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American citizen. (Butler, Butler County, Pa.) 1863-1872, December 16, 1863, Image 1

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VOLUME 1.
THE AMERICAN CITIZEN,
JS published every Wednesday in the borough of Butler
iy THOMAS RoßiNgo.v&C. E. on Wain street,
frpposite to Jack's Hotel—'iffice up stairs in the brick
formerly accupied by JSli Yettcr,a*astoro
TERMS:—SI 50 a year, if paid in advance, or within the
first nix months ; or $2 if not paid mitil after the expira
tion of the first six months.
RATES OP AI>VBRTJSH*O>—One square noo., (ten lines or
less,) three insertion* , .. £IOO
I? very subsequent insertion, per square, . 2ft
Business cards of 10 line* or less fur one year, inclu
ding paper ... . .. 500
Cafcd of 10 lines or Jew 1 year without pnper 4 00
*44 column for six months ,7 00
gcolumn f..r on* year .v.„ .12 00
1* column for six months 13 00
}Z column for one yeur... ............ ...2o 00
1 column for six months.. .2ft 00
1 column for one year...* .50 00
THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE,
F E 1,1.0 W - CITIZ E N S OF TIIK SENATE AND
HOUSE OF RKPRF.SK VTATIVEB : Another
year of health and sufficiently abundant
harvests has passed. For these, and es
pecially for the improved condition of our
national affairs, our renewed and our pro
found gratitude to God is duo. We re
main in peace and friendship with foreign
powers. The efforts of disloyal citizens
of the United States to involve us in for
eign wars, and to aid in inexcusable in
surrection, have been unavailing. Ilcr
Majesty's Government, as was justly ex
pected, have exercized their authority to
prevent the departure of new hostile ex
peditions from British ports. The Empe
ror of France has by a like proceeding j
promptly indicated the neutrality which I
ho proclaimed at the beginning of the
contest. Questions of great intricacy and
importance have arisen out of the block
ades and othor belligerent operations be
tween the Government and several of the
maritime powers; but they have been dis
cussed, and so far as was possible, accom
modated in a spirit of frankness, justice
and good will. It is especially gratifying
that our prize courts, by the impartiality
of their adjudications, have commanded
the respect and confidence of the maritime
powors.
ON FOREION TREATIES.
Tho supplemental treaty between the
United States and Great Britain, for the
suppression of tho African slave trade,
made on the 17th day of February last,
hits been duly ratified and carried into ex
ecution. It is believed that so far as A
inerioan ports and American citizens arc
concerned, that inhuman and barbarous
traffic has been brought to an end. T shall
submit, for the consideration of the Sen
ate, a Convention for the adjustment of
possessory claims in Washington territory,
arising nut of tLo treaty of the 15th of
June, 1846, between the United States
and Great Britain, and which have been
the source of some disquiet among the cit
izens of that now rapidly improving part ,
of the country. A novel and important
question, involving the extent of the mar
itime jurisdiction of Spain, in the waters
which surround the bland of Cuba, has
been debated, without reaching an agree- I
ment; and it is proposed, in an amicable |
spirit, to refer it to the nrbitrament of a
friendly Power. A Convention for that
purpose will- lie submitted to the Senate.
I have thought it a proper subject to sug
gest for the approval of the Sonate to con
cur with the interested commercial powers,
in an arrangement for the liquidation of
the Scheldt dues, on the principles which
have been heretofore adopted in regard to
the imports upon navigation in the waters
of Denmark.
The long-pending controversy between
this Government and that of Chili, touch
ing the seizure of Selana, in Peru, by Chil
ian officers, of i Vrge amount of treasure
belonging to eiti *fs of tho United States,
hag been brought Va close, by the award
of His Mujt»'y, ) >King of the Belgi
ans, to whose arbft.fftion the question was
referred by the parties. The subject was
thoroughly and patiently examined by
that justly rospectcd magistrate, although
the sum awarded to the claimants may not
have been as large as they expected, there
Is no reason to distrust the wisdom of His
Majesty's dccisioi). That decision was
promptly complied with by Chili when in-
taUigence in regard to it reached that
country. The joint commission, under
the act of last session. for carrying into
effect the convention with Peru on the
subject of claim::, has been organized at
Lima, and is engaged in the business en
trusted to it. The difficulties concerning
inter-ocianic transit through Nicaragua,
»rein course of amicable adjustment. In
conformity with the principles sot forth
in my last annual message, I have received
fi, representative froth the United States
4>f Columbia, and have accredited a Min
ister to that republic.
