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The Charge or Judge Fisher WASHINGTON, August 7-—ln the Sur ratt case to-day, after some discussion ■upon immaterial points, Judge Fisher charged the Jury at length, concluding as follows : "From the observations which arc addressed to you, you will infer, first, that a conspiracy formed in time of war to take the life of the President and Vice President of the Republic, and the heads of tie Executive Departments, for the purpose of aiding the eneraiox of th« Federal Government by throwing it into anarchy and confusion, is treason as hei nous and hurtful to the people of this country as comparing the death of the King or Queen of Great Britain is to the subjects of that realm. " Second, That every person engaged in such conspiracy, as long as he contin ues a member ot it, is responsible not only for the act of treason, but for any j murder or less crime which may flow i from it. "Third, That the Government may waive the charge of treason against any or nil of the conspirators, and proceed against them for the smaller crime of murder included in the greater crime of treason. '•(Fourth, That under an indictment for a murder resulting from the prosecu tion of such a conspiracy, evidence of the entire scope of the conspiracy may be considered in estimating the heinous char acter of the offense laid in the indi:t meat. " Fifth, That it was not necessary to aver in the indictment the fact that Abra ham Lincoln, the victim of murder, was at the time of its commission, President of the United States, or to prove, in or der to allow the jury to take that fact into account in determining the heinous character of the crime, it being a tact of which the Court will take judicial cog nizance. " Sixth, That he who does an act by another, does it by himself, and is respon sible for its consequence in a criminal caie as well as in a civil case. "Seventh, That although an alibi, when clearly established, forms u complete and unanswerable defense,mere absence from the immediate scene of a crime resulting from a conspiracy unrepented of and abandoned by the party, will not avail him, if he were at some other place as signed him, performing his part in that conspiracy. " Eighth, That this plea is, unless clearly made cut, always regarded with suspicion, and a circumstance weighing •against him who attempted it, because it implies an admission of the tiuth of the facts alleged against him, and the cor rectness of the inference drawn from them. " Ninth. That the flight front the scene of the crime, the fabrication of false ac counts, the concealments of instruments of violence, are circumstances indicating g"'"- , „ . . , " Tenth, Although a confession in the slightest degree tainted with the promise of favor, or by duress of fear, is not ad mitted as evidence against him who makes it, yet, if made fieely and volnn tarily, it is one of the surest proofs of guilt. As to the credibility of winesses, you are to be the exclusive judges. You see them face to face; you know whether ihey are confirmed or unsupported, or contradicted by other witnesses of credit or other circumstances ; you arc to judge whether their testimony has been im peached, and consider every matter that will shed any light as to what has been truthfully or falsoly deposed by any wit ness. You will diligently col'ate, com pare and carefully weigh and consider all the testimony in the case on both sides. Y'ou will not disregard or reject the tes timony of any witness unless satisfied he has been shown to be unworthy of pure evidence by reason of his want of char acter for truth, his contradicting himself or being flatly contradicted by others of bettor credit, or by dishonesty of purpose manifested by his conduct and manner in testifying before you. In conclusion, you will tahe the case with the honest purpose to do justice to the United States, and the defendant, beariug in mind that it is the office of the law to secure the punishment of the guilty and protection of the innocent. If John H. Surrat, in the honest and intelligent conviction of your judgment and consciences, is not guilty, so pronounce by your verdict, thus giving a lesson of assurance that a court of justice is the asylum of inno cence ; on the contrary, if guilty, pro nounce him guilty, and by your verdict furnish a guaranty to the intended vic tims of guilt, and a testimonial to the country and the world that the District of Columbia, set apart by the Constitu. tion of the United States as the theater of the exercise of the Federal power, ogives the judicial guaranties essential to the protection of the persons of the pub lic servants commissioned by the people of the Nation to do their work safe and sacred from the presence of unpunished osanssuis within its borders." The jury retired to their rooms at •twenty-eight piinutes before twelve. 