroyed aid the air in
ri1ing to the surface on the outside
and armind the cylinder, still farther
relieved its friction. (This, the second
cylinder. also encountered in its de
.cent anl oak tree, about 4 feet in di.
ameter, but, unlike the first, i. was so
soflt that the weight, of the cylinder
easily cut through it. (On exposure to
the atmosphere it became hard, and
iii every respect was perfect li.nite.
This is ntentioned to show the differ.
ent results producdf on the two quali.
ties of htimber by the acm ion oh the w'a
ter, as t hey were hn the same stratum i.
andl evidently deposited at and belong
to the samea period of time.)
It. was app~arentt that the hydrostatic
action of the water w~as molre effe.ctivye
than the pneumatic process, and it was
subseqjauntly used parincipally in drii
vimg the remainingr cylinders, and
towards the close of the wvork, the
pneumatic process was entirely abanti
doned and tihe hydrostatic principle
alone used.
This I consider a discovery of the
operation of a known principle. giving
greater ponwer than that by the pnlell.
mnatic process, and applicable to the
sinking of hollow piles.
As before stated, the power of the
pnuatic process is limited by the
relative proportions of the vacuun
chamber anmd that portion of the pile
above the surface of' thme water, and
the perfection of the enceuumn. In prac
tice, the exhaust cannot be applied
unless the top of the pile is at least
six feet abiove the surface (of the wvater,
because the pile might be driven below~
the waiter line, wvhen another section
cannot be added. The poweor is uni
form and cannot, uinder any circum.
stances, exceed 14 34 lbs. per square
inch, and, in practice, rarely exceeds
S lbs per square inch, while the friction
with a column of six f'eet of sand on
the interior of the cylinder is equal
to this power. The deeper the pile is
driven the greater is the friction, while
the power remains uniform.
With the use of the hydrostatic
principle, the power increases with
the distance from the surf ace of the
water to the bottom of the pile. This
power is ennal to 14 3 4 lb.pe
;(Iuiare inch for each 32 feet of the dis
tance from the sirfiace ot the water
to the bottom of the cylinder.
I'he hydrostatic process is more
yimple, requires less machinery, and
is more ellective than the pneumatic
process. It can be used at any stage
lofthe river, beeause thepower increa
ses with the depth; * r it iay be comn
hined with the pneumatic process, and
the whole power (hydrostatie and
pneunatic) can be used in driving the
If the operation of this principle
was known to either the French or
English Engineers, it does not appear,
in their memoirs, descriptive of the
plans used in sinking cylinders in
Great Britain, France or Egypt.
My connection with the Pee Dee
Brite terminated in Janunry last, at
which time the cylinders for the Wes.
tern pier were partially driven, and
th se for the Eastern pier had passed
throuuh the sand to a stratum of ma.
terial which was considered suflicient.
ly tenacious to resist the iction of the
water. My confidence in the success
of the work wias unshaken during its
progress, and its suce"ssI.' comple.
tion fully vindicates tht. value of the
discoveries used in its construction."
From reports of the Superintendent
and President of the Wilmington and
Manchester Railroad, we gather the
total receipts for the last fiscal year
ending Dee- 1st, 1854, was $330,399.
30. To this should be added *3,182.
56. from freight on the Western and
for the month of December, the ao
counts of which could not be adjusted
fhor% cI-!ing otheboks f.r the year,
and the further amount for mail trans.
portation for the months of October'
November, above October and No.
vember, 1853, of about $6,2418, which
will swell the aggregate receipts of the
year to $339,800.92. The total re.
ceipts for the same period, deducting
$168,225. 89-leaving a net balance
from the op.!rations of the road of* 171
565.03, ~- more than fifty per ceit. of
the gross receipts for the year. The
attal debt of' tihe oimpany dot~elussed'
.s funded, amn: unt s t'> *421,788.68.
The total avscts (t the CoIlpaniy
amount to *593,596.44.-leavin "a
balance of assets5 of $131 ,807.78. "The
fuinded or nortgage debt of the col
Janly, including the incomeno bonds sold
and yet to be sold, will be $ 1,000,000,
the annual interest on which is $70,000
,vhichi will first lie deducted fron the
Iett rece:pts of lthe company. Assuim
ing them to be this year $200,000,
and deducting the interest, 20,000,
there would renan -1k30,000, which,
n upayment, of the floating debt for
which assets are held, would leave
over 10 per cent. on the capital stuck
of the company.
