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The herald and mail. [volume] (Columbia, Tenn.) 1873-188?, October 30, 1874, Image 1

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THZ CADrS 8TBATAGEM.
BT JOHS a. KAXE.
I.
I?0"" ldt)w' cottage chaneta to stand
Hard by the Calir palaoo ; and he eonght
For his own na fo hnv hr hit tit lanri - .
Bat all in Tain the land conid not be bonght I
n.
It wa my hniiband' horn?," the woman raid :
' Who, dytnd, left it to hie loving wife ;
Here will I dwell, in honor of th dead :
Xor part with it until I part with life ! ".
irr.
That thai the dame withstood him to hit face;
And built a grand parilion in It place.
it.
Straight to the Cadi then the woman (roe.
And aoks for jnstire at hi Emor'i hand ;
Ia m awhile," the Cadi fni J, and rose ;
Allah ia great, and hear your Just demand !
v.
Then, with an empty mcV he took his wayj
To the pavilion ; where he chanced to meet
The Calif at the door. " Great Sire, I pray
A little of the earth bcDeath your feet,
vi.
M Enonu to ftll," the Cadi nald, this sack."
- Tin (ranted," caid the Calif, langhln loud
'' pleae to pnt the load upon my back,
Moat potent prince," and reverently bowed
vil.
MXaT."aid the'Calif, " I should anrely faa
Should I eaeay to lift a load so great ;
For anch a task my etrenKth woitld not avail ;
A porter would be crushed beneath the weight!
vn.
Prince of Bolievere," aaid the 0 tdl, then ;
" If thin be even an, ho wilt thou fare
In the irreat dav of final 1nd?mriit. wlirn
The weight of all this land thou hurt to bear 7 "
The Calif, atrlcken with remome,VxcIimed,
" Allah 1 Allah 1 Be his name adored !
For wit and wisdom thou art j.ietly famed ;
Thia day ahall aee the idov-'s land restored.
'And for the wroD I did the woraan'a land,
Ii tearing down her house, I thns alone;
Th'.f fine pavilion in it place shall utand ;
Bor with the aoil the building M her own."
THE SEVEN SLEEPEES.
For mora than a thonBand years the
legend of the Seven Sleepers has been
told in pions song and story. Who were
those Seven Sleepers? Is it only a
monkish legend, an invention of the
"dark ages ?" or is the story true? or
has it at least an historical basis ?
It was in the year of onr Lord 250
mat upcins, the most jnhnman of all
the Roman empt rors, in his persecution
or the Christiana, in making a tonr
tirongh his provinces, arrived at Ephe-
sn in Asia Minor. Christianity had
already obtained a foothold there, al
though the great majority of the people
bmii aa tiered to the heathen religion.
Upon his arrival, the emperor ordered
a sacrificial festival to be held in honor
of Jnpiter, Apollo and Diana. In this
festival, every one was commanded to
take part nnder the penalty of incurring
iud iujjji-riai uiBpicusnre m case oi re
fusal. Among the Christians of the
city were seven youths, descendents of
noble families. Their names were Max
iminian, Dionysius. Joannes, Sorspio
ana uonstantine. These determined to
die rather than obey the mandate. As
Boon as Decius heard of their determin
ation, be commanded themtobebronpht
before him. "Go," said he, " and pro
cure incense that you may offer to the
highest powers." " The highest power,"
they replied, "has his throne in the
heavens, and is the living and Almighty
God, who hath created heaven anil
earth. Him we wor.-hip, Father, Son
and Holy Spirit, and we can never again
bow down to dumb idols that are noth
ing." With terrible glance the emperor
measures the youthful confessors. Then
suddenly changing his manner, he en
deavors to win them by his promises
and his arguments. For he knew well
that martyrdom would pour oil on the
flames he was trying to qu neb. Failing
to obtain his object by threats and by
promises, he tell3 them that he will
graciously accord them time to consider
their resolution until he should again
return to Ephesus. and informs them of
the terrible consequences if they should
still continue their stubborn resistance.
With a calm courage the young men
departed from the presence of the em
peror. By the citizens of Ephesus they
were proscribed ; by many, however,
secretly admired. Determined not to
renounce their faith, they, however, de
cided to avoid the monster as much as
possible. With this object, they betook
themselves to a range of mountains in
the neighborhood of Ephesus. There
they discovered a cave, the entrance of
which was concealed by thick foliage.
In this cave they hid themselves, and
one of their number, Malchus, the oie
least known in the city, was appointed
to supply them with food.
The day of the emperor's remru ar
rived. One of his first questions was
concerning " the stubborn youths."
M They have escaped," was the reply.
But their concealment had been dis
covered. Spies had followed them, and
purchased the emperor's favor by re
vealing the place of concealment.
Decius, knowing well that he could not
hope to change the purpose of the
youth5", gave command to close the
mouth of the cave by u wall, and thus
inclose them in a living tomb. No
Bomersaid than done.
There was one man, however, who,
though still a heathen, had heard the
gospel and was not far from the kingdom
of God. Desiring that future genera
tions might know whose bones rested
there, he took a roll of parchment and
writing on it the names of the youths,
and an aocount of their courageous
bearing, inclosed it in an iron casket,
and, unobserved by the workmen, slip
pod it, into the cave and then quietly
withdrew.
Many a scoffing "good night" was
o tiled after them by the brutal pop -ltoe
that evening in the street of Ephe
sus. Many a tender " good night" diii
the chnstians'send after them in their
prayers. And he who preserved David
in the cave of Adullam, and rescued
Daniel fj m the den of lions, heard
their prayer. The light of day had for
them faded away. But they remember,
" lie giveth his beloved sleep." They
lay tli mselves down and slept. Soft is
their .lumber an-1 no danger is nigh.
It is as though holy augels had en
camped round abont them. We will
leave them to their sleep and write over
them on the dark rock the words of
David : " How excellent is thy loving
kindness, O God ! therefore the chl
dren of men put their trust under the
sh.idow of thy wings."
Time passes on s ?ift wings. Genera
tion enrue, and go like phantom spirits.
Abont 187 years later we are again in
Ephesus. But how changed is the
scene! Dcius, the tyrant, is molder
ing in the grae. The world is com
pletely changed. A wealthy land own
er desires to make some improvements
on his estate. In searching for suitable
building material, he finds an old wall
with large square stones. The blocks
are easily removed and the mouth of a
cave is revealed. It is the cave of the
Seven Sleepers, whose historv has long
since passed into oblivion. The rajs of
light entering for the first time after so
many years awakened the youths. They
thankef Gd that deliverance liad come
so soeai. For they supposed but a sin
gle niRht had passed since they were
immured.
Malchus was ag tin sent to the city
for bread. But the way seemed very
strangd to him. And what was his as
tonishment to find over the very gates
of the city a glittering cross. ' . the
city itself he can scarcely trust his
senses. The images of the gods were
removed. In the place of the heathen
temple he notices buildings with proud
domes and glittering crosses. And in
the forum ho hears the witnesses swear
by the omnipotent God, yes, even by
the name of Christ, instead of Diana
and A;ollo. He thinks it is a dream.
Accost iDg a man on the street, he asks
him the name of the city. " The name
of tbe city is Ephesus," was the reply.
" Can it be that this is Ephesus, where
but a few days ago we were proscribed
by tbe imperial edict," was the thought
of 5Ii!ebus. But mindful of his errand
he enters a baker's shop and offers in
payment for the bread a silver coin.