ON NATURALIZATION.
Incidents occurring in the progress of
Our civil war have forced upon my atten
tion the uncertain state of the international
Question touching the rights of foreign
'£m in this country, Mid citizens of the
United States abroad. In regard to some
governments the:,a rights are at least par
tially defined by treaties. In no instance,
however, is it expressly stipulated that,
in the inatanes of civil war, a foreigner
residing % this odu&try; within the lines
ttf insurgents, is tbjnj e^Wu^dfroiuUM
AMERICAN CITIZEN.
rule which classes him as a billigerent, in
whose behalf the Government of his coun
try cannot express any privileges or im
munities distinct, from that character. 1
regret to say, however, that such claims
have been put forward, and in some in
stances in behalf of foreiOTors who have
lived in the United States the greater part
of their lives. There is reason to believe
that many persons born in foreign coun
tries, who have declared their intention
I to beeome citizens, or have been fully nat
uralized. have evaded the military duty
required of them by denying the fact, and
thereby throwing upon the Government
the burden of proof.
It has been found difficult or impracti
cable to obtain this proof from the want
of guides to the proper sources of infor
mation. These might be supplied by re
quiring the clerks of courts, where decla
rations of intentions may be made or nat
uralizations effected, to send, periodically,
lists of the names of persons naturalized
or of those deolaring their intcntiou to be
come citizens, to the Secretary of the In
terior, in whose department these names
must be arranged and printed for general
information. There is also reason to bc
! lievc that foreigners frequently become
citizens of the United States for the sole
purpose of evading the duties imposed by
j the laws of their native country, to which,
in becoming naturalized here, they at once
repair; and, though never returning to the
I nited States, they still olaim the inter
position of the Government ns citizens.
Many altercations and great prejudices
have horetoforc arisen out of this abuse.
It is, therefore, submitted to your serious
consideration. It might bo advisable to
fix a limit beyond which no citizen of the
United States, residing abroad, may claim
the interposition of his Government. The
right of suffrage has often becu assumed
and exercised by aliens under pretence* of
naturalization, which they have disavowed
when drafted into the military service. I
submit the expediency of sueh amend
ment of the laws ns will make the fact of'
voting an estopple against any plea of ex
emption from military service, or other
civil obligation, on grounds of alienage.
In common with other Western Powers
our relations with Japan have been brought
into serious jeopardy through the pcrvcrec
opposition of (he hereditary aristocracy
to the enlightened and liberal policy of
the Tyoosn, designed to bring the coun
try into the society of nations. It is to
be. hoped, although not with confidence,
that these difficulties may be peacefully
overcome. I ask your attention to the
Minister residing there for the damages
he sustained in the destruction, by fire, of
the residence of the legation at Yeddo.
Satisfactory arrangements have been
made with the Kmperor of Russia, which
it is believed will result in effeoting a con
tinuous line of telegraph to that empire
from our Pacific coast. I recommcud to your
favorable, consideration the subject of an
international telegraph across the Atlantic
Oeean, and also of a telegraph between
this capital and thcnational forts along the
Atlantic seabord and the Gulf of Mexico.
Such connections established, with any
reasonable outlay, would be economical as
well as effective aids to diplomatic, milita
ry and naval service.
The consular systems of the United
States, under the enactments of the last
Congress, begins to be self-sustaining, and
there is reason to hope that it may become
entirely so with the increase of trade,
which will ensue whenever peace is restor
ed. Our ministers abroad haveboen faith
ful in defending American rights. In
protecting our commercial interests our
consuls have necessarily had to encounter
increased labors and responsibilities grow
ing out of the war. These they have met.
and for the most part discharged with
zeal and efficiency. This acknowledg
ment justly includes those consuls who,
residing in Morocco, Egypt, China, and
other central countries, are charged with
extraordinary powers.