SxncerMoN nv A CLsu:aUn.NA.-The
particulars ol the seduction of a young
temialo by a niethoadist, clergyman, re
siding in Alleghany county, were made
known yesterday at dhe oflice of t.l:e
Mayor, the victim having been sent. to
this city to avoid the disgrace which
an eXposure would entail upon the
clergymn:m, had she reiained longer
at his house. The facts appear to be
as hal lows:
The girl who is about twenty years
of age, was employed in the liunily of
the clergy man, as a seamustress, about
teii mnmthis ago, and remained there
until Nov'~embaer last, when, having
effected her ruin, he, to avoid exposure,
induced her to accompany him to this
city, where lie placed her nder the
chiarge of' twoa p~hysicianis of doubtful
reputation, who,:, lie employed to
produce an ab artion, and to whom it is
said he paid $500.
They had her removed from one
hotel or boarding house to another,
until th I*y finally got. her to a house of
ill-fiame in WVest Broadway, where
they eachb o .traged her and "plied her
with uiostrumis until she was very mouch
reducedl in healtha and strength. A bout
three weeks ago shue gave birth to at
child, which lived about. tena days.
Since0 the unftortunate girl was first
brought. to the city she has writ ten sev
ec al timies to her frienids, stating th at,
she was ill, but not mentioning under
what circumstances. A day or two
since one of her brothers arrived, anid
yesterda:y Li the matter before the
Maiyor, wh~o inmmediately dispatched
an officer to the house in WVest Biroad
way, to ascertain if thbe girl was sufli
ciently recovered to appear befbre him,
amif' If so, to bring her. She camne
with the officer and made a lengthy
affidavit, of which the foregoing is the
substance. A warrant was issued for
the arrest of the two physicians, and
one of them was captured. The aihair
is beitig thoroughly investigated by
the Mayor.-NT. Y Sun
Dr. Birighiam, senior Secretary of
the Americani iiphe Society, has come
to Sonth Carolina for his health. 1le
has been: connected with the Bible So.
ciet~y more than twonty eight years
Vdidalte iiic Ceipts.
Washfor Trees.-Ileat one pound
of sil soda to redness in an iron pot,
and desolve it iii at giilon of water.
This wash will take off the moss and
dead bark, and kill the insects on a i
fruit trees ot grape vines, and make
them as smooth as though polished,
and make old trees bear anew.
Never whitewash a tree.
Li'me Dust of Plants.-An English
orchardist protects his trscs from cat.
epillers and other insects by shaking
over the young foliage quick limie pul
verized and sifted through a fine sieve.
The timu for using it is in the dew of
the morning, or whenever the leaves
are damp. le has found it very
Aitnure for Flowers.-It has been
discovered that for the generality of
flowers, and more especially for gera.
nuimns and the most delicate specimens
of the lily tribe, common glue, diluted
with a suflicient portion of water, forms
at richer manure than guano or any
other yet discovered.
Tanner's bark is no* understood
to be capitally adupted to the straw
berry. Spread it completely on the
soil ; it w ill keep the fruit, clean, and
the soil moist. This is the true
mulching fur the strawberry. There
is no doubt of this.
Farmer's Make your owni Candles.
-Take twio pounds of alum, for every
10 pounds of tallow, dissolve it in
water before the alum is put in, and
then melt the tallow in the alum water
with frequent stiring. and it will clar.
ify and harden the tallow so as -to
niake a most beautiful article for eith
er winter or summer use, almost as
good as sperm.
Hens.-It is a fact not commonly
known, that the reason why hens do
not lay eggs in winter, is the want of
line to form the shell. Let them
have access to wheat which contains
lime, or to lime itself, and they will
lay in winter as at any other time.
len's Eg.-Those that approach
nearest to roundness produce Ibemales.
whi!l those that are inure pointed
produce males.
To presere Egs.-Rub them with
butter or varnish. They will keep
many maonths and produce chickens.
When varnished, the varnish should
be r, iamoved belbre setting. Another
mode is to pack then in salt, the point
always downward.
To Judge Egs.-Put your tongue
to the large end. If it feels warmi the
egg is fresh. Or pit the egg in a
pan of cold water-if perfectly fresh,
it will sink iminedi itely, and so i i
proportion to its frcshness. A rotten
egg will float on top of the water.
Cheap Soap.-A correspondent of
the Southern Banner. gives the follow.
ing receipt for soap imaking, and adds,
that it would be worth one thousand
dollars in the hands of a selfish per.
son and the world would have to tin.
tic the purse string to get it, but here
it is free gratis:
Take six pounds of Potash - 75
Four pounds of Lard - 50
One fourth pound of Rosin - 2.5
All amounting to - 50
Beat uip thec rosin, mix all together
well, mind set aside for five daiys, then
put the whole into a ten gallon cask of
warm water and stir twice a day for
ten days. at thec expiration of wvhich
time, or sooner, you will have one
hundred pounids of excellent soap for
*1 50.
Forest Culture,--Those that want
young forest trees to grow well, must.
not pierimit cattle nor sheep, in any
coinsiderable numbers, to run among
them and feed upon their leaves and
young twigs. Nor should the leaves
that fall in the autuimn be removed
from forests which one wishes to culi.
tivate. The delay of their annual
foliage is a necessary provision of
nature to supply mould and nutriment
to the longlived produects of thec earth.