The buker took the coin and carefnlly
examined it. " This ia a very ancient
coin," said he; " why, it boars the im
age of Decius. Where did you obtain
it?" "Where is Decius?" was the
reply of Malchus. " Has he left the
city, and if bo, when? " The baker and
the crowd that had meantime gathered,
looked at Malchus aud seemed to re
gard him as one who had lost his rea
ton. Oue of thorn demanded to know
here iu had tlihovered the hidden
treasure. Finally Malchus was taken
fcefore the bibhop of the city.
r
By HOESLEY BEOS. &
The bishop was a reverend and dig
nified man. In a kind manner he asked
Malchns who he was and whence he
came. Malchus replied that he was
oiio oi me seven youtns who had re
cently been immured in the grotto at
the command of the Emperor Decius,
but that the Lord their God had again
piveu mem ngnt and freedom. " The
Emperor Decins? It is nearly 200
T-aio niuce jecisus sat npon the throne.
Manv emnrnra 1iot
a f - - v avxUVU DUlt bUCU
Theodosius now reigns by the grace of
wu. ueainenaom has long since
fallen. Trie
Tious. Bat tell me, where are your six
oomparuonB f how us the cave."
rrt i. t . ii . . .
Anus spose me bishop. And Mal
chus led him to the cave, followed by
an immenSA OniKVinrM nf liriafiana In
the cave they found the iron casket
with the parchment roll, containing a
full account of thnir ViiatYirw TV tarn
centuries me youths had slept, and
unw iney awojte to see a regenerated
world.
i . V ' HU I W
Annnt rvf 4lA 1 1 X mi t
vuu iuo uittuer to J. ueixiosius ai
ConstArit.innrtlA Tha atviva-sm IiimooU
turvxv'4. llluuvn
hastened to Ephesus to behold the
wn -9 Y" A 11 11 A A
wuuucr. jut mo yoTuuB, ooeaienc to
ATI ITITiPr VniV in tliA cam a Trn p fhaf
- ' y uv i niinr aa v a a iiutin
Malchus returned, had again laid down
ana me ijora iook their souls to heaven.
France Arming.
Orders are said to have been friven to
proceed immediately with the manufac
ture of the new musket, model 1874
(system Gras). Those weapons will
only be constructed in" the workshops of
the state; private firms will not be
called npon to assist. The calculation
is that in about a year a million of
them will be made. Then only will the
new arm be placed in the hands of tht
soldiers of the active army, and the
men of the reserve and the territorial
arm will be drilled in the management
of the musket. The chassepots will be
withdrawn, and they will be altered to
the new pattern. France has at present
1,800.000 of them. One year will be
necessarv for that transfotmation : so
that by adding 200,000 new ones to be
constructed in the interval the minister
of war counts upon possessing, at the
end of 187G, 2,000,000 muskets (model
Gras), with a store of 250 metal cart
ridges per weapon. The manufacture
will afterward be continued on a normal
scale and in proportion to the resources
of the ordinary budget of war.
1 he news concerning the artillery is
no less satisfactory. France will have,
at the end of the year 1875, 494 batte
ries of six cannon each, of calibres 5
and 7, with iron carriages, the pieces in
bronze, breech-loading, on the lleffye
system. The results of them are ex
cellent, and events mav be awaited
without apprehension. But from the
beginning of next year the construction
of bronze cannon will be abandoned,
and those in stetl on the Lahifolle sys-
em will be adopted. That metal is ob
tained at lie Creu- ot, and the composi
tion and make of it leave nothiner to be
de3ired.
An Eccentric Star.
The most singular fact connected with
the proper motions of the stars is that
one or two stars are flying through space
with such enormous rapidity that the
combined attraction of all the stars
visible with the telescope could never
top them. I his seems to be especially
tho case with a small star, invisible to
the naked eye, designated in astronomi
cal literature as " Groombridge, 1830,"
from the name of the astronomer who
first recorded its position. The rate of
motion of this star is about seven sec
onds per year the greatest known. It
was hence concluded that it must be
very near ns, and a number of astrono
mers have songht to determine its par
allax, but have found it to be only abont
a tenth of a second. Its apparent mo-
ion in a year being seventy times its
parallax, it moves at least seventy times
the distance from the earth to the sun
in a year, or eighteen millions of miles
every day, and more than two hundred
miles every second. From what we
know of the distribution, "masses, and
number of the stars, it seems probable
that the attraction of all the bodies in
the universe can never stop this head
long speed, nor bring this star into any
orbit, and that consequently it will pass
through our universe, and leave it en
tirely in its passage through infinite
space. If we had accurate observations
of the star's position three or four
thousand years ago, we could speak
with more certainty of its destiny. We
may expect that our posterity of a few
thousand years hence will, by the aid of
the observations and tables we shall
ransmit to them, be able to come to a
definite conclusion respecting the age
and tho structure of the universe.
Irof. Simon Newcomb, in Ilarju'r's.
now Destruction of the Forest Growth
Affects a Country.
The Khanate of Bokharal affords a
signal illustration of the damage done
by denuding a country of its trees.
Thirty years ago the Khanate was one
of the most fertile provinces of Central
Asia, and, well-woaded and watered,
was regarded as an earthly paradise.
Five years thereafter a mania far forest
clearing broke ont among the inhabi
tants, and continued to rage as long as
there remained timber to vent itself.
What trees were spared by rulers and
people were utterly consumed during a
civil war. The consequence of this
ruthless destruction of the forest growth
is now painfnlly manifest in the im
mense dry and arid wasies. The water
courses have become empty channels
and the system of canals constructed
for artificial irrigation and sup lied
from the living streams has bi en ren
dered useless. The sands of the des
ert, no longer restrained by forest bar
riers, aro gradnally advancing and
drifting over the land. They will con
tinue their noiseless invasion until the
whole Khanate will become a dreary
desert, as barren aa the wilderness sep
arating it from Khiva. It is not sup
posed that the Khan has sufficient en
ergy or the means at his command to
arrest the desolation that now threatens
to spread over his territories. The exam
ple is one to stimulate enlightened gov
ernments te avoid a similar catastrophe
by preserving a due proportion of for
est land ia their domains, and by res
toring those which have been improvi
dently laid bare.
A New Shell.
An ingenious projectile, invented by
a Bussian officer, is now claiming the
attention of military scientists. The
sczaroch, as it is called, is an elongated
shell, the head of which is completely
spherical ; a round shell upon the end
of an iron cylinder. The two parts are
UDited by a comparatively slight thick
ness of metal. When fired, the sczar
och leaves the gun like an ordinary
shell, but when it bursts the cylindrical
part alone flies to pieces, while the
sperical head continues its flight intact,
and may ricochet for hundreds ef yards
further. The advantage oLsnch a shell
against artillery, for example, is very
great. After bursting and scattering
its fragments amorg the guns of the
enemy, the head goes on to plnnge into
the infantry still further back. It is to
be used in Russia, however, only for
cannon of moderate size.
Of tht four marshals now on the
French army list, one came from the
Polytechnic school, two from the School
of St. Cyr, and one rose from the lacks.
Of the thrfcs huudred and fourteen gen
erals low in active service, eighteen gen
erals of division and thirty two briga
diers Lure risen from the ranks.
al
FIGUEES.
" ONE SHELL LEFT."
A Confederate Stoiy, with Its Close at
Cold Harbor.
