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Renovation of Soils.
There is in the constituent particles of a constant tendency to more minute division, by continual tillage, and the concurrent action of salts, manures, and frost, this division may become so extreme, that at length a soil may be reduced to a fine powder or dust; in which state it will be des titute of substance, and cease to be productive; the rain falling upon it "vill "vill convert it into mere mire or mud; and this being hardened by the heat of the sun, the air will be excluded, and the roots of plants will be wholly unable to fulfil their functions. "All these soils" (for instance, where 45 parts of 100 are clay) "are unproduc tive, and become adhesive and clam my when wet; the watter which stands npon them is uniformly turbid and whitish, and particularly so when it is agitated by wind; theeflectof heat is to contract and crack their surface, to make it hard, and render it impen etrable to the plough; nor can they be made to any considerable extent productive, but by the liberal appli cation of coarse undecomposed ma nures, and especially by ploughing in crops of buckwheat when in flower." I It is not my purpose to discuss the ' —cyiestion of renovating soils, for it lias often been ably treated, but to state the result of an experiment in wheat culture, on a soil approxima ting the above description, quoted from the sterling work of Chaptal, on Agricultural Chemistry. The soil was rather a stiff clay, and having been some thirty-five years in arable condition, and for much of the for mer part of this time very productive of wheat, it had been, for want of a knowledge of the benefits of the "ro tation system, "sadly abused. In 1838 it was summer fallowed, having laid the four years previous to sheep pas ture, but the crop of wheat which fol lowed was very ordinary, notyieldin- ; ten bushels to the acre; which in' art arose from the adhesive and - ia mmy , nature of the soil, causi*ft frost I to have a very con.« :<lTa ''' e propor- j tion of the plan* ™ , the Rlll ' ffice to perish. Thi* lS we *' known to be a j very com*" ,n occurrence, in our cli mate heavy clay lands, if sow ; but this was not the fact in >ie last particular, and the growth in • the fall was beyond an average. Af ter the crop was harvested, I obser ved on all parts of the field, numer ous cracks on the surface, to much greater extent than is usual with simi lar soils. I contemplated giving the field a heavy manuring the following season, and plant with corn; but sub sequently changed my plan, having resolved to adopt the course recom mended as above, by Chaptal. I con sequently applied about twenty-five large cart loads of coarse, unfermen ted manure, drawn from my sheep barns, to the acre, which was spread no faster than the ploughs would cov er. The plants in the fall, assumed so dark a green, that I was a little apprehensive of the usual rank growth before harvest, which almost'invaria bly follows tho direct application of manure to the wheat crop, as well as large disproportions of straw to the berry. But, doubtless owing to the great poverty of the soil these results did not follow. The field averaged over twenty bushels to the acre,which is about the average production of well tilled fallow land, sown timely, and in favorable seasons, in this im mediate quarter. The coarse manure had evidently affected a material modi fication of the soil, a few cracks were ~~ distinguishable on tho surface, after harvest, showing most clearly, that it was more friable. It is a year ago last spring since the grass seed was sown upon it, and a more luxuriant covering of clover, I have rarely seen than the field now presents; which is another proof of some renovation of the soil, otherwise, very much of the clover would have boen thrown out by the frost of last spring. It is my present impression, that if this field is permitted to rest for two years longer and then sowed with buckwheat, and piowed under when in blow, prepara tory to wheat, in consideration of what has already been done, its ori ginal fertility will be nearly restored, and in some measure the adhesive clammy texture of the soil destroyed. But while on this subject, I beg leave to enter a protest against applying manure—except compast—directly to the wheat crop; unless, as in the above case, when the soil is rendered quite unproductive, by long and "skin ning" management, before agricultu- periodicals taught us better. You fcglj permit me to quote your remarks, on this point, for I am quite wire they cannot be kept too "much before the people,"—from the 7th vol. of the Cultivator, taken from a sterling article on "Wheat Culture." "One of the greatest evils of direct manuring for the wheat crop, arises from/the liability of the -grain so ma unund, to lodge, the rapid growth of the stem renders it unable to support its own weight, it is soft and flexible, contains much less silex