Putting forest leaves about apple and
peach trees is a good way to manure
thme ground ini which thtey grow. Lime
imixed witha forest leaves improves
their fertilizing power very mtich,
whether they are designed by the
agriculturist to enricha the soil for the
benefit, of fruit, forest, or ornamental
trees. In Europe, forests are limed
not less than meadows, pastures, and
tilled land.
Vilch Cow.-lf you desire your
cows to yield liberally to thte pail,
you maust feedl thema with something
better suited to thae seem etion of rich
milk than dry provender. Chopped
ro~ots or mecal s10ops of some kind,
'should bo given thenm twice a day at
least, say morning amnd even ing. T1hey
should also be provided with littered
beds, dry lodgidgs--moderately warmi,
be regularly watered thrice each day,
just before being fed, be curried or
combed once a dav- and salt, witk
wounds of the living. of'buth his friends
and enemies.
Parties who had observed thes4,
proceedimgs from a distance, and wer&
nowJ"st able to come up, were sur
prised. to find bodies of twelve persons
stretched upon the ground, eleven o(
whom were already dead Or soon afte
died of their wounds. But although
tweit y-eight bullet holes were counted
im Capt. Davis' hat and clothes (seven.
teen through his hat -and eleVdi
through his coat and shirt,) he receiv.
ed but two very slight flesh wounds.
This bond of villians was a newly or
ganized one, and had just commence(d
operations, having a day or two pieti:
Otis committed several murders and
Lest the above should seem to par
take too strongly of the chtthcter of
romance, it may lie stated that thd
account is subscribed to by seventeeti
persons, who say in refierence to it;
that "no officer having been within i
convenient distance to attend to a case
of emergency that has just happened
near our isolated camp herei the utn.
dersigned constituted themselves a1
coroner's jury, and held an inquest
over the deceased bodies of twelve
men, that were killed within a mile of.
our camp, on the 19th inst., a full afl
count of which we deem it ourd duty to
publish. Three of the undersigned
were eye-witnesses of the whole scene
though too far off to give aid in any
way, and the rest-of us can readily>
vouch for their veracity." It is also
corroborated by a.letter from another
I witness of the fight,.and by an expresa -
mal who had jubt arrived at PJa0e'. -
ville when the mail left thiat [nf
Another letter, dated Rocky .C
December 20th, to Win. ejdersib
Esq., Placerville, is as follo
Three of the woduded robbel's
ing died last night, \we. had
them to bury. One survivos,_ J4 . >
will probably recover; he is
however, for life, having 1s. H
in toto, and shot thiough ho
6ger of his right hand. Seven of th 2
were Anot through the head."
vimg one, wh eI
tic furt,.saya liatt I'e ih.b,
posed .1i two Amere ,
men, live Sydneymen and fou
cans, and they had just commenced op.
erations, having killed six Chinamen
three days ago, and four Americans the
day before yesterday. Altho.ugh we
counted 28 bullet holes in Captuin Da.
vis' hat and clothes, 19 through his fiat
and 11 through his coat and shirt, lie
received but two very slight flesh
wounds. Yours truly,
To Wim. Henderson, Esq., County
Surveyor, Placerville.
Jonathan R. Davis is brother to
Dr. Davis, of foreign stock notoriety.
residing near Columbia, in this State.
He graduated in the South Carolina
College in 1838, and afterwards went
to Mexico with the Palmetto Regi.
ment, where lie saw sone hard fight.
ing. At the close of the war he went
to California, and was already distin.
guished in the annals of that State, by
a fight with a grizzly bear, in whicl
he lost fo.:r of* his teeth, and had .his
face frightftilly mangled.-Charlesto&
Tus~ SEcoND 0OF Dgca~insa.--On
the 2d of December 1804, Napoleon
the First wvas crowned; on the 2d of
December 1805, he won the-battle 'nf
trhe three Emperors at Austerlitz; 2d
of December 1823, accession of Ni
cholats of Russia; 2d of Decembe'r
1848, ac ession of Francis -Joseph of
A ustria: 2d of December l1i1,, coup
d' etat by Louis Napoleon; 2d Pe
coimber 185~2, his proclamationa
Emperor of the French; 2d of Ifeem.
her 1854, alliance of England2anTleof
the two Emperors of France andAns
tria, against tho Emperor-of lis.ju
There has been a riew gold minft.
discovered near the line of Warren
and Columbia, Ga. which now yielda
fromn two and a half to fi ur and a'half
pennywveights to the hand per t.c
T1he deposiL for no vein has been ~t
discovered-is supposed to covera
area of one mile ini length-by forty to
lifiy yards in width.