At a recent political gathering in Tns-
cumoia, Aia.-, uen. uullen A. Battle re
lated the following touching story in the
uourse oi ma speecn :
During the winter of 1863-4 it waa mv
fortune to be president of one of the
courts-martial of the army of northern
Virginia. One bleak December morn
ing, while the snow covered the ground
auu me winas uowied around our camp,
I left my bivouac fire to attend the ses
sion of the court. Winding for miles
along uncertain paths, I at length ar
rived at the court -ground at Round Oak
church. Day after day it had been our
amy to try the gallant soldiers of that
army, charged with violations of mili
tary law ; but never had I on any pre
vious occasion been greeted by such
anxious spectators as on that morning
awaicea tne opening of the court. Case
after case was disposed of, and at length
rue case or ihe confederate states vs.
Edward Cooper," was called charge.
desertion. A low murmnr rose sponta
neously from the battle-scarred ppecta
tors, as a young artillery-man rose from
the piisoner's bench, and, in response to
me question, " uuiity or not guilty ?
answered, JNot guilty."
The judge advocate was proceeding to
open tne prosecution, when the court,
observing that the prisoner was unat
tended by counsel. Interposed and in
quired of the accused, "Who is your
oounsel?" He replied "I have no
counsel." Supposing that it was his
purpose to represent himself before the
court, the judge advocate was instructed
to proceed. Every charge was sus
tained. The prisoner was then told to
introduce his witnesses. He replied,
T Iiava Tin vitnpRfipn M Aafrniariir. of
the calmness with which ho seemed to
be submitting to what he regarded as
inevitable fate, I said to him, "Have
yen no defense ? Is it possib'e that you
abandoned your comrades and deserted
your colors in the presence of the
enemy without any reason?" He re
plied, " lhere was a reason ; but it will
not avail me before a military court."
I said : " Perhaps you are mistaken :
you are charged with the highest crime
known to military law, and it is your
duty to make known the causes that in
fluenced your actions." For the first
time his manly form trembled, and his
blue eyes swam in tears. Approaching
the president of the court he presented
a letter, saying as he did so, " There,
general, is what did it." I opened the
letter, and in a moment my eyes filled
with tears. It was passed from one to
another of the court until all had seen
it, and those stern warriors who had
passed with Stonewall Jackson through
a hundred battles wept like little chil
dren. Soon as I sufficiently recovered
my self-possession, I read th? letter as
the defense of the prisoner. It was in
these words :
Mr Bear Edwaud I have always been
proud of you, and since your connection with
the Confederate army I Lave been prouder of
you man ever Derore. l wotua not have you
do anything wrong for the world ; but before
God, Edward, unless you come home we must
die ! Last night I was aroused by little Ed
die's crjing. I called and said : " What's the
matter, Eddie ?" and he said : " Oh, mamma,
I'm so huugry!" And Lucy, Edward, your
darling Lncy, she never complains, but she is
growing thinner and thinner every day. And
before God, Edward, unless vou come home
we must die. YOUR MAHY.
Turning to the prisoner, I asked :
" What did you do when you received
this letter?" He replied : "I made ap
plication for a furlough, and it was re
jected ; again I made application, and
it was rejected ; a third time I made ap
plication, and it was rejected, and that
night, as I wandered backward and for
ward in the camp, thinking of my home,
with the mild eyes of Lucy looking up
to me, and the burning words of Mary
sinking into my brain, I was no longer
the Confederate soldier, but I was the
father of Lucy and the husband of
Mary, and I would have passed those
lines if every gun in the battery had
fired upon me. I went to my home.
Mary ran out to meet me, her angel
arms embraced me, and she whispered, j
Oh ! Edward, I am so happy ! I am. so
glad you got your furlough 1' She must
have felt me shudder, for she turned
pale as death, and, catching ber breath
at every word, she said, ' Have you
come without your furlough ? O 1 Ed
ward, Edward, go back ! go back ! Let
me and my children go down together to
the grave, but O, for heaven's sake, save
the honor of our name !' And here I
am, gentlemen, not brought here by
military power, but in obedience to the
command of Mary, to abide the sen- i
tenoe of your court."
Every officer of that court-martial
felt the force of the prisoner's words.
Before them stood, in beatific vision,
the eloquent pleader for a husbaud's
find a father's wrongs ; but they had
been trained by their great leader
Robert E. Lee, to tread the path of
duty, though the lightning's flash
scorched the ground beneath their feet, i
and each in his turn pronounced the
verdict guilty. Fortunately for hu
manity, fortunately for the Confedera
cy, the proceedings of the court were
reviewed by the commanding general,
and upon the record was written :
Headquarters, A. F. V.
The finding of the court is approved. The
prisoner is pardoned and will report to his
company. B. E. LEE, General.
During the second battle of Cold
Harbor, when shot and shell were fall
ing " like torrents from the mountain
cloud," my attention was directed to the
fact that one of our batteries was being
silenced by the concentrated fire of the
enemy. When I reached the battery
every gun but one had been dismantled,
and by it stood a solitary Confederate
soldier, with the blood streaming from
his side. As he recognized me he ele
vated his voice above the roar of battle
and said, " General, I have one shell
left. Tell me, bav I saved the honor
of Mary and Lucy ?"' I raised my hat.
Once more a Confederate shell went
crashing through the ranks of the ene
my, and the hero sank by his gun to
rise no more.
Chinese Students.
Two Chinese students were admitted
Tuesday to the Yale college scientific
department. They passed the examin
ation most credibly, and gave promise
of superior scholarship. There are now
sixty Chinese students supported by
their government in Connecticut and
Massachusetts. Thirty came two years
ago, thirty arrived a year since, and
thirty more are expected in abont a
fortnight So far their deportment has
been excellent and their progress quite
remarkable. The students are placed
at first in families, two in a place, where
their first aim is the mastery of our lan
guage. They are all nnder strict super
vision, and spend each from two to
four weeks a year at the "headquar
ters" of the Chinese educational com
mission in Hartfor where they are
carefully examined as to their habits
and progress. Scattered in some twen
ty or thirty different towns, these boys
have everywhere been favorites. The
kindness with which they have been
treated has been gratifying to the com
mission here and to the Chinese govern
ment at home. Boston Traveler.
rope Pius IX. has lately received
from Santa Cruz, Cal., through Cardi
nal Franchi, prefect of the Propaganda,
the photograph of an Indian still living,
who has reached the age of 122 years.
Beneath the picture are these words,
written in Spanish by th old man him
self : "L Jgstiniano Boxas, 122 years
old, wish the most holy pope long years
of liftf." Tbe parieh legibter of Santa
Crnz shows that Roxas was baptized
March 4, 1792, being at that time about
HERALD
COLUMBIA, TENNESSEE, FRIDAY,
frty years of age. He has always led
an exemplary life, still walks to mass
op Sundays with no help but that of
his staff, and asks the blessings of the
pope, whom he calls the " Capitan de
lo8 padres.
A Splendid Description.
On a certain occasion one Paul Den
ton, a Methodist preacher in Texas, ad
vertised a barbecue, with better liquor
than ia usually furnished. When the
people assembled, a desperado in the
crowd cried out : " Mr. Faul Lenton,
jou reverence has lied. You promised
not only a good barbecue, but better
liquor. Where s the liquor?