'CHARLESTON, August B. —General Sickles has issued an order in relation to certain movies advanced by South Carolina Hanks during the war, for the purchase of horses for the Confederate -service, but which .not being expended, Iliad, been distributed since the war un •der Chanoery docreeo among the banks .and other olaimants. The order annuls •tho dccee as a fraud against the Gov ernment, and appoints a receiver upon the part of the Government to whom the lands arc distributed, including tho fees of <Jounoil are to be repaid. Tho re ceiTer is directed to report promptly all delinquencies or obstructions, on the part of indvidvals or corporations in the way of tho execution of this order. —Lord Littleton proposed a most ex- Aeaordiaary amendment to tho English Reform bill, which, if it passed, would -dufranciiiae a large minority of the greatest men in the kingdom. No one is <t« vote "who cannot write a I'gxble baaL" J FROM EUROPE. TH2 PRUBBIAN BUDGET. BERLIN, August B.— lt is stated that Baron Von Der Ileydl, Minister of Fi nance, will be able to show in his forth coming budget that the reveuue ofPrus sia will exceed the expenditures, and the Government will not be under the necessity of proposing any new tax. MILITARY TREATY. The City ot Hamburg has agreed to sign a military treaty with Prussia. THE SUFFERING CRETANS. PARIS, August B.—The French squad ron which sailed recently for Candia to relieve the Buffering families of the Cre« tans took on board 1,500 refugees, most ly women, children and old men, and conveyed them to a place of safety. THE RUSSIAN LOAN. The Russian loan being more readily taken on Bourse than was at first cxpec tP'a' its success may now be said to be established here. TNE ISLAND OF ST. THOMAS. LONDON, Evening, August B.—lt positively denied in Copenhagen that the Government of Denmark has any inteni tion of entering into negotiations for the sale of the Island of St. Thomas. This denial is rendered necessary by the pres ence in that city of Senator Doolittle, of the United States, who was reported to be bearer of propositions from the Amer ican Government for the purchase of the Island. THE REFORM BILL DISCUSSED. LONDON, August 9, 1 A M —A long and exciting debate was had in the House of Commons to night on the Re form bill, which had been returned from the House of Lords. Amendments had been made in the upper House modify ing lodger copy hold and lease hold fran chise allowing use of voting papers and conferring franchise upon under grades of universities, all of which were rejec ted. but anotheir amem'insnt providing for the representation of minorities was agreed to, THE BRIGHTON RACES. LONDON, Augu t B.—The Brighton races concluded today. The Beenniat stakes were won by Trocadero, and the Brighton Club stakes by Red Cap. TROOPS TO BE SENT TO CANADA. LONDON, August 9.—The Govern ment will immediately dispatch a large body of troops to Canada to repel threat ened Fenian invasions from the United States. CHURCH RITES BILL REJECTED. In the House of Lords last evening the bill to abolish church rites was re jected by t> large majority. I FRENCH OCCUPATION OF COCHIN CHINA. PARIS, August 9.—Dispatches receiv ed here confirm the previous announce ment of the occupation of three provin ces of Cochin China by the French forces. DKATH OF THE EX-QUEEN OF NAPLEB. LONDON, August 9. —Dispatches re ceived here announce the death of Marie Sophie Amelia, daughter of Maximilian Joseph, Duke of Bavaria, and ex-Queen of Naples. FEAI FUI. RAILROAD ACCIDENT. LONDON. August 9. —A terrible rail road casualty occurred at Bray Head, Wicklow County, Ireland, today. The Express train from Dublin for Wicklow, when at the above named locality,ran off j the track and eight passenger coaches were .precipitated into the Sea. The railroad at that point runs along the summit of a high bluff The loss of life was frightful. Only one person in the whole train, a man named Morris, es caped alive. CHOI,ERA AT PALERMO. FLORENCE, Augest 10. —Dispatches state that the cholera is raging with considerable violence at Palermo. TREATY OF PEACE CONCLUDED. ST. PETERSBURG, August 10. —The war hetween Russia and Bokhara has termina ted. A treaty of peace was concluded yes terday. THE RAILWAY ACCIDENT. LONDON. August 10.—Later dispatches from the tcene of the recent railway acci dent at Brayhead. indicate that the first ac count was greatly exaggerated. Only a portion of the train left the track , three coaches were precipitated into the sea, and four persons killed outright, and many dan genusly injured. Nearly everybody on the train was killed or injured. INSULT TO MINISTER MORRIS. PARIS, August 10.