than those t grown in a poorer soil; the wheat | does not usually perfect its berry, and times, from the thinnees of the | PpuS or cuticle, it is more liable to and rust. These things ren- Kper it certainly v unless » land is very poor and reduced, to Htoply unfermented manure to wheat." lb own experience, as well as that of of otters, in times past, truth A MAGNIFICENT RAILWAY CARRIAGE, —The directors of the Great Eastern Rail way Company arc constructing a specimen of railway carriage, which, for luxury and beauty, can only be compared with Cleop atra's galley. Talk of "purple sails, and oars of silver, and pavillion of cloth of gold !" the carriage which is being built at Stratford for the use of the Prince and Princess of Wales is quite as fine! "I wish I were a princess," the little lady plaintively says in the nursery; " then I could have sugar candy for breakfast."— So we almost wish that we were a prince; then we should ride upon quilted satin, with our feet inches deep in a velvet-pile carpet, and hang our hats up upon frost ed silver pegs! Let our readers only re alize the splendor of the drawing-room on wheels which is to travel to and fro be tween Satidringham and London. First of all, it is twenty-six feet long, in sepa rate compartments, so that royalty can Btretch its legs. Then it is seven feet high, so that royalty's traveling cap, or royalty's head inside it, will not knock against the roof, or try unwilling conclu sions as to relative hardness with the glass of the carriage lamp. The interior of this mansion-in-miniature is hung with blue silk, brocaded and bordered with sil ver, and studded with the same metal.— The handles and furniture are all of sil ver also, designed to exhibit everywhere the tripple plume of the Prince of Wales. Intermingled with the same emblems on the inside panels, the Danish Cross ap- I pears in all directions, and tho carpet J woven ad hoc, reproduces the same ,r"a --| ments. Even the outside is for I it is to be painted in lake '"d gold, with the royal arms and badge of the Or der of the Carte* 111 tllose spaces where I vulgar railp"' l carriages carry the descrip tion of *' ,eir claM - I THE SPEAKER OP THE HOUSE. —The | election of Mr. Schuyler Colfax as Speaker I of the House of Representatives is a mat j ter of general congratulation. He was ! elected by a decisive majority, including | every Union member, so that the triumph is not a Republican triumph, but one of a higher and broader nature. Mr. Colfax is in every way qualified for an office so re sponsible. He has been a Representative of the Ninth Indiana Congressional dis trict for eight years, and adds to thorough knowledge of parlimentiary business the indispensable qualities of strict integrity, firmness, impartiality, and courtesy. His decisions will be respected by friends and opponents, and, so far as a Speaker can in fluence the deliberations of a legislative body, Mr. Colfax will facilitate the speedy transaction of public business, and pro tect the dignity and order of the House. But, independently of this special fitness for the high position which the Union members have unanimously given him. Mr. Colfax has, by a loyal and active course, well earned the oouiidcncc of the country. Born in Now York city in March. 1823, he became a printer when a boy, and always studying and improving, removed to Indiana in 1836, and there established the South Bend Register, a journal which he still controls. More than half of his life has been spent in public service, and few men have served so faithfully and well.— Philadelphia Press. JB*aT A laughable incident is related of a jealous woman, at Lewistown, Maine, who went into an auction room the other day, and saw as she supposed, her husband very familiarly sitting beside a young lady. Stepping up softly, she seized a head in each hand and pounded them to gether a number of times in a great rage. Her surprise may be imagined when she found that the innocent stranger was not her "worst half." She apologized and passod on amid the laughter and gTcat merriment of the crowd. THE DRUNKARD'S DAUOHUER. —"Take mc on your lap, papa. Now kiss me like you used to do; stroke my head and call me your little pet. Why don't you kiss me ? Dont you love Lizzie now ? I love you papa, O, ever go much, and when mother cries when you are away, I put my arms around her neck and say, 'Lizzie loves you mamma,'and then she wipes the big tears away and tells me, 'your papa once told me that; but I am afraid he has forgotten it, for he doesn't seem to like home any more.'" " And dear papa, sometimes her heart beats so hard, I am afraid it will break.