"There!" answered the missionary.
in tones of thunder, and pointing his
long, bony finger at the matchless double
spring, gushing up in two long columns
with a sound like a shout of joy from
the bosom of the earth. "There !'' he
repeated, with a look terrible as light
ning, while his enemy actually trembled
at his feet ; " there is the liquor which
God the eternal brews for all his chil
dren. Not in the simmering still, over
smoky hres choked with poisonous eaS'
es, and surrounded with the stench of
sickening odors and corruption, doth
your Father in heaven prepare the pre
cious essence of life pure cold water.
But in the glade and grassy dell, where
the deer wanders and the child loves to
play, there God brews it ; and down,
away down in the deepest valleys, where
the fountain murmurs and the rills
sing ; and nigh up on the mountain
tops, where the naked granite glitters
like gold in the sun, where the storm
clouds brood and the thunder-storms
crash ; and out on the wild, wild sea,
where the hurricane howls musio and
the big waves roar in chorus, sweeping
the march of God there He brews it
the beverage of life, health-civine water.
And everywhere it ia a thing of beauty,
gleaming in the dew-drop, singing in
the summer rain, shining in the ice
gem, till they seem turned to living
jewels ; spreading a golden veil over
the setting sun, or a white gauze around
the midnight moon ; sporting in the
cataract; sleeping in glacier; dancing
in the hail shower ; folding its bright
curtains softly around the wintry world,
and weaving the many-colored iris, the
seraph's zone of the air, whose warp is
in the rain-drops of the earth, and whose
woof is in the sunbeams of heaven, all
checkered over with the celestial flow-.
era of the mystic hand of refraction
that blessed life-water. No poison bub
bles on itsbrink ; its foam brings not
madness and murder; no blood stains
its liquid glass ; pale widows and starv
ing children weep not burning tears in
its depths! Speak out, my fiiends
would you exchange it for the demon s
drink, alcohol ?"
A shout like the roar of the tempest
an!wered "No!"
Save the Leaves.
"Leaves have their time to fall,"
but they are only a nuisance if left in
the yards and on the sidewalks ; but
when gathered dry, and stored in the
barn or shed, they add greatly to the
manure pile in the spring. A litter of
leaves in the horse stalls is more desira
ble than one of straw, for it can be re
newed without the necessity of cleaning
out the stall more than twice or thrice
a week. Besides, the leaves absorb tbe
ammonia more rapidly than straw, and
can be more thoroughly worked over
and trodden into it ; and they also make
the manure of much more value, for
flower gardens, as they are particularly
rioh in phosphoric acid, which is, next
to ammonia, the most highly treasured
constituent of plant growth. Apply a
bed of leaves plentifully around the
roots of your vines, shrubs, roses and
all flowering trees, fhen throw a shovel
of manure over them, and next spring
will show how beneficial is their effect.
Aside from the practical use of leaves,
due regard to appearance should
prompt us to rather tbem up from our
door-yards and lawns, and put them in
some place where they will not lie
around loosely. Dame nature ought to
have an attic in which to put away ber
cast-off clothing, and not let the au
tumn winds scatter them broadcast;
but she prefers that we should do her
household cleaning for her, and so we
should attend to it directly and reap the
enehts of our labors in another sense.
Pile them in one corner of the yard, if
there is no cow or horse to use them.
Cover them with a layer of earth and
turn all the house slops npon them;
and, another spring, you will have a
good supply of fertilizing material for
your flower garden.
Robber Ants.
The American Naturalist publishes
the following inte: eating anecdote of
"robber-ants, communicated m a let
ter to the Smithsonian institution, aud
publifehed by permission of Prof. Hen
ry : " Once upon a time there dwelt in
my yard a flourishing colony of the very
smallest species of black ant. The ser
vants about my cook-house had spilled
a quantity of syrup, which ran through
the floor. The little ants had found it,
and seemingly the entire population
- ere out and busy packing it away to
their home. The microscope showed
that they carried the syrup in their ab
domen. Bat, before they had secured
all the syrup, I observed that there was
great excitement along their road. The
larger, black, erratic ants had discovered
them while carrying home the syrup,
and were taking it away from them. It
was really painful to observe the ruth
less manner in which they slaughtered
and robbed ihe helpless little ants of
their distended sacks of sweetness.
They grabbed up the heavily-burdened
little fellows, doubled them, and, biting
bpen the abdomen, drew out the full
sack and seemed to swallow it ; then,
casting the larcerated carcass aside, they
furiously sprang npon another of the
panic-stricken crowd, and repeated the
horrid operation. Millions of these
heartless butchers were at work ; and
soon, on account of their wealth, that
populous city was exterminated."
Drinking and Drunkenness.
Ex Mayor Joseph Medill writes to
the Chicago Tribune from Germany as
follows : "Drunkeness is so rare and
infrequent that it may be said not to
exist. I have traveled thousands of
miles through Germany in various di
rections, visiting nearly all the chief
cities, aud have made diligent inquiry
of American consuls and other well-informed
persons, and received but one
answer everywhere, viz.: 'No drunk
enness among the Germans ; public
sentiment would not tolerate it; the
habits of the country are all against it.'
The reason of this freedom from inebri
ation is the total absence of whisky and
the substitution of the milder beer.
Whisky is the 'hog' that possesses the
spirit of tho raging devil, and the culti
vation of whose intimate acquaintance
makes 'fo many beasts and loafers of
men in the United States."
A London girl, who advertised re
cently for a husband, requested her
host of correspondents to be present in
te pit at the Drury Lane theater, on
the following evening, dressed in a blue
coat, white pantaloons, and scarlet coat,
and immediately on the conclusion of
the first act to stand upon the benches,
flourish a white hanflkerchief in one
hand, and apply a glass to the right eye
with the other. When the curtain fell,
fifty men, from giddy youth to giddier
old age, stood up in the prescribed uni
form, pud began the eye y ass ai d hand
kerchief performfince, amid convulsions
of laughter from a large portion of the
spectators, who were in the secret.
NOWADAYS AND LONG AGO.
Interesting Facta Revealing the Con'
tinntty ot the Human Race. .
. M. D. Conway's London Letter.
The chief interest, perhaps, of this
international oriental congress to its lay
attendants has been the continual start
ing up of facts which reveal the conti
nuity of the human race. We are con
stantly brought to examine old tales.
coins, proverbs, words belonging to the
distant eastern lands, only to be im
pressed with a sense of familiarity un
derlying their strangeness. It is as if
all the intermediate parts of a bridge
had been swept away by a flood, but
whose remaining fragment on the hither
shore so resembles in character the lin
gering buttress on the farther one that
we feel sure they originally belonged
to one structure built by one race. For
example, one morning there were three
members of the congress absorbed in
examining a small tray of old coins in
the British museum. These three were
strangers to each other; they were of
widely discrepant creeds one a Jewish
Rabbi, another a Roman Catholic, the
third a radical and heretic. So wide
apart as they were in belief fcre the na
tions of the earth ; yet the three
had separated they had together spelled
ont on the coins the infallible vestiges
of the primeval unity of mankind.
Among these vestiges none was more
notable than those on the columned
coins, of which your American dollar
mark, with its hl:et bound "Pillars of
Hercules," is tbe survival. The most
ancient legend of the Pillars of Her
cules states that, on setting out upon
his wonderful voyage in a small jar, he
was bitten by a serpent ; an oracle told
him that if he sailed westward he would
airive at a certain point and find a par
ticular tree, which tree would heal the
wounds made by the serpent. So it
happened, and as a memorial of tme in
cident and the cure, Hercules set up at
the point where it occurred anciently
Gades. now Cadiz the two pillars.