—The Turkish Admi ral recently forcibly took a dispatch from a servant of the United States Minister re«i dent at Constantinople, Edward Jay Morris. It is reported that Mr. Morris has sinee laid the ca«e bef re the Turkish Government and demanded redress for the ootrage. The reply of the Sublimo Porto has not trans pired. TNI SWATARA ORDRED TO CRETX. LONDON, August 10.—The United States war steamer Swatara has been ordered to Crete. RICHMOND. RICHMOND, August B.—General Schofield to-day issued BD order that af ter the 20th iust. all destitute freedmen in the State be turned over by the mil itary authorities to the overseers of the poor, in their respective counties and cities, as the Freedmen's Bureau rations will no longer be issued in the United States Court to any. John Morris, of Mecklinburg, was sen tenced to pay a fine of 11,200 aud six months imprisonment, lor romovng whisky from his distillery without paying government tax. THE successive laws ®f Congress, for raatoringthe recreant States to tho Union bear a striking anaiugy to the lamous flank movements for suppressing their rebellion against it. Eueh change of position, necessitated by it,sane opposi tion,places the opponents in a worse con dition than they were before it, while it makes the triumph of right the more sure. The more wise of their public men perceive that they are not far from Appomattox now, and counsel surren der, rather than hazard, by further resis tance, the danger of confiscation. The Republican party wishes to save them from further damage aud final ruin, through their madness, but tbey refuse \ to be saved. - 1 ftltc gUtericatt Citisen, MSf" The Largest Circulation oj any Paper in the County. C. E. ANDERSON, - - • Editor BUTLER PA. wedxesdaOlUH. W#7. "Liberty and Union, Now and Forever, One and 'nseparable."—D. Webster. Union Republican State Ticket. SUPREME JUDGE. Hon. Henry W. Williams, Of Allegheny County. Union Republican County Ticket. ASSEMBLY .* JAMES T. M'JUNKIN, JOHN EDWARDS, [LAWRENCE CO.] GEO. 8. WESTLAKE, ) DAVID ROBINSON, j MEBtER co TREASURER: HUGH MORRISON. COMMISSIONER : CHARLES HOFFMAN. JURY COMMISSIONER : CHARLES M'CLUNG. AUDITOR : J. CALVIN GLENN. Killed by l.iglitiilng. On Wednesday, the 7th inst., about 4 o'clock, P. M., as near as can be ascer tained, Thomas A. Hutchison, of Centre township, while engaged in binding oats in his own field, was struck by lightning and, as is believed, instantly killed. The circumstances as related to us. are about these : Supper time having arrived Mrs. Hutchison called her husband to come to supper, but receiving no answer she sent her little Btep-son to the field to tell his father to come to supper. In a short time the little boy returned and stated that his father was lying in the field, and that he had called him twice to some to supper, and that he made no answer.— This, with the manner and appearance of the boy, excited the suspicion of Mrs. Hutchison, that all was not right, and that something had befallen her husband- She immediately pent her sister tint wa-> living with her to Samuel Miller's, a neighbor near by, who informed him of the circumstances. Mr. Miller and son repaired immediately to the place, and found Mr. Hutchison lying in the field as itated by the little boy. He was on his back with a ready made band in Lis hand, an unbound sheaf of oats lying over one foot, evidently showing that he had just completed making the band in an erect posture and was about to bind- the sheaf when he was struck. Mr. Miller and son found that ho was dead. They then spread the news ; sev* eral of the neighbors soon assembled; and by this time it was late, and had the appearance of rain, and it was decided that it was right, under all the circum stances, to remove the corpse to the house, which was accordingly done. On the afternoon of the next day, an inquest was held on the body by W. A. Christy, Esq. There were visible marks on the person of the deceased which, in the opinion of the members of the in quest, were caused by a stroke of light niug. This, in connection with the facts aa above detailed which were elicited at the Inquest, and from all the circumstan. ces surrounding the case, and from the fact that during the evening there had been vivid flashes of lightning and heavy peals of thunder in the immediate vicin* ity, the inquest decided that the deceass ed came to his death by being struck with lightning. The deceased wai an industrious man and a worthy citizen. He leaves a be loved wife and two children to mourn over this sad bereavement. The President and Mr*. Sur ral t. Mr. Johnson denies that when he signed