The condition of the several organized
territories is generally satisfactory,although
the Indian disturbances in New Mexico
have not been entirely suppressed. The
mineral resources of Colorado, Nevada Id
aho, New Mexico and Arazona, are prov
ing far richer than heretofore understood.
I lay before you a communication on this
subject from the Governor of New Mex
4SP*
I again submit to your consideration the
expediency of establishing a system for
the enoouragementofemigration, although
this source of national wealth is flowing
with greater freedom than for several
years before the insurrection occurred.—
There is still a deficiency of laborers in
every field of industry, especially in agri
culture, and in our mines, as well of iron
and coal as of precious matols. while de
mand for labor is thus increased here, tens
of&ousands of persons, destitute of reum-
" Let us have Faith that Right makes Might; and in that Faith let us, to the end,dare to do our duty as we understand it"~A. LINCOLN
BUTLER, BUTLER COUNTY, PA., WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 16, 1863.
foreign consulates and offering to emigrate
to the United States, if essential but very
cheap awißtanee can be afforded them.
THE CIVIL WAR.
It is easy to see that under the sharp
discipline of civil war the nation is begin
ning a new life, and this noble effort de
mands the aid, and ought to receive the
attention and support of the Government.
Injuries unforscen by the Government
! and unintended, may in some cases have
been inflicted upon the subjects or citi
zens of foreign countries both at sea and
on land, by persons in the service of the
United States, and as this Government
expects redress from other powers when
similar injuries are inflicted by persons in
their service upon citizens of the United
States, wo must be prepared to do justice
to foreigners. If existing judicial tribu
nals are inadequate to this purpose, spe
cial courts may be authorized, with power
to hear and decide claims of the character
referred to, as may have arisen under trea
ties and public law. Conventions for ad
justing claims by your commission, have
been proffered to some Governments, but
no definite answer has yet been received
from any.
The operations of the Treasury during
the last year have been successfully con
ducted. The enactment by Congress of a
National Banking Law has proved a val
uable support of the public credit, and the
general legislation in relation to loans has
fully answered the expectations of its fa
vorers; some amendments may be required
to perfect existing laws, but no change in
their principles or general scope is believed
to be needed. Since these measures have
been in operation, all demands on the
Treasury, including pay of tho army and
navy, have been promptly met, and fully
satisfied. No considerable body of troops,
it is believed, were ever more amply pro
visioned, more liberally and punctually
paid, and, it may be added, that by no peo
ple were the burdens incident to a great,
war ever more cheerfully borne.
The receipts during the year, from all
sources, including loans and the balance
in the'Trcasury at its commencement, were
800,112,507.480 ; the aggregate disburse
ments, $895,700,030 05; leaving a bal
ance on the 7th of July, 1803. of
904,421. Of tho receipts there were de
rived from customs, $0,905,964,240; from
internal revenue, $3,764,076,705; from
direct taxes, $148,610,361; from lands,
$107,617 17; from miscellaneous sources,
$304,601.535; and from loans, $770,682,-
301 57 ; making the aggregate of §90,-
112,507.486. Of the disbursements there
were $232,539 22 for pensions, etc., $4,-
216,520 59; for interest on public debt,
$24,729,846 £1; for War Department,
$599,298,600 83; for the Navy Depart- ,
ment, $6,324,105 27 ; for the payment of
funded and temporary debt,8181,076,635,-
07, making an aggregate of 889,576,663,-
055, and leaving a balance of 8532,904,-
421.
But the payment of the funded and
temporary debt having been paid from
moneys borrowed during the year, must be
regarded as merely nominal payments, and
the moneys borrowed to make them, as
merely nominal receipts; and. their amount,
$181,086,635 07, should therefore lie de
ducted both from the reeftyts and dis
bursements. This being <fone, there re
mains, as actual receipts, $714,709,995,-
58, leaving the balance as already stated.
The actual receipts and disbursements for
the first quarter, and the estimated receipts
and disbursements fbr the remaining three
quarters of the current fiscal year of 1864,
will be shown in detail by the report of the
Secretary of the Treasury, to which I in
vite your attention. It is sufficient to say
here that it is not believed that the actu
al results will exhibit a state of the finan
' ccs, less fonnable to the country, than the
estimates of that officer heretofore sub
mitted, while it is confidently expected
that at the close of the year, both disburse
ments and debts will be found very con
siderably less than has been anticipated.