Some have suggested that the S which
twines around the pillars in the Spanish-American
dollar-mark is meant for a
serpent ; but this is only speculation.
The oldest European columned coin
shown at the British museum only
about the time of Charles L shows a
separate twining S around each pillar,
shaped like a fillet, and a 'crown over
each column. We have only changed it
by removing the two crowns, and mak
ing one fillet answer for both columns.
But when we look to the earliest Phem-
cian coins we find some of them having
only one column, and it has been sug
gested that the double column might
have only indicated tha tbe coin was
double in value the single column coin.
But this theory disappears when we
look to the still earlier coins, where we
find the device to be two pillars, sup
porting an arch, plainly denoting the
doorway of a temple, as mere are
really no pillars of Hercules, there can
be little doubt that by them was meant
only the door posts of his ancient tem
ple; and these, represented on an an
cient coinage, have survived in the col
umned coins oi Italy and opain, ana
been carried from the latter country to
be the primitive and the present sign of
the farthest west.
Other ancient coins equally revealed
the origin of those familar to us. One
belonging to the first Jewish revolt
struck off as the coppers of the Ameri
can insurrection against England might
have been was the modification of a
vet earlier coin, and though itself over
eighteen hundred years old, had on one
copper surface a wreath of leaves bound
at tho bottom with a fillet, and on the
other a head that may have been that of
the newest republican president. A
most curious instance of persistence was
revealed by comparison of a fine collec
tion of ancient Hindoo, German and
English coins. They were all radically
the same, but the Hindoo devices were
blunderingly imitated on the old Ger
man coins, and these again blunderingly
imitated by the English. Taking the
old English coins alone one can hardly
make head or tail of them ; putting be
side them the old German some meaning
is shed on them ; but when the Hindoo
coins are brought forward the signifi
cance of each figure is revealed, and the
inartistic conventional picture on the
western money turns out to have grad
ually deteriorated from the neat artistic
horse, ohariot, or tree which graced the
money used by our ancestors on the
banks of the Ganges far away in the
dawn of the commercial life of man
kind. The continuity of our race which has
been so often illustrated by the disoov
eiy of the identity of our fairy tales
with the legends and miracles told about
great Oriental deities, is thus found to
be confirmed wherever anything eastern
is investigated. We are using the same
coins and words and ceremonies. Of
course all this has a momentous bearing
upon the authority claimed for some of
the solemn institutions around ns. We
had an illustration of thia a day or two
ago. The learned Prof. Stenzier, of
Breslan, read a paper on the ancient
Hindoo idea oi expiation. Haying gath
ered out of the ancient Indian books
what were held to be the cardinal sins
many ages before the Christian era, and
tbe penances by which they were atoned
for or expiated, he showed by quotations
from established Catholio authorities
that the church named still the cardinal
sins and provided similar penances and
means for restoring the guilty to divine
power. There could be no qnestion
about the facts ; the citations were made
from Indian sacred books of unquestion
able antiquity and compared with ex
tracts from ecclesiastical books of un
questionable authority in the Catholio
church.
English Poppies.
Bailey, of tho Danbury News writes :
The chief weeds with which the Eng
lish farmer has to contend are thistles
and poppies. There is nothing remarka
ble about thistles unless you are bare
footed, but the idea of a poppy being a
weed is striking enough. You know
how choice we are of them in our gar
dens at home, and what an addition to
a plot are a half-dozen of these bril
liantly flowering plant -. Try.then.to con
jure np thousands of them in one enclos
ure. Thev are called "red weed" in Eng
land. Tney flourish principally in the
grain fields, where their deep red con
trasts magnificently with the dark green
of the wheat and barley and oats. I have
seen fields so abounding with poppies
that they looked as though they were
spotted with blood. I have Been great
beds of them springing from newly turned
earth along the railway, and their beauty
I never saw equaled in nature. Surely
Solomon in all his glory was not ar
rayed like unto these nor smelt like
them, I hope.
Rearing their scarlet heads among the
dark green grain they present a picture
that must touch every heart although
differently. I have seen two men stand
at a fence on opposite sides of a field,
and gaze for a half hour at the wonder
ful blending of color. The one was
speechless, his eyes glistening with the
most exquisite delight. He was a tour
ist. The other was speechless also.
But his eyes did not glisten. He was
tho owner of the field.
A friend assured Mark Twain that
it was policy to feed a cold and starve a
fever. He says : " I had both. So I
thought it best to fill myself up for the
cold, and let the fever starve awhile.
In a case of this kind I seldom do
things by halves I ate pretty heartily.
I conferred my custom npon a stranger,
who had just opened his restaurant on
Cortland street, near the hotel, that
morning, paying so much for a full
meal, He waited near mtf in respectful
OCTOBER 30, 1874.
silence until I had finished feeding my
cold, when he inquired if the people
about New York were much afflicted
with colds. I toll him I thought they
were. He then went out and took in
his sign."
"Wise Francis Joseph.
The London correspondent of the
Boston Post writes: "While the em-
firess of Austria is enjoying one of Eng
and's pleasanter resorts, celebi ating her
daughter's birthday, presenting silver,
vases to chimpion racers, and taking a
keen interest in the organization of a
stag hunt, her imperial spouse has also
been absent from his gay capital on a
somewhat different errandC. Amid the
ceneral stagnation of affairs in Europe,
the visit of the Emperor Francis Joseph
to Prague has a romantic as well as a
political interest. It is always pleasant
to hear of the Austrian sovereign, who
is in many respects the most to be re
spected and liked crowned head in
Europe. His career has been so replete
with misfortune, his crown has sat so
uneasily on his head from tbe time of
accession when a beardless youth al-;
most till now, his character is so amia
ble, his mind so intelligent, his ideas so
reasonable and liberal, hia bearing so
gracious and engaging, that, personally,
no man is more popular, either with
his brother sovereigns or with the peo
ple at large. He has shown himself, it
seems to me, the very wisest of all
reigning sovereigns. Think of it ; he
was born and nourished a Hapsburg,
the pet and hope of a family as much
prouder than the Bourbons as the Bour
bons are prouder than the Orleanses.
Divine right and imperialism he may be
said to have ubsorbed with his mother's
milk. He was taught that there was no
blood so entirely royal as his. With
such a birth and bringing np, he waa
suddenly thrust upon one of the great
est thrones in Europe when he was yet
in his teens, and from that moment he
was beset by flatterers and courtiers, by
priests and diplomats. His haughty
mother, the Arch-duchess Sophia, held
over him a stern influence, which was
all used to confirm him as a despot and
as a blind defender of the pope. There
seemed to be no crevice by which any
liberal idea could reach him. Misfor
tune, however, undid his early educa
tion and humbled bis Hapsburg pride.
It is to his praise that he was tanght by
the calamities which overtook him.
He was able to learn a lesson which the
Bourbons never learned ; the Bourbons
are all exiles, and Francis Joseph still
sits on the throne of Rudolph and Ma
ria Theresa. He has shown the very
rare wisdom to yield to the inevitable,
to frankly accept liberal principles, to
refuse to ruin himself by crusading for
the pope, and to exchange an absolute
crown, descended to him through cen
turies, for that of a constitutional mon
arch ruling over a constitutional state.