the sentence of Mrs. Snrratt and directed her execution, he knew that members of the Commission had united in recommending her to mercy. He de clares that he knew nothing of such a recommendation untill two weeks after ward. This has elicited from Judge Pierrepont aa other statement, which is in these words : I want no misunderstanding about that. Ido not intend there shall be any. That is part of the original record which I here produced. It is in the handwriting of ono of the members of that Court, to wit; Geueral Ekin. The original of that is now in his possession and in the handwriting of Hon. Jno. A. Bingham. When counsel called for that record, I sent on the afterpart of that day to Judge Advocate (ieneral Holt, in whose possession the records are. Me brought it to me with his own band, and told me with hi* own voice, in presence of the other gentle men, that identical paper, then a part of the record was before the President when be signed the warrant of execu tion, and that he had a conversation with the President at the time on the subject. That is my authority. Subsequently to this, having present ed it here, the Judge Advocate Gener al called to receive it btck, and reitera ted in the presence of other gentlemen the Fame thing. This is my knowledge, and that is my authority. This statement of Judge Piereepoat raises a direct question of veracity be tween the Preaident and Judge Holt, but it is well understood by all in officia' circle* that the whole thing ii, on the pari of the President, • deliberate and malicious falsehood. Certain Qneriea Explained. For some time past reports were in circulation to the effect that whiskey was being brought into town and dealt oat in violation of law; and, also, that whiskey had been stolen from the stable of Mr. Jacob Reiber, and that a barrel had been tapped in the Store House, &c.,&c. With regard to the first, viz: that whiskey has been brought to the borough aud dealt out in violation of law, there is no denial; but, on the contrary, it is rather confirmed by the words and actions of persons who appear to glory in their shame. , With regard to the second, —that whis key was stolen from the stable of Jacob Reiber, —this is true, but we have not been informed who stole it. In justice to the Messrs. Reibers, itia but right to state that the barrel Mt «112 which the whisky was stolen, had been delivered to them according to la# by Mr. Reed, the Government Store-keeper, and that the same had been placed in the stable until morning. At 4 o'clock, in the morning, Mr. Martin Reiber repaired to the stable for the purpose of convey ing the barrel to the purchaser, he found that it had been tapped, and that about seven gallons had been taken from the barrel and leaked out. The individual that will steal whiskey •s pretty far gone, and has a depraved appetite, aud has lost all sense of honor and shame. We are authorized to say, that the law regulating the manufacture, storage and sale of whiskey is strictly obeyed and enforced by all connected with the Messrs. Reibers' establishment. This is as it should be. To the Clergy and CfcarelMH •€ the Ntnte or Pennnylv«ata, DEAR BRETHREN :—At a Convention recently held in Ilariisburg, to deliber ate on the State of the Temperance Re l formation, the undersigned were appoin ted a Committee •' to prepare an address to the Ministers and Members of tha Churches in tho State," with a view to secure ' their haarty co-operation in tho movement for the removal of intemper ance from among us." That Convention was unprecedented for the large number and influential char' acter of its members, and they brought up from every part of the State an earn est and determined spirit wbtck surpass ed tho expectations of the most ardent friends of the cause. The Convention, in a series of resolu tions which were fully and faithfully can vassed, defined its position in unambigu« ous terms. Among tha vital points as sumed, in addition to the conceded per sonal duty of total abstinence, were the following, to-wit : 1. That to the retail traffic in intoxi cating liquors is " to be traced nine-tenths of the drunkenness, pauperism, crime, insanity and casualties of the country;" that " a license givej freedom, apparent morality and respectability to the traffic;" and that it is tho right and duty of the people, in self-defcnco, by legislation and other suitable means, to bring such traf fic to a nend." 2. " That the licensing of acknowledged evils is t erong in morals and ruinous in legislation." 3. That righteous law is a potent instrument to create right public sentiment, and that bad law depraves and corrupt* public sentiment. 