The report of the Secretary of War is
a public document of great interest It
contains First, Tho military operations of
the year, detailed in the report of the Gen
eraWn-*'ljief. Second, The organisation
of colored persons in the war service.—
Third, The exchange of prisoners is fully
set forth in the letter of General Hitch
cock. Fourth, Operations under the act
for enrolling and calling out the national
forces, detailed in the report of the Pro
vost Marshal General. Fifth, The organ
ization of the invalid corps. Sixth, The
operation of the several departments of the
Quartermaster General; Commissary Gen
eral ; Paymaster General; Chief of En
gineers; Chief of Ordnance and Surgeon
General. It has appeared impossible to
make a valuable summary of this report,
exeepi such as would be-too extended for
this place, and hence I content myself in
referringyour attention to the report itself.
branch of the service during the year, aud
throughout the whole of this unhappy
contest, have been discharged with fideli
ty and eminent success. The extensive
blockade has been constantly increasing
in efficiency as the navy has expanded, yet
on so long a line it has so far been impos
sible to entirely suppress illicit trade.—
From the returns received at tho Navy
Department it appears that more than one
thousand vessels have been captured since
the blockade was instituted, and that the
value of the prizes already sent in for ad
judication amount to over thirteen million
dollars.
The Naval force of the United States
consists, at this time, of 588 vessels com
pleted, and in the course of completion ;
and of these, 75 are iron-clad steamers.
The events of the war give an increased
interest and importance to the Navy,
which will probably extend beyond tho
war iteelf. The armored vessels in our
Navy, completed and in service, or which
arc under contract and approaching com
pletion, are believed to exceed in number
those of any othor Power ; but while they
may be relied upon for harbor defense and
sea-coast survey, others of greater strength
and capacity will be necessary foi cruising
purposes and to maintain our rightful po
sition on tho ocean.
The change that has taken place in na
val vessels and naval warfare, since the
introduction of steam as a motive power
for ships of war, demands cither corres
pondingchange in some of our existing na
vy yards, or the establishment of new ones
for the construction and necessary repair
of modern war vessels. No inconsidera
ble embarrassment, delay and public inju
ry have been experienced from the want
ot such Government establishments. The
necessity of such a navy yard so furnished
at some suitable place upon the Atlantic
seaboard has, on repeated occasions, been
brought to the attention of Congress by
the Navy Department, and is again pre
sented in the report of the Secretary which
accompanies this communication. I think
it my duty to invite your especial atten
tion to tliis subject, mid also to that of
establishing a yard and depot for naval
purposes upon one of the western rivers.
A naval force has been created on these
interior waters, and under many disadvan
tages, within little more than two years,
exceeding in numbers the whole naval
force of the country at the commencement
of the present Administration. Satisfac
tory and important as has been the per
formances of the heroic men of the navy
at this period, they are scarcely more won
derful than the services of our mechanics
and artizans in the production of war ves
sels, which has created a new form of na-
Our country has advantages
to any other nation, in our resour
ces of iron and timber, with inexhaustible
quantities of fuel in the immediate vicin
ity ofbotli, and all available and in close
proximWy to navigable waters. The re
sources of the nation have been developed
and iUi power displayed in the construc
tion of a navy of such magnitude, which
has, at the very period of its erection, ren
dered signal service to the Uuion.
The increase of the nu' iber of seamen
in the public service from 7,000 men in
the spring of 1861, to about 24,000 at the
present time, has been accomplished with
out special legislation or extraordinary
bounties to promote that increase. It has
been found, however, that the operations
of the draft, with high bounties paid for
army recruits i a beginning to effect inju
riously the naval service and will, if not
corrected, be likely to impair it# efficiency
by detaching seamen from their proper
vocation and inducing them to enter the
army. I therefore respectfully suggest
that Congress might aid both the army
and naval service by adequate provision
on this subject which would at the same
time be equitable to the communities more
sepecially intended.