— Will it, papa? What will Lizzie do then, should mamma die ? And what will you do ?" " Hush my child." ' Do tell me, papa, for she coughed so hard to-day; and she told me to be ever kind to you if others did abuse you and call you wicked names, for she said she was sinking fast. What is that ? Ain't that going to die, papa; Oh, do tell me!" "Now don't you cry ; there is a kiss for you; here, let me dry your face." " Now let me down, papa. I will tell mamma to come. I didn't mean to make you sorry." " 0, mother, my papa did kiss me like he used to do, and hugged me too, an call ed me his pretty dear; and (whispered) mamma, on his knees he talked to God and said he had been very wicked; but now he will try and do his duty j But my pa py isn't wicked, is he, mother?" *©"• A writer to the Boston Transcript says there is a person in that city whose father was one of a family of three chil dren, all of whom lived overeighty years of age; his lather, being the youngest, lived to the uncomfortable age of ninety .six.— grandfather lived to ninety-six, and Hkaadmother to ainety-sevea The Last of the Moon Question. We propose to give the readers of this re port the following additional opinions upon the moon question, and with this, close the arguments, until something positively new i( aduced: E. C. HARRIS, writes as follows, from Glcndale, Ohio: " There is no part of the contents ofThe Semi-Weekly Tribune which I read with more interest than the proceedings of tho Fanners' Club, and have been particular ly interested in the discussions concerning the moon influence upon plant and veget able life. The affirmative and negative on the question display their respective characteristics; the former declaring their belief in the moon theory simply because it is so; the negative ridiculing the very idea of such a thing. A blind faith is an excess on one side, and a blank disbelief on the other; but between those who so | implicitly and these who so stoutly and . sometimes flippantly deny an earnestscek- I 1 I er after truth has not found a very form idable array of reasoning on either side.— To assert a thing is true because I believe i i it and my f-'her and grand-fathdrbelieve ' | it before me, is :.<>t truth, but traditi"'; j and also to pronounce a thing ab<"' r| l be j cause I do not believe it, is pwssumptuons ■ j ignorance; for I know if much or as lit ■ i tie as I may, "ther'* arc more tilings in ■ j heaven and ear* l 'ban arc dreamt of in my . philosophv '* i "Ip«o is controversy certain facts have . j l,<- n lost sight of which it would be well to recall. The empirical notion entertain ed by certain astronomers of the utterly lifeless waste of the moon's surface has been exploded. This idea of the moon's negativeness obtained credence by deny ing the existence of an atmosphere around the moon, consequently denying also the existenceof water anil organic life from our statelite. This theory led to the denial also ofheat in the lunar rays, from all which flowed a multitude of errors. " But Melvin and Knox have proved by exact observations that there is beat in moonshine, and Zantadeschi has measured I its effects upon theinimoss; while an En glish scholar has demonstrated that the earth is colder in the first quarter of the moon than it is in the second. Again, moonshine exerts a wonderful influence on plants. Light enables them to absord car bon from tho carbonic acid of the atmos phere, and this is their daily work. They sleep at night, except when the moon wakes tliem up, and sets them to work again. So the farmer is right when he sows his seed just before the full of tho moon, for the plants come lip about the time of the new moon, and pass their in fancy under the dark nights. But when the full moon comes, its light sets them to work, and this progress continues night and day, while the contrary course is inju rious to the tender plant which requires sleep. It is a common saying among sail ors that the moon eats up the clouds, and Whewell and Quctelet have proved the truth of this observation by showing that more rain falls in the dark of the moon than in its second or third quarters. " So much for the influence of the moon upon vegetable and plant life. There are too many well authenticated proofs of iUt effects, to doubt its influence upon thehu man system. Persons sleeping in the moon shine have suffered malformation of the face, and very recently in Ohio occurred a striking instance of luuar influence. A boy 14 years of age slept throughout a moonlight night iu a corn-field. Some la borers the next morning on their way to work, seeing the boy apparently asleep, aroused him; the boy opened his eyes, but declared he could not see. He was remov ed to an occular institution, and the sur geon affirmed after an examination, that the loss of sight resulted from sleeping in the moonshine. The boy is to tally blind, and few hopes are entertained of his restoration to sight."