4. That "we believe the time has fully come when all efforts to regulate the traffic, should be at once and forever abandoned." This is the ground on which the Tem perance movement in this State has plan ted itself In appealing especially to the Clergy and the Churches, the Convention assumes : 1. That the retail traffic in intoxica ting drinks, aud their habitual use a; a bevei age, is not merely a social and pub lic evil; it is an immorality of a deep and degrading character. 2. That the Church is not merely the cwnservator of public morals, but should be the leader and guide in all questions that concern the welfare of humanity. 3. That the Clergy exeroise legitimate ly a controlling influence in forming tlie conscience and moulding the sentiment of their congregations. 4. That the members of the Church will readily and heartily respond to every effort of their Pastors for the redemption of tho world from the thraldom of sin. And we may farther assume, that be-, sides the church members, the better portion of every community will just as readily and zealously co-operate in every movement which respects the welfare of their fellow-men, but they look to the Church to take the lead: And farther, that in a free country like ours, where public sentiment direct ly controls the legislation, whenever a public evil is to be abated by law, it is en tirely in the hands of the people to frame the law as they may choose. It is not intended to ereato a new po litical party, but it is expected that al\ good men will demand of their Repre sentatives and Magistrates to respect their wishes in this matter ; and that, irrespective of party, they will, in the ex ercise of their sovereign right as citizens, subordinate all other considerations, be l lieving that there is no great question of public interest at stake at this hour, equal in magnitude and importance to that of the consummation of the Temperance Reform. And this can be done with per fect propriety by every man, without af fecting his political relations, or the proper maiutenauce of his opinions on other subjects. If now these views are correct, it brings home the responsibility directly to the Church, and especially to tho Clergy as the leaders of the hosts of God's elect. We appeal to you, therefore, as to those who love equally the souls of men and their temporal well-being, that you labor in every way ; —by preaching, and lec ture, aud private exhortation, and pledg ing tho Sabbath School children, and tho youth of the congregation, and by every practicable means—to inculcate right sentiments, to enforce right convictions, to form the consciences of the people and guide them to right issues. We believe " that the time has fully come," when a Christian State should take its stand on Christian grounds, and that by our works we should prove our faith that " the kingdoms of the world shall become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and HE SHALL REIGN." HERMAN M. JOHNSON, Carlisle. 11. AUDLEY BROWNE, New Castle. T. 11. ROBINSON, Harrisburg. ALBERT BARNES, Philadelphia. G. M. SIiAfSMAN, York. P. S. The clergymen to whom this Circularjmay come, are requested to cotn municat3 it to their congregations. (jini. Itutlcr'N Report. Gen. Butler's report to the Committee of Congress in regard to the exchange of prisoners during the war is a document of unusual interest. We find that in 1803 the Rebels held 15,000 of our men who were dying of cold and starvation, while the 25,000 Rebels held by the United States were well takeu care of. Gen. Butler and the Secretary of War proposed to treat tho Rebel offices in our hands precisely as our uien were treated in Libby. But this plan was abandoned after consultation with General Grant.— Gen. Butler, in December, was appointed Commissioner of Exchange, and found the Confederate generals anxious to ex change, man for man, but that tho Con federate Government refused to treat with | Gen. Butler, on tho ground that he eom | mantled negro troops. Notification to that effect was seut to our Government, which refused, of course, to admit the right of the Confederate authorities to outlaw our officers. Exchange.! continued till March, 1864, when Gen. Butler had an interview with Mr. Ould, which con vinced him that retaliation would compel the Rebels to abandon their refusal to ex change colored soldiers. Tho Govern ment, informed of these facts, referred tho matter to Gen. Grant, who, in April, di rected Gen. Butler to decline, until oth erwise ordered, all further negotiations, and shortly afterward instructed him to consider the determination of the Rebels to make a distinction between white and colorod prisoners, as a refusal on their ' part to agree to further exchange. Gon. Hutier was also instructed to reeeive all the sick and wounded the Rebels would give up,but to send nomoro in exchango- In August the Rebels offered to renew the exchange, man for man ; Gen. Grant then telegraphed the following important order : "It is hard on our men held in Southern prisons not to exchange them, but it is humauity to those left iu the ranks ta fight our battles. Everyman released on Jparole or othcrwiso becomes an active soldier against us at once, eith er directly or indirectly. If we commence a system nj exchange which liberates all prisoners taken, we will have to fight on until the whole South is exterminated.