Austria is now as free as Prussia or
France, and this is more due to Francis
Joseph, who called Count von Beast
from Saxony to take the helm in Aus
tria at the critical moment, though Yon
Benst was not only a liberal but a prot-
estant and a foreigner."
Extent of the Universe.
Since the beginning of this century
our idea of the universe has undergone
a complete metamorphosis, though but
tew persons appear to recognize this
fact. Less than a century ago the sa
vants who admitted the earth s motion
(some still reject it) idctured to them
selves the system of the universe as
being bounded by the frontier of Sat
urn's orbit, at a distance from the cen
tral sun equal to 109,000 times the di
ameter of the earth, orlabout 860,000,000
miles. Tbe stars were fixed, spherical
ly distributed, at a distance but a little
greater than that of Saturn. Beyond
this limit a vacant space was supposed
to surround the universe. The discov
ery of Uranus, in 1785, did away at
once with this belt, consisting of Sat
urn's orbit, and the frontier of solar
domination was pushed out to a dis
tance of 1,900,000,000 miles from the
center of the system, that is to say, be
yond the space which was vaguely sup
posed to be occupied by the etars. The
discovery of Neptune, in 1846, again re
moved these limits to a distance that
would have appalled our fathers, the or
bit described by this planet being
2,862,000,000 miles from the sun.
But the attractive force of the sun ex
tends farther still. Beyond the orbit of
Uranus, beyond the dark route slowly
traversed by Neptune, the frigid wastes
of space are traveled over by the comets
in their erratic courses, ui these some,
being controlled by the sun, do not leap
from system to system, but move in
closed curves, though at distances far
greater than those of Uranus and Nep
tune. Thus Haliey s comet recedes to
a distance of over 3,200,000,000 miles
from the sun ; the comet of 1811, 36,-
000 000,000. and that of 1680, 75,000,
000,000. The period of the last-named
comet is 8,800 years. Popular Science
Monthly.
" Help " in Western Virginia.
Donn Piatt, writing about the Virginia
mountaineer, says: It is impossible to
get house servants from among the na
tives for love or money. A charming
little lady here, Mrs. Morgan, sister-in-law
to the famous Ji hn Morgan, gave
us a very amusing account of her trials
in this direction. Her first experience
was with a tall, angular mountain maid.
One morning she announced a visitor to
Mrs. Morgan.
" Who is he, Malvina T
"Lord only knows, I don't; he's a total
stranger to me.
" Is he a gentleman i
"Well, he ain't a niggah."
" Did he not give you his name ?"
" Not much. But I didn't ask him."
" But he srave you his card ?"
"You mean that bit of papah with the
printin' on it ?"
" Of course ; what did yon do with
it?"
" Why, I jest put it whar I seed the
others, on the pahlow table."
" How vexations ! And what did you
say to him ?"
" I told him to hitch on to the door
knob till I seed yon."
Cortez Chapel.
Says a writer at Key West, Florida :
On Couzmel island are yet to be seen
the walls of the first church ever built
on the continent of North America,
Cortez, before the conquest of Mexico
say about three hundred years ago
built his first place of worship on this
beautiful island. The foundation and
walls are yet partially preserved ; each
side has an elevation of some ten feet.
Tho altar is covered with an almost im
penetrable growth of chaparral, and all
about and even inside these ruins are
ancient and modern tombs, where pa
triarchs rest. The wild flowers bloom
over them in great profusion, and the
birds carol sweet songs morning and
evening. A paved walk extends several
hundred yards westward, but it is now
almost buried from sight in the sod.
Excavations are seen, where searchers
for hidden treasures have delved.
There is a fine field there for the curi
ou3 to explore. But the natives of the
locality allow it to rest so quietly that
the dense shrubberies almost cover it.
A Pennsylvania man ate forty quatts
of peanuts at one shelling, and then, in
the beautiful language of Tyndall,
" faded like a streak of morning cloud,
into the infinite azure of the p st."
His friends, possessed of that touching
delicacy and thoughtfolness which al
ways characterized the bestowal of mor
tuary honors in Pennsylvania, buried
the 9heUs with him.
EDITING A PAPER.
The "Positive ! lit the Local De
partment.
I don't suppose that another man ever
lived like that Ohio editor who lifted
me out of the back end of an omnibus
one night, led me up five pairs of stairs
and undertook to tell me how 1 was to
assist in running the local department
of the paper. You see, said he, jab-
binsr at a cockroach with the shears.
" vou want to be positive in what you
say ; folks here won't believe any of
yenr suppose so a and allegations, bay
what you say m words that can t be dis
puted ; or, if they are disputed, send
the fellow into the other room and I'll
fix him." He was a great man for fun ;
he' never laughed himself, but he had
a high appreciation for humor. He was
always wanting me to get off something
sharp on some one, no matter who, and
he ran me so much 1 had to quit. For
instance he came down one morning and
said : " Now, Charles, get off a hit on
Julius Caesar." "Why. sir, the old
man died years ago." " No matter, no
matter," he went on, "get off some
thing or I'll discharge you." As $75 a
year was an object to. me then, I handed
in a prettj big item, "lhats good,
that's positive," he replied, and in it
went. The paper hadn't been out an
hour before a dozen were crowding in
after an explanation. "Is your name
Caspar ?" asked the old man of each in
turn. " No." "Well, then, who's ruu
ning this Ctesar business ? Ain't I here
to disseminate knowledge? Don't I do
her?" And he finally threw another
sheet on the "points."
"Now, Charles," said he again, "get
off a lick on George Washington
something under a lively bead-line."
"But he's been written up," I replied.
"No matter get off something, or
here's my note of hand for the balance
due you;" As his note of hand was
rather a good thing to keep, I dug out
a severe thing under the head of " Bru
tal Outrage." There was a Washing
tonian society in town, and half its
members were rushing np ttairs before
the edition was half off. " Base
wretch," shouted the president. " Ca
'nmniator of genius." squeaked the old
maid secretary. " Vile rascal," hissed
a young man, with his hair behind his
m "Gentlemen and old maid," be-1
gan the editor, as he rolled np his
sleeves, "why am I here? If any of
you know more about George Wash
ington than 1 do, why just take aud run
this office." And they had to go taway
with their minds in an unsettled state.
Another time, when he had run over
a whole volume of ancient history with
out finding one to hit, says he, " Get
off something on me." That's jnst
what I wanted, and I wrote: "We
want wood on subscription to this pa
per. Some of our subscribers prom
ised to pay for their paper in wood
more than ten years ago, aud it's about
time they brought it in. We want
wood wood wood." It mas in July,
an( there were thirteen loads of wood
in front of the office before noon. They
got there about the same time, and
thirteen farmers came up in a body.
"Gentlemen," said the old man, after
they had stated their errand, " wood is
wood ; 'wood is a noun ; ' is ' is a verb,
and wood ' is a noun again. The ob
jective case governs the requirements
of the adverb, which is the posses
sive of thirteen loads, according to
chapter seventy-one, rule three." And
every time thy went to say any
thing about wood he got that off at
them, until they all went down in a
body threatening to vampire him at the
first opportunity.
The last thing I have any recollection
of was "getting off something" on the
mayor of the town. He went by old
Sykes one evening without nodding,
and I had no soqner entered the office
than I heard, "Go for Muggs; give it
to him hot ; yank him all to pieces, and
leave his shattered remains hanging to
the steeple of the court-house." " But
he," I began, when Svkes came close
up to him, breathing hard, and says he,
"Young man, go for Muggs. I hate to
part with you, but Smith offers to fill
your sitnation for a dollar less " So
I sat down to do up Muggs. Sykes was
going away, and he left me to my judg
ment. I wrote an article that I thought
would please the old man for positiv
ness, and it went nnder a triple heading.