—A". Y. Tribune. THE CHRISTIAN TEACHER. —Religion, more than any other attainment, perfects the character of tho teacher. There is a serene, holy and happy expression upon the true Christian's face, that carries with it an influence almost immeasurable This influenec is perceivable and acknowledged by every person in the circle of his ac quaintance ; but how much more is it felt, when concentrated within the narrow lim its of the school. Iu the presence of mich a teacher, the pupils feel that there is ! nothing trifling or frivolous in the great! work of preparing themselves for life's mo mentous duties. They are impressed by the candid truthful and steady character of their teacher, that life is earnest and real and that it is of the greatest import ance that they may fit themselves for its sober duties. True it is, that we have known good teachers, who were not professing Chris tians but the most successful ones have been those who, in storing the head, have not forgottso to train tho heart, and while fitting their pupils for this, just "the twi light of their existence," have not forgot ten to prepare them for their eternal life, the perfect day which we see now but dim ly, but which we shall open to the inher itors of the blessed Home with glories of whieh we can not conceive.—M. D. T. in flew Fork Teacher. " I am afraid, dear wife, that while, I am gone, absence will conquer love."— "Oh, never fear, dearhushand, the longer you stay away the better I shall like you." . L (Educatumat stjmrtmtnt NAT|VE BY MB3. T. J. PIBMO*. MY Native Lend;—To every living heart These words are full of music, aud their ton® Awake* a spirit, who. with tearful smile Sit® ever by its holiest altar stone. She lifted up the curatin, whlchthe years Have woven by their parti-color'd thread. And pointeth to a landscape with fair forms Of love, and joy, and beauty, overspread. Our Childhood's Home—the valley, hill, and stream, The path our infant feet was leanieM to trace: The tree, the lowers, the r«we hush by the wall, The grey stone door-step, and that holiest place. The household hearth, where lirea the cbeerfhl fire, Which warms and blends the hearts that mingle there In kindred confidence ; where eve*y soul Is true, and loving, whore all forms are fair And every foe* so beautiful, so dear— So eloquent of love, that old men weep, Above the picture* which younememory traced Upon the tender heart, so bright, and deep. That days, which with their footsteps wear away, All after Hffc's Imprwwms, only keep That brilliant tablet free from mom and dnst. And wear the 'graving more distinct and deep. The radiantt Image, which k>ve'«hurning hand Press'd on the heart in manhood's ardent «tays, 1 May be etfae'd, —but no heart ever lost The earlier impress of a mother s £»«*«• My own dear Native Land 1 «»y Ml* j Are rugged, ami abrupt, sparsely drem'd With gnarl'd and dark tree*,which stubborn forms | Defy tho storm wi»/« of the North and West. Although thy flr " not all broad and rich, With i fruits, aud native wonlth. Of raror'w'iCflflM; though thy fit-Ids require Tl»r sturdy tillage of the hand of health. fhough Icy winter'* winir of drifted mow ' Lies o'er thy bosom, more than half the year, Yet still thou art my own dear native land, And nil thy features beautifhl, and deer. Heaven hath no breezes purer than thy winds, Rearth hath no waters brighter than thy streams, O'er more majestic hills, or lovelier valos" The sunlight never wove its golden dreams. There in no soil on which the human f«»ot More firmly treadeth to the tearless beat Of true and freehorn heart, wh<-reail the flowers Of pure affection, blooms so fair and sweot. I And there's no land from whence with blighter wing, j Or sweeter voice, tin* birds of memorv come, To blend with all life's hymns of joy or Woe, The thrilling music of the heart note Home. To lay upon the exiles burning heart Sweet coming wreaths that grew in young lifes bowers And braid all loving and beloved fbrmg In blessed dreams, with midnight's soothing hours. My native land'—to every living heart The«e word* am full of music: and their tone Awakes the memories that with tearful smile, Sit erer by its holiest altar stone. Articulation, Observing that tho practice and rule hits j been rather to road loud than articulate, I I have directed early attention to bo given to the elemental powers of the letters, and the practiceo'.' pronouncing lessons—cow-1 prising difficulties of Enunciation. Why j should even tho youngest pupil remain ig- i norant of the distinction between a vowel j and a consonant, when the following easy ; illustration will possess them ofthatknowl- i edge, in a manner never to bo forgotten, j Let the pupil open tho mouth wide and j insert the forefinger while pronouncing A, j E, I, O, U, and then attempt to pronounce 1? or P, and it will be palpably proven that the one are only breathed sounds, and the others articulated—or, as expressed in a more simple form, open and close letters: the one pronounced with the mouth open, and the other by the use of tho lijis, tongue and teeth—or tho one sounded by itself and the other not without the use of an other letter. For B, P, and other conso nants close up the sound of A, as ab; but after them tho vowel sound is prolonged. Correct and precise enunciation should be taught at an age when the organs ofspeech | are flexible, tho hearing acute, and the ' mind more observant—being uncncumbor- j cd by a multiplicity of idoas. "After a child has learned to speak ill, he mag be taught to speak well; but the chances are against him. But why should he have the trouble of breaking bad hab its ?" — Report oj N. Y. Board of Educa tion. COMPOSITION FOR BLACK-BOARDS.