— If we hold those caught, they amount to no more than dead men. At this partic ulur time, to release all Rebel prisoners North would insure Sherman's defeat, and would compromise our safety here." In tho meanwhile, Gen. Butler, learning that colored prisoners were employed as laborers by the Rebels, notified their ) Commissioner that an equal or greater number of their men should be so em ployed in our service, and this action was approved by Gen. Grant. In October, 1804, Gen. Butler directed Col. Mulford to proceed to Savannah with a fleet to carry the Rebel siek, and bring back our own—an exchange of about 12,000 of our men. In November, Col. Mulford informed General Butler that he was ae> tained at Fortress Monroe by the want of transportation, and that the sufferings of our men at Savannah were fearfully in< ereased by the delay. Gen. Butler in ra ply ordered him to start at once, to yield to no subordinate interference—to yield to nothing but armed force, and not to that if he could meet it. These are the main facts which the report presents in regard to the responsibility of the fail ure to exchange prisouerx, and they will oertaiuly command no ordinary attention A'. Y. Tribune. —An Irishman's friend having fallen into a slough, the Irishman called leudly to another for assistance. The latter, who was busily engaged in cutting a log, and wished to procrastinate, inquired, ''lJow deep is the gentleman in "Up to his ankles-" "Then there is plenty of time," said the other. "No, there's not," rejoined the first; "I forgot to tell you he's in head first." Might and Hiclit. When consciousness of power and re spect for right co exist and cooperate in the administration of the affairs of na tions, they goon prosperously Domes tic interests are protected and Justice controls the foreign relations. The ideal is not always, we might say not often, realized in the "Family of Nations."— Might too frequently takes precedence of right in the consideration of ruling pow ers. The great nations of Europe are at this hour occupied with computations of comparative strength. The nice balance of power hax been disturbed, and ne spontaneous adjustment of it appears probable. Hence spring the estimates and the speculative measurements of the powers of the diSerent nations, both by themselves and by each other. The rapid development of interior strength in Russia, accompanied by ex terior aspirations, especially in the di rection of the Bosphorus, is, probably, one latent element of apprehension.— More conspicuous, though, perhaps, not more real, is the sudden accession of power by Prussia—the result of such as pirations. And the immediate ground of apprehension is, that for mutual in terest these may combine and by might —right being putin abeyance—endan ger the peace of Europe, from West to East. Such alliance is believed in fact to have been formed, although its imme diate purposes are not definitely even conjectured. The article in the Edin» burg Review, which has attracted atten tion and comment, refers to this supposed liusso Prussian alliance. The following sentence, coming from a British pen, is remarkable, as showing at onoe how se rious is the apprehension of danger ; and how changed is the tone of England towards her old and horeditary enemy. The writer says: "We do not conceal our opinion that the power, and even the superiority, of the French army, is an essential condi tion of the liberty and independence if Europe. France has ere this given lib erty to others, even while she denied it to herself; and if thufuture had in store a military combination between tha pow ers of the North—the forces of Germany backed by forces of Russia—it is only by a close and intimate alliance of Franco with this country that the cause of Western civilization., and perhaps the independence of the East,can ba upheld. No traces of past rivalry and animosity, no apprehension of future differences, shake our faith in the alliance of Franee and Great Britaiu as the best security of public law and of peace; and we there* fore regard the efficiency of the French army w'th an interest second