I was just locking up the paste pot in
the burglar-proof safe to keep it from
the rats, when I heard a yelling on the
street?, and the office door came in on
me. I saw stars, comets, spots on the
sun, new moons, and " came to" in the
next town, when I sent the following
dispatch to the old man : " If yon can
pay your board bill stay where yon are.
The press is ruined. The long primer
is in Hardy's horse-pond. The mailing
table, the bank, and the new job rack
went over the dam last evening. Things
ain't as they was. We made a big hit
on Muggs, and he retaliated powerfully.
I have hired out t J a quiet old farmer
here, and I think I shan't pursue the
'get-off business any further." In
about two months I got a reply. Here
is all that was said: "Young man, al
ways be positive in your assertions."
Detroit Free Press.
The Human Body Compared to a
Machine.
In the promotion of health and lon
gevity, too much stress cannot bo at
tached to the importance of preserving
this harmony or balance of organiza
tion. Id Borne respects, the human
body may be compared to a perfect
machine, made up of many complicated
parts. How different the working or
running of such a machine from that of
one imperfectly constructed and un
equally balanced in ail its parts ! The
ona,seldom needs repairs, the other fre
quently. The one will last as it were
for an age ; the other becomes almost
useless in a short time. It is so in ref
erence to the human system. When
ever a certain organ or class of organs
becomes relatively too large or too
small, causing a want of balance or har
mony in their action, there must be in
the very nature of the case far greater
liability to disease. Accordingly, it is
in persons possessing this imperfect, ill
balanced organization that we find not
only the greatest amount of sickness,
but that which is most obstinate and
fatal. How oftea it happens that some
s ight derangement or trifling weakness
operates as the entering wedge to the
most serious diseases 1 It is the weak
spot caused by inheritance, or developed
by exposure, where disease finds its
germ or ptarting-point, though all other
parts of the system are in a perfectly
sound condition ; and not unfrequently
life is terminated by a single organ, or
even some part of it, giving ont, when
all the other organs might have per
formed their healthy functions for many
years.
Growth in Man.
Observations regarding the rate of
growth in man have determined the
following interesting facts : The most
rapid growth takes place immediately
after birth, the growth of an infant dur
ing the first year of its existence being
about eight inches. The ratio of in
crease gradually decreases until the age
of three years is reached, at whicli time
the size attained is half that which it is
to become when full grown. After five
years the succeeding increase is very
regular till the sixteenth year, bing at
the rate for the average man of two
inches a year. Beyond sixteen, the
growth is feeble, being for the following
two years about six-tenths of au inch
a year ; while from eighteen to twenty
ihe increase in height is seldom over
one inch. At tho age of twenty-five the
growth ceaserf, save ux a few exceptional
VOL. XX. NO. 1G.
cases. It has furthermore been ob
served that, in the same race, the mean
size is a little larger in cities than in the
country, a fact that will be received with
doubt by many who have coma to re
gard the rufltio as the true model man
Remarkable Exhibition of Mind.Read
The exhibition of "mind-reading
by J. R. Brown at New Haven, the
other day, in the presence of ex-lresi-dent
Woolsey of Yale college and sever
al professors, was a striking illustration
of the mysterious connection of mind
with mind by means of physical contact.
The first experiment was as follows :
Prof. Brewer passed from the philoso
phieal leetnre-room, where the company
were assembled, through a hall in aa
other room, out of which opened five
doors and two stairways, and, having
placed a pocket tape measure on a the
odolite, he returned to the lecture-room
another way. Mr. Brown, being blind
folded, took Mr. Brewer's left hand in
his own right hand, and having momen
tarily placed his other hand on Mr.
Brewers forehead and" brought Mr.
Brewer's hand to his own forehead, ap
parent to establish mental connection.
he started off, loading Mr. Brewer to
the tape measure without the slightest
hesitation as to which room to enter or
what object to seek, though nobody but
Mr. Brewer knew whore or what that
object was. Dr. Woolsey then hid a
coin under a pile of books, Mr. Brown
having withdrawn from the room, and
the mind-reader, having established
connection with Woolsey, went, blind
folded, to the vicinity of the coin, after
trying one or two other places, but
could not put his hand on the exact
ppot. He, however, took Pro'. Whitney
for his companion and immediately
found the coin. A pencil-cage was
passed through the hands of three or
four persons, and as each one received
it he left the room, but the last one
concealed it and then took a seat. The
others having returned to the room,
and Brown having been recalled, lie went
to each of the persons who had bad the
pencil-case and fina'ly to the pencil-case
itself. An alphabet was written on a
blackboard and then the word " hone"
was written on a slip of paper by Prof.
Marsh and passed to another person,
and Mr. Brown, takine Prof. Marsh's
hand, pointed to the letters on the board
that spell the word hone. In several of
these cases Mr. Brown hesitated some
wh t, but in some of them, at least, the
person whose hand he held failed to
conform to the necessary condition of
keeping him mind intently on the ob
ject to be sought. There is consider
able difference in tho persons with whom
he nay operate. The celerity with
which the performer, though blind
folded, moved about among the furni
ture was surprising. After some of the
experiments he seemed considerably
exhausted.
Florida's Oldest Inhabitant.
Sailing back, we were treated to the
sight of an alligator fifteen feet long,
Bunning himself on a hummock of yel
low grass. The wrinkle underneath
his lower jw gave him a good humored
look, and he seemed actually to smile
as the bullets hissed around him. The
alligator is by no means a trifling ene
my ; and the Floridian tells strange
stories of the creature's strength, fleet
ness, and strategy. An alligator hnater
in Jacksonville gave me an idea of these
characteristics, somewhat after the fol -lowing
fashion :
"The 'gaiter, sir,'is"ez"qnick ez light
nin, and ez nasty. lie kin outswim a
deer, and he hez dun it, too ; he swims
more 'n two-thirds out o water, and
when he ketches you, sir, he jest wab
hies yon right over 'n over, a hundred
times, or mo', sir, ez quick ez the wind;
and you 're dead in ao time, sir. When
a dog sees one he alius begins to yelp,
sir, for a 'gaiter is mighty fond of a dog
and a nigger, sir. Noborly can't tell
how old them old fellows is, sir; I reck
on nigh on to a hundred years, them
biggest ones. Thar 's some old devils
in them lagoons you see off tbe St.
John's ; they lie thar very quiet, but it
would be a good tusslo if one of you
was out thar in a small boat, sir. They
won't always fight ; sometimes they run
away very mock ; the best way to kill
'em is to put a ball in the eye, sir;
thar's no use in wasting shot on a
'gaiter's hide. When the boys wants
tport, sir, they git a long green pole,
and bharpen it ; 'n then they find a
'gaiter's hole in the marsh, aud pnt the
pole down it, theu the 'gaiter he snaps
at it, 'n hangs on to it, 'n the boys got
together, n pull him out, 'n put a rope
arcun' his neck, and Bet him to fightin'
with another 'gaiter. O Lord ! reckon
't would make yo' bar curl to seo the
tails fly." S'rribncr's.
Wheel Velocities.