It is stated that a Com pany,.is short
ly to be formed in New York .4 ty
for the nmanufacture ofpaper-fror~gw
dust anid shavings. Experiznents
have been gone into, and somber te
most beautiful paper mnade from- those
mater.als. It is estimnated *th isw
dust can lie purchased fbr *5 bh~t~ ,
and that the process throtighhIr h It
wvill go in. the produeten uriw -ilt
bring the price of the l4tto:r aQ t t
30 per cent. -
SThe Norfolk kaot
had been s gt at
at that rea', that It
wan~t o -~9p a~y4
occasionally a little 1ashes or fine bone
dust nwixed, two or three times a week.
They also like a variety of food.
Roots cut or rasped, and mixed with
cut hay or straw, then stired and left,
for an hour or two, make it mess which
they will eat, very greedily. We
think that hardly attention enough is
given to the beding of cows, as the
more quiet and conifortable they are,
the less food will be required to sus.
tain the system, and may therefore go
to produce flesh or milk. A gentle
man who has constantly employed
several pairs of workiiig oxen for many
years, states that oxen will travel
lifteen miles a day, being well "litt.-.
ed down " at night, as easy as twelve
miles and lie upon the bare floor. If
this statement be correct-and it
seems to us consistent-it is a pretty
important matter that our cattle are
well provided for in this respect.
New England Farmer.
Manure for Strawberries.--Tlhe fl
lowing is from a communication to
the Friend's Review, and may be
very useful to many of our readers:
" The writer had a very productive
bed, 30 by 40 feet. I applied, says
he, about once per week, for three
times, commencing when the green
leaves first begin to start, and made
the lIst application just before the
plants were in full bloom, the follow.
ing prellaration :--Nitrate of potash
(saltpetre,) glauber salts, and sal soda
(carbonate of soda,) each one pound;
nitrate of amonlia one quarter of a
pound, dissolving them in thirty gal.
lons or river or rain water. One
third of this was applied at a time ;
and when the weather was dry I ap.
plied clear soft water between the
times of using the. preparation, as the
growth of the young leaves is so rap.
id, that, unless supplied with water,
the sun will scorch them. I used a
common., watering pot, making the
application towards evening. Man.
aged in this way, and the weeds kept
out, there is never any necessity of
digging over the bed, or - settinr oU
now. Beds of ton years. is nut only
aspond, but better than those two or,
tirce years old."
.ppias without Seeds or Cores.--A
correspo:dent of the Memphis Whig
gives the following recipe for obtaining
apples without seeds or cores :
Take the ends of the limbs of an
apple tree where they hang low, so as
to reach the ground, dig a small hole
for each end under the tree, bend it
down and bury it in the hole, confin.
ing it down so that it will remain.
Do this in the winter or beginning of
spring. The end of the limbs thus
buried will take root and put up
sprouts or scions, which, when they
become sufficiently large to set out,
dig up at the proper season, and trans.
plant them in the orchard where you'
wish themin to remain. When they
get large enough to bear, they will
bear apples as above.
FORNiA.--By the late advices from
California, we find the following ac.
count of a most sanguinary contest,
described by a South Carolinian.
Since Crocket's death at the Alamo,
there is hardly any record of such
desperate fighting. WVe learn that on
the 190*h instant, three men, wvho after.
wards proved to be0 a Mr. James C.
McI Donald, of Alabama, now deceased,
Dr. [Bolivar A. Sparks, of Mississippi,
and Capt, Jonathan RI. Davis, of
South Carolina, were travelling on
foot on a trail in a deej', almost inac.
cessible and uninhabited canon, abont
forty miles north of Placerville. As
they were passing the base of a moun.
tain, a party of men who wvere con.
cealed in the bushes near the trail,
sprung up and commenced firing at
them. Mr. McDonald fell dead. Hie
was shot before lhe was even aware of
his danger. le and his party had
nothing but their revolvers. Dr.
Sparks shot twice at the banditti. and
then fell severely wounded. hI the
meantime, Capt. D~avis, wvho wvas the
first to commnience shooting in defence
of himself and party, in an instant
after thme first volley of tho robbers,
being still under, kept up an incessant
fire upon them with his revolver, every
ball forcing its victim to bite the dust,
until all the loads of both parties
seemed to have been discharged. The
surviving robbers made a charge upon
Capt. Davis with bowie knives, and
one with a short swvord or sabre.
Captain Davis stood his ground firmly
until they rushed up abreast of him
within about four steps. Hie then
made a spring upon them Writh a large
bowie knife. and gave three of thema
wounds that proved fatal. Having
wounded the other one very slightly,
and disarmed him by throwing his
knife in the air in warding off a blow,
as this last man expressed in a tone
of' gratitude before his death, Capt. D.
went to wourk at onoe, tearing gp. his
own shirt and binding up all etb

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