only to that which we fee! in tho efficiency of our own forces. It cannot too often be re peated that the peace of Europe is threatened, if it bo threatened, not by France, but by the changes Prussia has made in the distribution power." There is among the affiliated nations of Europe, a sort of modified Statos' rghts doctrino maintained of necessity, denominated by them the balance of power. The moving of the Schleswig pebble from one scale to tho other diss turbed tho equilibrium recently, and fierce war ensued. To move the Venice pebble from ono scale to the other, a lit tle while ago, Southern Europe was con vulsed with alarms and battles. And even now the estimates of power are made, irrespective of right, with refer ence to tho transfer of other fractions of European territory from their old mass ters to new ones. Russia has not with drawn her expectant eyes from the do* main of the Sultan. Nor, probably, has France relinq lished hopes of perfecting her boundary towards the Rhine. These schemes of accession and others, whoth' erg, real or imaginary, cannot fail to excite both interest and apprehen sion among the great powers themselves, as well as among those which are marked for appropriation by might without right. Tho success of Prussia and her subse quent impunity and haughty bearing, at once excite the feare of the other nations and stimulate their ambition for similar achievements. For a little time after our triumph over the rebellion, the consciousness of power exhibited itself among us in boast ful and even in menacing speech. It was the natural outflow of tho occasion. But the normal principle of respect for right speedily asserted itself, and its claims, as heretofore, met with a prompt add almost universal response. For our nation, right is the first thing to be de cided on, and then power, ample and suitable, will rally for its support. Pitts. Commercial. Penalty for Voting. There would be no limit to the rum pus that would be made here, if, after an election, Republican employers, man ufacturers, railroad superintendents and citizens should dischargo their laborors for voting tha Democratic ticket. Yet we have not heard the first whisper of Democratic indignation at the like treat ment of laboring men in Tennessee, who are visited with rebel vengeance because they voted the Republican ticket. Hence the amiable and impartial mem bers of the party are so eager for the chance of heaping odium of that kind upon the Republicans, that their inge nuity invents occassion and their fertile imagination supplies them with facts by the speechful. But if the proscribed voter be a negro and not an Irishman, and live in Tennessee and not in Penn sylvania it is all right and lovely in Democratic eyes. How the Tennessee policy will work, in tha long run, remains to be seen. Without labor, plantations will not be likely to pay well. It pcrpotuateg, and increases the antipathy between the ra ces, in the practical and natural work ing of which the white persecutors have no advantage over the proscribed blacks. So that, it is but the old madness of ex hibiting a passion that will recoil npon themselves, or, according to the proverb, damaging their own nose to spite their face. The relation of employer and cm ployed cannot be modified by color, and in their disordered state of society theyt must take the labor that they have or go without. White laborers will seek fields of toil where civil rigbta can be enjoyed in freedom. •Vows Items iu ,<l General Intel-' licence. The Supreme Court of lowa has "endered a decisiou declaring National Banks not taxable, as the law of the State now stands. Judge Cole dissents from this opinion. The Swiss hold their elections on Sunday for the purpose of securing the sanctity of the ballot box, and impress ing the voters with a due sense of the solemnity and importance of the work tbey are engfged in. Prussian finances are in a very fa vorable condition notwithstanding the recent war. It is reported that the forthcoming financial budget of Minis* ter von der Heydt will show a surplus of revenue over expenditures. —Tho Hudson Bay Compauy pos sesses a territory of two and a half mil lions of square miles which is thirty eight times as large as the State of New York. Vanconver's Island is as big as England, and Britti.di Columbia as big as Spain. So says Townsend, who has beeu taking notes among the Brittishers. —Since the close of the testimony in the Surratt case, a man lias arrived who rode with Surratt on the 13th, on the special train from Elmira to Harrisbrg, and a third party from the interior gives tho information that he met Sur ratt in Washington on the 14th, and shook hands and conversed with him. There was a