— Lampblack and flour of emery mixed with spirit varnish. No more lampblack and flour of emery should bo used than arc suf ficient to give the required black and abraiding surface; and tho varnish should ! contain only enough gum to hold the in gredients together, aud confine the com position to the board. The thinner the mixture, the better. The lampblack should first be ground with a small quantity of alcohol, or spirit varnish, to free it from the lumps. The composition should be applied to the smoothly planed surface of the board, with a common painter's brush. Let it become thoroughly dry and hard before it is used. Rub it down with pumice-stone, ora piece of smooth wood covered with the compo sition. The composition tnav also be used on the walls. Prayer is the eye of faith fixed on Jesus, whether the outward manifestation be by a sigh, a tear, or the upward glanc ing of the eye. David was in a prayerful frame when he thursted. panted after God. j Christ expressed the same moral condition, j when he spoke of the soul hungering and thirsting after righteousness. THE OBSTRUCTIONS IN CHARLESTON IIARBOR.—It is the opinion of more than one officer in the fleet off Charleston that the obstructions in that harbor are insignifi cant, if not harmless, and one of them has sent north a specimen of them asobtained by a pilot. They consist of beer-barrels pitched, secured by a one-and-half inch rope, with cotton bale rope network to ob struct the propellers. In tho words of the description, the obstructions, instead of be ing "torpedoes and chains," are lager beer kegs and clothes lines. The greatest ob struction appears to have hitherto been in the apprehensions of the commander, and ' not in the harbor. THE ATONEMENT.—The atonement by < the cross is not so much a member of the , body of the Christian doctrine as the life blood that runs through the whole of it. There is not an important truth but what is presupposed by it, Included in it, or -< i ses out of it; nor anjFpart of practical re- ' ligiou but what han upon it % r 112 Jl, Letter from the Emperor of France. The Monxieur of Thursday, Nov. 12, published the text of the letter addressed < to the Sovereigns of Europe by the Em- I peror of the French, proposinga general congress to settle the affairs of Europe.— The following is a full text: Most High and Most Illustrious Sover eign Princess and Free Towns which con stitute the Most serone German Confeder- 1 ation— In the presence of the events which are every day rising and becoming urgent, I deem it indespensable to express myself without reserve to the Sovereigns to whom the destiny of nations is confided. Whenever severe shocks have shaken the bases and displaced tlie limits of states | solemn transactions have taken place to ! arrange the new elements, and to conse ; orate by revision the accomplished trans- I formations. Such was tho object of the ' treaty of Westphalia, in the 17th centu ry. and of the negotiations at Vienna, in ' 1815. It is on this latter foundation that now reposes the political edifice of Eu rope: and yet, as you are aware, itiserumb lingaway on all sides. If the situation of the different coun tries be attentively considered, it is impos sible not to admit that the treaties of Vienna upon almost all points are destroyed, mod ified, misunderstood,ormenaeed. Hence, duties without rule, rights without title, | and pretensions without restraint—a dan ! ger so much the more formidable because | the improvements brought about by eivil ! ization, which has bound nations together by the indentity of material interests, would render war still more destructive. This is a subject for serious reflection ; let us not wait before deciding on our course for sudden and irresistible events to disturb our judgment and carry us away ; despite ourselves in opposite directions. I therefore propose to you to rcgnlato the present and secure thefuture inaCon j gross. Called to the throne by Providence and ; the will of the French people, but trained ; in the school of adversity, it is perhaps less | permissible in mo than in any other toig | nore the rights of the Sovereigns and the j legitimate aspirations of tho nations. Therefore lam ready, without any prc j conceived system, to bring to an interna tional council the spirit of moderation and justice, the usual portion of those who have endured so many various trials. If I take the initiative insuch an over ture, I do not yield to an impulse of vani ty ; but as I am the Sovereign to whom ambitious projects arc most