I commend to your consideration the
suggestions of the Secretary of the Navy.
in regard to the policy of fostering and
training seamen for naval service. Taena
vut aeademy is rendering signal service in
preparing midshipmen for highly respon
sible duties, which in after IMb they will
be require;«! to perforin, in order that the
country should not be deprived of the
proper quota ofeducated ofieere. for which
legal provision has been made. At the
Naval School the vacancies caused by the
neglect or omission to make nominations
from the States in insurrection, have been
filled by the Secretary of the navy. The
school is now more full and complete than
at any previous period, and in every res
pect entitled to the favorable considera
tion of Congress.
Daring the past fiscal year the financial
condition of the Postoffice Department has
bees oueutf increasing prosperity, and I
att grat Ad in being able to state
aecountsßHfl^M^H|Hfl||^^^^H
the
amounting to $11,314,089.59, and the for
mer to §11,183,789.59, leaving a deficien
cy of but 8150,419.25. In 1860, the
year immediately preceding the rebellion,
the deficiency amounted to $565,670,540,
the postal receipts of that year beings 264.-
572,219 lews than those 0f1863. The de
crease since 1860 in the annual amount
of transportation has been only about
twenty-five per cent., but the annual ex
penditures, on account of the satno has
been reduced thirty-five per cent. It is
manifest, therefore, that the Postoffice
Department may become self-sustaining in
a few years, even with the restoration of
the whole service.
The international conference of postal
delegates from the principal countries of
Europe and America, which was called at
the suggestion of the Postmaster General,
met at Paris on the 11th of May last, and
concluded its deliberations on the Bth of
June. The principles established by the
conference, as best adapted to focilitale
postal intercourse between nations, andns
the basis of future conventions to inaugu
rate a general system of uniform interna
tional charges at reduced rates of postage,
cannot fail to produce beneficial results.
I refer you to the report of the Secreta
ry of the Interior, which is herewith laid
before you, for the useful and varied in
formation in relation to public lands, lu
dian affaire, patents, pensions, and other
matters of public concern pertaining to this
Department. The quantity of lauds dis
posed of during the last and first quarter
of the prosent and fiscal years, was three
million eight hundred and forty-one thou
sand and five hundred aud forty-nine
acres, of which one hundred and sixty-<;iic
thousand nine hundred and eleven acres
were sold for cash ; one million four hun
dred aud fifty-six thousand five hundred
and fourteen acres were taken up under
the homestead law, and the residue dispo
sed of under laws granting lauds for mili
tary bounties, for railroads, and other pur
poses. It also appears that the sale of the
public lands is largely on the increase. It
has long been a cherished opinion of some
of our wisest statesmen, that the people of
the United States had a higher and more
enduring interest in the early settlement
and substantial cultivation of the public
lands, than in the amount of direct reve
nue to be dorived from the sale of them.
This opinion has had a controlling influ
ence, shaping legislation upon the subject
of our national domain. I may cite as an
instance of this the liberal measures adop
ted in reference to actual settlers the grant
to the States of the overflowed lands with
in their limits, in order to their being re
claimed and rendered fit for cultivation;
the grant to railroad companies of alter
nate sections of land upon the contempla
ted lines of their road, when completed,
will largely multiply the facilities of reach
ing our distant possessions. This policy
has received its most signal and benficient
illustration in recent enactments, granting
homesteads to actual settlers since the first
day of January last, the before mentioned
quantity over one million four hundred
and fifty-six thousand, five hundred and
fout teen acres of land, has been taken up
under its provisions. This fact and the
amount of sales, furnish gratifying evi
dence of the increasing settlement upon
the public lands. Notwithstanding the
great struggle in which the energies of
the nation have been engaged, and which
has required so large a withdrawal of our
citizens from their accustomed pursuits. I
cordially concur in the recommendation
of the Secretary of the Interior suggesting
a modification of the act in favor of those
engaged in the military and naval service
of the United States. I doubt not that
Congress will cheerfully adopt such meas
ures as will without essentially changing
the general features of the system to se
cure to the greatest practicable extent its
benefits to those who have left their homes
in defense of the country in this arduous
crisis.
I invite your attention to the views of
the Secretary of War as to the propriety of
raising, by appropriation of legislation, a
revenue from the mineral lands of the Uni
ted States. The measure provided at your
last session for the removal of certain In
dian tribes have been carried into effect.