meeting in Bedford on the 30th ult. of Temperance and Church organizations over which, on mo tion of Hon. John Cessna, Rev. A. W- Djcker presided. Steps wore taken to effect a thorough organization and for public meetings, to be held quarterly on the last Wednesday of October, Jan uary, April and July. Dispatches from an area of coun try embracing tho principal part of tho grain producing regions of the West and Northwest, received within the last few days, are uniform in their tone. Tho wheat crop is very great, and safe. As to corn, though somewahat backward, the tone is very hopeful; while as tooth er grains the promise and reality are all that could bo desired. Somebody in Paris has constructed an apparatus which ilot only marks on a dial the distance traveled by a cab, by nieaus of an index woiked by tho rotas tion of the wheels, but which also indi cates the distance it would have tun at five miles an hour during any time it may have been kept standing after the hiring has cemmenced. When the re form comes into operation, all fares are to be charged by the distance. Workmen in a coal shaft at Bloom ington, Illinois, last week, at the depth of 118 feet, struck the remains of a tree some six inches in diameter, and several pieces wore taken out. One pieco, which is about a foot long and two inchss in diameter, is in a very good state of pros preservation It was firmly embedded in tho hard pan —so much so that a pick had to be used to got it out, and though not petrified, tho wood is pietty thor oughly permeated with tho substanco of the strata in which it had lain so long. lt is said the Indians on the Plains have an ingenious way of setting fire to houses with' their arrows. They wrap with a rag fome powder on tho heads of their arrows, and on the tip of their arrow-head piace a percussion cap. When the arrow stiikes the object to bo fired, the cap is exploded and tho pow der and rag ignited. The rag burns long enough to set any combustible with which it may come in contact on fire. The average an nul fall of rain for thirty years, from 1836 to 1860, was 44,02 inches. During the first seven months of this year the fall amounted to 36,50 inches. If, during tho succeed ing fivo months, only an average amount of rain should fall, tho total would bo about 57 or 58 inches. —Among tho members of the Legis latureof Tennessee elected on Thurtday of last week is Col. Wm. F. Prosser, who resides on a farm in the immediate vicin ity of Nashville. Col. Proaser is a na tive of Johnstown, Cambria county, who went to California, overland, nearly fif toen years ago,returned after many years' residence there and went through tho war for the Union, closing his honored services as Colonel of a Tennessee regi ment. He became a Tenncsseo farmer after tho war, and now is honored by his neighbors by being chosen their repre sentative in the Legislature. —Another gold mine has been discov ered in Madoc, Canada, which is repre sented to be equaily as rich as tho Rich ardson mine. There is very little news from other sections of tho gold regions, but tho prospects are reported as highly promising. —Gen. Sheridan continues to discharge his duty. Ho has removed Judgc Dough j erty ol tho 12th Judicial District of Texas for refusing to obey the laws, and the Chief of the New Orleans Police at the request of Mayor Heath. We havo hopes that under Sheridan's rule there will soon be no civil officer in Louisiana or Texas who dares to defy tho laws and denounce the Government. That ho will : interfere unnecessarily with the civil au ' thorities we have no foar, for thus far het has had good cause for each of his re movals. —The French claim to be the politest na tion in tbe world, but they soeui to have curious ideas upon the subject of good breed ing. M. Vermoul, for instance, the editor of the Courrier Franeaii, had the misfortunQ to publish in his paper something distaste* ful to M. do Oassagnao, son of the editor of the I'atju. M. do Oassagnac accordingly follows M. Vermoul through tho street",, spitting all over him, and tlicn publishes a boastful account of the outrage in his fa ther's newspaper. lie is not punished for the assault, and we have no evidence that even public opinion has pronounced against him. On the other hand, ayoung student named Casse wounded the Czar's feelings by shouting "Vive la I'ologue t" when tho Russian Kmperor went to tho Opera in Paris. It was rude, certainly, but hardlf duserve 1 the three months imprisonment which the poor man got foar Hut then, perhaps, an autocrat is rnoro sensitive than an editor, and so in the French c>do of eti quette it may be far worse to cry "Poland'' in the hearing of a Cz.ir than to spit iu tho face of a gentleman.