attributed, I have it at heart to prove by this frank and loyal step that my solo object is to ar rive without a shock at tho pacification of Europe. If this proposiion bo favorably received, I pray you to accept Paris as tho place of meeting. In case tho Princes, allies, and friends of France should think proper to heighten | by their presence the authority of the de j liberations, I shall be proud to offer them my cordial hospitality. Europe would see, perhaps, some advantage in tho capital from which the signal for subversion has so often been given becoming the seat of conferences destined to lay the bases of a general pacification. I take advantage of this opportunity to renew to you the assurance of my sincere attachment, and of the lively interest which I take in the prosperity of the States of the Confederation. Whereupon, most high and illustrious Sovoreign Princes and Free Towns which constitute the most exalted German Con federation, I pray God to have yon in His holy keeping. Written at Paris : on the 4th of Novem ber, in the year of grace 1863. NAPOLEON. Countersigned. BROUYN DE LHCYS. How TO SWEKP 4 A CARPET.—Take a common wash-tub, or some vessel large enough to admit a broom freely, and put in clean cold water to the depth of a foot or more. Then take a broom, (one part ly worn, so as to be a little stiff, is the best,) dip in six inches or so, and then hold it over the tub, or go out of doors and knock off all the drops of water.— This can be dime most effectually by hold ing it in one hand, and wrapping it with the other on the broom corn above where it is wet. Commence brushing lightly at first, going over with it the second time, or more, and if your carpet is very dusty do not sweep more than a square yard or two before dipping your broom into the water again; this will rinse off all the particles of dust adhering to the broom. Rap off the drops of water, and continue to do so till the whole is cleaned. Should the water get very dirty before completing the room, it can bo changed. One who has never tried the experiment will prob ably be surprised at the quantity of dirt which will bo washed from the broom into the water. \ carpet can be cleaned more effectually in this way-than it Can pos sibly be done with a dry 'broom, as tho particles of dust adhere to the broom in stead of rising to fall back on the carpet. There is no danger of injuringeven a fan cy carpet, if the drops of water are thor oughly removed from the broom. Let no one try who has not time and patience. SSf The rebel ram Atlanta, which has been on exhibition at Philadelphia for sev eral days, will be closed to visitors next .week. L V _ J How to Keep Children Healthy. A The mortality among the children in our cities, as well ns in the country, !B sad to contemplate. Is there any reason for g. this ? Are all these children sent into h the world to be thus early cut down? Are not nine out of ten of these early deaths the result of ignorance ? What parents j ever lost a child, except by accident, with- \ out thinking: "If 1 had treated it differ- c ently, it would not have died ?" The 1 loss of our own three first-born has led us J to thiuk much upon this topic, and three , almost nlwayß healthy living ones are evi- i deuces thatour studies on the subject have ' not boon in vain. A few hints on the 1 subject may not be without use. Else. 1 where we have given sonic hints on the < sleep of children. Next to securing plenty 1 of sound sleep, or rather before it, we 1 place the proper preparation of food. The ' kind of food they eat at not of hjf so - much consequence as the manner of its | preparation. (Jive a child a hard apple • and let him swallow it in pieces from the 1 siio of a forge pea upward. The result will be, that the lumps will be partly worn off by the coats of the stomach, and partly dissolved by the gastrin juice; but the remaining portion of the lumps will produce griping and irritation, if not di arrhoea or dysentery. But first scrape or mash the apple to a fine pulp, and it may then be eaten with impunity, and with benefit, if ripe or nearly so. Feed a child on boiled potatoes cut tip, or on potatoes coarsely mashed and l'ricd in fat, and you will be pretty sure to find more or less of lumps of potatoes remaining undigested. Mow can it be othcrwiso than that theso j lumps must have produced irritation in the intestines ? Hut mash these same po tutocs finely before feeding them, and then the fine material will be digested and af ford nutriment instead of giving uneasi ness and pain " under the apron." The same holds true of most meats. Cut up fine—aa fine as shot almost—they will be digested and produce nourishment; while if fed in coarse pieces, they will lie in the stomach, like a meat poultice on the out side, the cause of uneasiness if not of par tial inflammation. Feed raisens and nuts to children, and unless .very strong and vigorous, the chances are that they will in duce immudiato