Sundry treaties have been negotiated,
which will, in due time, be submitted for
the constitutional action of the Senate.—
They contain stipulations for extinguish
ing the possessors' rights of the Indians to
large and valuable tracts of land. It is
probable that the effeets of these treaties
will result in the establishment of perma
nent friendly relations with such of those
tribes as have been brought into frequent
and bloody collisions with our outlying
settlements and emigrant*. Sound policy
and our imperative duty to these wards of
government demand our anxious and con
stant attention to their material well be-
HHfeftheir progress in the arts of civiK-
aty,4q that powLteMß-
ing which under the blessing of Divine
Providence, will confer upon them the el
evated and sanctifying influence of the
hopes and consolations of the christian
faith.
I suggested iu my last annual message
the propriety of remodeling our Indian
system. Subsequent events have satisfied
me of its necessity. The details set forth
in the report of the Secretary, will eyince
the urgent need for immediate legislative
action. I commend the benevolence of
the institutions established or patronized
by the Government of this district, to your
generous and fostering care.
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS,
The attention of Congress, during the
last session, was engaged to some extent
with a proposition for enlarging the wa
ter communication between the Mississip
pi river and the Northeastern seaboard,
which proposition, however, failed for the
time. Since then, upon a call of the
greatest respectability, a convention has
been called at Chicago, upon the same
subject, a summary of whose views is con
tained in a memorial addressed to the
Presidont and Congress, and which I now
have the honor to lay before you. That
this interest is one which ero long will
force its own way, I do not entertain a
doubt, while it is submitted entirely to
your wisdom as to what can be dono now.
Augmented interest is given to this sub
ject by the actual commencement of work
upon the Pacific Railroad, under auspices
so favoroble to its rapid progress and com
pletion. Enlarged navigation becomes a
palpable need to this great road.
I transmit the second annual report of
the Commissioner of tho department of
Agriculture, asking your attention to the
developments in that vital interest of the
nation.
When Congress assembled a year ago,
tlie war had already lasted nearly twenty
months, and there was many conflicts on
both land and sea with varying results.—
The rebellion had been prossed back into
reduced limits, yet, the tone of public feel
ing and opinion at home and abroad was
not satisfactory. "With tho other signs,
the popular elections then just past, indi
cated uneasiness among ourselves, while
amid much that was cold and menacing,
the kindest words coming from England,
were uttered in accents of pity that we were
too blind to surrender. Our commerce
was suffering greatly by a few armed ves
sels, built upon and furnished from for
eign shores, and We were threatened with
such additions from the same quarter as
would sweep our trade ftom the sea, and
raise our blockade. We had failed to eli
cit from European governments anything
hopeful upon this subject.
TIIE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION.
The Emancipation Proclamation, which
was issued in September, was running its
assigned period to the beginning of the
new year. A month later the final proc
lamation came, including the announce
ment that colored men of suitable condi
tion would be received into the war ser
vice. The policy of emancipation and of
the employment of blaek soldiers gave to
th 3 future a new aspect, about which hope
and fear and doubt contended in uncer
tain conflict. According to our political
system, as a matter of civil administra
tion, the General Government had no law
ful power to effect emancipation in any
State, and for a long time it had been hop
ed that the rebellion could be suppressed
without resorting to it as a military meas
ure. It was all the while deemed possi
ble that tho necessity for it might come,
and that it should, the crisis of the contest
would then be presented. It came, and,
as was intended, it was followed by dark
and doubtful days. Eleven months hav
ing been passed, we are permitted to take
another review. The rebel borders are
pressed still further back, and by the com
plete opening of the Mississippi river, the
country dominated over by the rebellion
is divided into distinct parts, with no prac
tical communication between them. Ten
nessee and Arkansas, have been so sub
stantially cleared of insurgents' control
and influence, and the citizens in each,
owners of slaves and advocates of slavery
at the beginning of the rebellion, now de
clare openly for emancipation, in their re
spective States. Of those States not in
cluded in the emancipation proclamation,
Maryland and Missouri, neither of which
years ago would tolerate any restraint up
on the extension of slavery into their
ritories, only dispute now as to tyr
mode of removing it from withinown,
limits.
Of those who were slaves at the begin
ning of the rebellion, fViHy one hundred
thousand are now is the United States
military service, about oae-haif of which
number actually bearfagjr.ta |te rwM>
thus giving the double advantage of taking
so much labor from the insurgent^oaase
NUMBER 2.