sickness or a weakened system, liable to be affected by the first heat or cold. Chop these same raisens or nuts finely, reduce them almost to pow der, and they nmy be eaten in moderate quantity with impunity. Theso remarks apply to all kinds of lbod ; and in a meas ure, to grown people as well its to children. Many persons arc over nice or anxious as to what their children eat, and often re duce them to skeletons, or unfit them for a vigorous resistance of colds and malaria diseases, by fecdiug them on toast or rice, weak gruel, etc. Give thein rather a fair supply of hearty food, so jhwHy reduced that it will be quickly digested in the stom ach, and they will grow vigorous and be able to withstand the changes of climate, and the exposures to which they are ever liable. Mothers, consider these things, and sec if they are not true and in accor . dunce with reason,— jLfncrican Ayrirul tvrist. Pennsylvania in the 38th Congress, Edgar Cowan and Charles 11. liueka- Icw are the United States Senators from this State. Both are lawyers by profes sion, of nearly the same age; to wit, a little undcrfifty. The one might be called a conservative Union man, and the other Democratic with copperhead tendencies. Both are undoubtedly men of ability and integrity, and neither of them much of outside managers in political affairs. In the House the political complexion is just equal, twelve of each; but the Union men have largely the advantage in the ability and experience of the delegation. Thad deus Stevens, Win. I). Kelly, James T. Halo and James K. Moorhead have all been in long enough to be well known.— M. Rnssel Thayer, of Philadelphia, and Thomas Williams, of Allegheny, will un doubtedly make their mark at Washing ton. On the Democratic side, John L. Dawson, of Fayette, will we presume, be the leading member. We annex, iu the form of a table, the leading facts in regard to the members of the House of Repre sentatives from this State: Name District. Birthplace. Age. Politic* T E Anraina, Bucks, Lancaster, 39 C. D, Jo*. Bailey, P«rry, CI inter, 53 W. I). J M Broom ell, Itolaware, Delaware. 48 U. i A H Coffroth, .Sumermit, & merest, 3# G. I>. J L Dawuon, Fayette, Uniontown, 51 C. D. ' C Dermwrtoa, Luzerne < J II UaU, Centre, Bradford, 5M U. P Johnston, Northampton, New Jersey 4tf C. D. WraD Kelly, Philadelphia, PhUadvl'a, 50 U. - J B Lazier, Greene, - D. A M'ColHater, Blair, Itouphiu, 50 D. I W II Miller, liatiphin, Perry, 45 D. . J K Moorhead, Allegheny, Perry, 5? U. ' AMy tin, Clarion, Lancaster, 40 V. ] L Myers, Philadelphia, Bucks, 37 U. G ©"Neil, Philadelphia, PhiludePa., 43 U. 1 T Randall, Philadelphia, Phlladel'a., 38 D. O W Schofield, Mercer, New Yurk, 47 U. * T Steven", Lancaster, Vermont, 41 U. J J D Stiluw, Lehigh, Luzerne, 41 D. , M Stroiwe, Schuylkill, Germany, 38 D. ' M A Thayer, Philadelphia, Virginia, 44 U. i H W Tracy, Bradford, Luxerne, D. Y William*, Allegheny, Oreensbnrg 57 \J. I The above is the briefest compend we ( can make of our Washington magnates. Bailey, of Perry, we have marked as a war democrat—he is quite as likely to aet with us as the democrats. One or two ( others may bo moderate—though wo fan- 1 ey they have nearly all strong copperhead ( tendencies Fully one-half of these dig- 112 tricts, iu 1868, gave Union majorities, 112 They may modify them slightly. t Bef The number of tourists who have i this year visited the Lake of the Four Can- j t4jpss, in Switzerland, has been greater tliuo j <*er before known,and 00,000 persons vis- i Ad the Bhigi. c From the Pittsbnrgh Evening Chronicle A Letter From Lil»by Prison * LIBB* PRISON, RICHMOND, VA., NOT. 23,1863. MY DEAR WlFE: —Thinking that I will soon have a good chance of sending yon at letter by the "underground" now, I sit down to write you a few linos and let youf know the truth about the situation of my-- self and fellow officers. Recollect, I will jusi speak about the officers, not the pro vates, whoso situation is much woree thnrf ours : There arc over 900 military and mv val officers, and some few political prison ers, confined iu what once was was a large" , tobacco warehouse. l!he building is di- / vided into nine large rOtVns. Each room / is one hundred feet lon« bj fifty wide.— / One room is used for a hospital, for a cook room, and one as a store room and for officers leaving six rooms for the nearly one thousand oceupants. We have* to sleep on the floor, with but one thin' blanket to each man. There are from tetf to fifteen windows in each room, but not" one of the windows has a single pane of glass ; in fact they have not even a sash. It does very well in summer, but now we' find it to bo uncomfortably cold at night with our thin covering, And to add to our misery, the room is filled with vermin -1" On a warm day we can see them crawl ing on the floor and walls. Between the cold and vermin you can well imagine what kind of a night's sleep we have. I get up every morning with an unfreshjing sleep, and my bones sore and aching from tlieiTN— contact with the hard floor. The bnsementof the building is divide off, into cells, or dungeons, more proper speaking. The dungeons are used toco fine officers who in the least break tl prison rules, such as askingformore foo looking out of the windows, talking tot guard, attempting to escape, kti. An offii who has been confined there three weel when lie comes out'his shoes and clot ing arc mouldy, and he lias altogether mi ' ihe appearance of a corpse than a livi ijian. A part of the basement is used a slavr p/-n, and every day we can hear 112.,, cries of tho poor creatures as they ail I brought thereto be whipped by theirworsi ll than savage masters. A few days ago fivy women were given one hundred lushes mtj %"■ for selling bread to our soldiers as tly f'M wero being marched through the street/ ' 'I the city on their way to Danville. AM fl present tiino- there are 12,000 Uni J I diers iu this city as prisoners. Th cm H ofthe officers has been much betw H ! one would, expect with such treat™ rations as they give ns. 112 K When first wo came here we wcrev.cri treated worse than we arc now. Ourrcgi ular ration is one pound of corn bread, half! a pound of beef, and a small quantity oft riee per day. We fare much better since! we are allowed to get boxes from home.— I I have written to our nuttier for another L box, and expect it here in a day or two. ' 1 I have plenty of tea to last me for some time longer. 1 traded the most of luy su gar (iff' for money and with the money 1* bought bread. The box that is coming will have army bread and two hams in it,, besides some other little articles. Those officers who have any money can send out by the Inspector, of the Prisoß, and purchase bread and potatoes; but ev erything is BO dear that it takes a great deal of money togo but a short ways.— To give you an idea of the price of eata bles in the Richmond market, I enclose yon a slip from one ofthe daily papers.— Recollect it is the wholesale price that is quoted in the papers. Tke retail prices rule about one-third higher. lar of United States money we can get twelve dollars of rebel currency. From the cast side of the prison we have a nice view of the James river, ami of the beau .tifulrolling country for miles south ofthe city, liut such a view only makesonedc sire for freedom the stronger. I have now been n prisoner for four months, and dur ing that time the sun has not shown on me once. During August and September we suffered very much from tho heat, but it is from the cold we now suffer. At the present time, November 21st, I see no prospect of an exchange, but I still live in hopes that it will take place before the last of January. It may possibly take place before, but I hardly expect it. When we are exchanged there is no doubt but what we will get a leave of absence for twenty or thirty days. There have been five or six flag-of-truce boats up sii i I heard from yon. My mess-mate gets one or two letters a week from his parents. I have to buy all the pa per and envelopes I use, for when I wrote home for a box, I neglected to send for pa per. Wc are only allowed to write twice a month, we can receive as many as comes to us. A sheet of fin per of this kind costs fifty cento each. It has been raining hard all day, and on a cloudy day the centre of onr room is too dark to read in it. Ag I write T am as near the window as I can get. but it is still too dark to write easily. We are not furnished with candles, and the nights are so long and as tedious as the days. As soon as it ia dark many of the prisoners lay down to sleep, but some will set- around in groups on the floor, talking ofthe hardships and dangers they have undergone; while again others curse ED. STANTON, JEFF. DAVIS and their bad luck all in one breath. Twice a week we have religious servi ces; on Mondays by the Catholic Bishop of Richmond, and on Thursdays by one of the Episcopal clergymen of the city.— When the chaplains were here we had them every day, but they were all, with two exceptions, such barefaced hypocrites, that the prisoners would not listen to them. If ever I live to get out of this infernal place, I will wreak vengeance oa the reb els for all the hardships and indignities I have endured. Many a rebel will come to, his death by the hand* of the prisoners here, when wo once get back to our regi ments. This will be putin the Annapolis office by assistant Surgeon HENRY of the 123 d Ohio. t&F Yesterday afternoon the canal boat Cora Campbell, loading hay at Bulkhead % between piers No. 56 and &4, at the foot of Charles street, on the north river, took fire from a spark from a steam pipe. The fire spread rapidly, and in a short time, extended from vessel to vessel, until reached pier No. 51, enveloping about vessels iu one sheet of flames. The fire . man worked well, but were unable to more than stop the spreading of"the vouring element. The vessel# thaif. / MM oofire nearly j* <b-