So far as tested it is difficult to say thaTl
they are not as good soldiers as adyi No
servile insurrection or tendency to vio
lence or cruelty, has marked the measures
ofemaneipation and arming the blacks.—
These measures have been much discussed
in foreign countries; the contemporary
with such discussion, the tone of public
sentiment there is much improved. At
homo, the same measures have been fully
discussed, supported, criticised and An
nounced, and the annual elections follow
ing ar e highly encouraging to those who«e
special duty it is to bear the country
through this great trial Wins wehaVd
the reckoning, the crisis which throaiSKSsJ
to divide the friends of the Union is past,
RECONSTBUCTIOtf.
Looking now to the pussent and futnro,
and with reference to a resumption of the
national authority within the States wher»
in that authority hag been suspended, I
have thought fit to issue a proclamation,-ft
copy of which is herewith transmitted**-*
Ou examination of thin proclamation, it
will appear, as is believed, amply justified |
by the Constitution. True, the forta pf
an oath is given, but no man is coerced to
take it. A man is only promised a pardon
in case he voluntarily takes the oath. Tha j
Constitution authorizes the Executive to 1
grant it on terms, as is fully established by ]
judioial and other authorities. It is also
proffored that if, in any ol tho States nam
ed, governments should be established in
the prescribed mode, such govornment
shall bo recognized and
the United States, and thst under it the
State shall, on subscribing to the consti
tutional conditions, bo protected against
invasion and domestic violence.
The constitutional obligation of tho IJn>
ted States to guarantee to every State in the
Union a republican form of govermeftt,
and to protect the State in the case as
stated, is explicit and full, but why ten
der the benefits of this provision only to
a State Government set up in this partic
ular way. This section of the Constitu-j
tion contemplates a case wherein the de
ment within a State favorable to a repub
lican Government in the Union may be ",
too feeble for an opposite and hostile tie- |
ment external to, and oven within the I
State; and such are precisely the cases /
with which we are now dealing. All at J
tempt to guarantee and protect in a rev id
ed state Government constmatod in w]ipl|
or in prepondering part from the very ef
ment against whose hostility and violera
it is to be protected is simply absurd/
There must be a test by which to sepaw
opposing elements so as to build only fit
tho sound, and that test is a sufficient A
liberal ono, which accepts as sound wn
ever will mako a sworn recantation of 1
former unsoundness. 1
But if it be proper to require a test".. 1
admission to a political body an oath of al
legiance to the Constitution of the United
States and to the Union under it, why not J
also to the laws and proclamation in re- 112
gard to slavery ? Those laws and procla
mations were enacted and put forth forff
the purpose of aiding in the suppression 112
of the rebellion. To give them the fullest '
effect there had to be a pledge for their
maintenance. In my judgment they havo
aided and will further aid the cause for
which they were enlisted. To give up
this principle would be not only to relin
quish a lever of power, but would also be
a cruel and astounding breach of faith.
I may add, at this point, that while I
remain in my present position, I shall not
attempt to retract or modify the Emanci
pation Proclamation, nor shall I rgSCm-trr"
slavery any person who it math free by the
terms of the Proclamation, or by any act
of Congress. For these and other reasons
it is thought best that the support of these
persons shall be included in the oath, and
it is believed the Exeeutive may lawfully
claim it in return for pardon and reatora- "
tion of forfeited rights, which he has clear_
constitutional power to withhold altogeth
er, or to grant upon the terms which ho
shall deem wisest for the public interest,
It should be observed, also, that t* 4 *
part of the oath is subject to the modify- ,
ing and abrogating power rf Wfcihrtion J
and Supreme Judieial P ro " J
posed acquiescence National 15xJ|
eeutive, in any Bta 7l
arrangement fojr™ freed people, Is made!
with the yof poesibfy modifying thai
oonfu&i'" I distressing destitution whichf
ujnai, at heat attend all elasses, by a totalis
'revolution of labor throughout the whole
States. It is hoped that the already deeply |
afflicted people in those States inly bo V
somewhat more ready to give up the causo
of their affliction; and to this extent this,.;
vital matter if left to^themselve. whU*|

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