The only limit to the number of revo
lutions which a wheel may be mado to
make in a given time is the tensil strength
of the material of which the wheel is
made, and its consequent power to re
sist the centrifugal forces which tend to
render it asunder. Savart, in his ex
periments on sound, made wheels to re
volve from one thousand to two thou
sand times per minute ; bnt this has
been surpassed by Foucalt, who invented
an apparatus for measuring the velocity
of light, to which a small wheel with a
mirror attached, which might have been
made to r volve six hundred, eight hun
dred, and one thousand limes per sec
ond, or sixty thou and times per min
ute. At these velocities the ordinary
amalgam was completely stripped from
the glass to which it was attached, and
it was found necessary to use mirrors
either of glass coated with pure silver
or made entirely of metal. These are
the most rapid revolutions thus far ob
tained, probably, bnt there is not the
slightest reas n why even this should
not be surpassed. It is evident that for
such great velocities cog wheels are out
of the question. Only bands or stringa
can be used.
The World Without Sunday.
Think how the abstraction of Sunday
would enslave tho working classes, with
whom we are identified. Think of lalor
thus going on in one monotonous end
eternal rack, fingers forever straining,
the brow forever drooping, and the loins
forever aching, the restless mind for
ever scheming. Think of the beauty it
would efface, the merry-heartedness it
would extinguish, the giant strength it
would tame, the resources of nature it
would crush, the sickness it would
bring, of the projects it would wreck,
the groans it would extort, the lives it
would immolate, and the cheerless
graves it wonld prematurely dig. See
them toiling and fretting, and grinding
and hewing, and weaving and spinning,
sowing and gathering, mowing and
reaping, raising and building, digging
and planting, and striving and strug
gling, in the garden and in the field, in
the granary and in the barn, in the fac
tory and in the mill, in the warehouse
and in the shop, in the mountain and
in the ditch, on the roadside and in the
country, out at sea and on shore, in the
day of brightness and of gloom I What
a picture this world would present if
we hod no Sabbath !
Tbe great gun which has for several
months been making at the South Bos
ton iron works is approaching comple
tion. It has been turned and is ready
now for the steel lining, which was cast
in England, as no foundry in this coun
try would undertake it. The peculiari
ties of this monster experimental gun
are its size, a new breech-loading ar
rangement and the steel lining for the
bore.
FACTS AND FANCIES.
" The Old Cussea" ia the name of
a club in La Crosse, and the wives of
membors believe that the came is a good
ut.
"The honeymoon is all well
enough," aid a prudent bell, "but
what I want to see beyond that ia the
promise of a fine harvest-moon."
' A carried girl of thirteen years,
seeking a divorce on tho ground that
she in too yonng, is one of the latest so
cial development of Indianaiwlis.
It dosen't look well, to sy the
least, for a Kansas church member to
draw out hia revolver in order to it ft nnl
hiis two eents for the contribution box.
As a whlta garment appears worse
when a little soiled than does a colored
top, to does a smalWartlt in a good
man attract more attention tkan a great
offence in a bad man.
A Kansas paper wants to know wtm
Noah's father and mother were, and
why it was that they haven't rfocived
any high honors. There's always sun-
thin alwajs sunthm.
A saloon-keeper in Jefferonville,
Ind.. h sued Mrs. M. A. Johnson,
editor of th Agitator, a tempemnoe
paper, for calling his saloon a " murder
mill." Damages are laic at $2,000.
Somcbod y ( perhar s S pure eon ) says :
"That smoker has reached ihe Bctue of
skill in tho cloud compelling line who
can blow three conoentrio rings and
spit through the inner circle without
causing a line to waver."
A fonr-vear-old went to a black
smith's to see his father's horse shod,
and watched closely the work of shoeing
until the blacksmith ommenoed paring
the horse's hoofs, when, thinking thia
was wrong, he said earnestly, " Mv pa
don't want this horse made any smaller. "
-A pine is now lieing laid for the
conveyance of petroleum from the oil-
wells or M'UerHtown, l'o., to inn isiii
more and Ohio railroad, a dmtance of
fortv miles. The piie is three inches
in diameter, and its capacity 4,000 bar
rels per day.
At Lhe sale of the Oaddesby short
horns on Mr. Cheney's place, near I'i-
cester, in England, tlio other day, the
cows and heifers averaged V0 ench,
tho highest averngo ever recorded. Kir
Cortis Lampson paid 1.X73 guineas for
the heifor Duchess of Gloucester, anil
the Duchess of Ardrie sold for 1,700
guineas.
A professional man not far from
State street. Boston, returning to his
oflioe one day, after a sulmtautial lunch.
said complacently to his asmstafii :
Mr. Pitkin, the world iook unier-
ently to a man whf n he hat three inches
of mm in him." "Yes," replied the
junior, withent a moment's hesitation.
'and ho looks dillerent to ino woria.
An MnmiUi.liaJ WimntiM Ckt AlcT-
ander Dumas, the father, is known to
... A 3 Mw .lini-llv l-wi rritwn tn tint
tTAIW HUH lunj PbUI 1.1 t r."'"
public. It has a peculiar history. Du
mas, tboueh he received a gicat deal of
money, never retained much. And ho
wished late m life to provide ior
n.;.i l.ii.l an ill.xritimntrt danfthter.
who was likely to b left penniless iu
case of his death. Ife wrote this ro
m an tiiernfnre. for her fortune, and
certainly she is well provided for.
Ice signals are now used npou mo
Atlantic, by means of which a passing
ship can indicate to another the pre
sence and position of ice. The ensign
indicates berg ice, the Union Jack field
ice, and at night lights are used. Thco
flags correspond with an ice chart, di
vided into degrees of longitude and
latiin.lc- Tee is the
UHli uriwu va ...... .
greatest danger to be dreaded on the
Atlantic Huch a precaution an tuis
cannot fail to bo of great advantage.
Tt i vnnnrto,! that the inhabitant
of Turin are much troubled with appre
hensions that the Mont Cenis tunnel
will fall in. The French and Italian
nomliitK r( Hi commission of cwri-
neers appointed to report npon tho
cracks, which have peen viiui ior nu
years, have stated that the tunnel
solid throughout, end is conducted on
sound principles, bnt that tho flusnrc
seem to be attributable to the too great
pressure of the mountain masses above.
.A farmer took his wife to a grand
concert and after listening with arr""''
enjoyment, the pair became suddenly
interested in one of the grand choruses,
"All we, like sheep, have gone astray."
First, a sharp soprano voice ciclaimed :
Ail 7 liltA nlieen " Next, a dcp
voico uttered, in the most earnest tono :
All we, like sheep" men an uie
ingers at once asserted : au wn,
like sheep" "Well, I don't," ci
claimed old Ruxticns to his partner.
"I like beef and bacon, but I can't
bear sheep meat 1"
A writer in the St. Paul Pres- tells
.Un nf TTnrnce Greelev. Horace
a nil n tn a brother editor in New
York whoe writing waa equally illegi-
. - - . ma A a? ll..
ble with his own. I no recipient, oi wm
note not ling able to read it, sent it
back by the same mei-nenger to Mr.
Greeley for elucidation. Supposing it
to be the answer to his own not, Mr.
Greeley looked over it but likewise waa
... i . -1 i . ii . i .
unable to read it, ani ani to m" iv ;
Go. take it back. Whni noes me u u
fool mean?" "Yes, said tho boy.
that is just what ho says.'
It's funny, says Grace Greenwood,
aa lm ffw women who CO to Colo
rado know how to dress for such rough
expeditions. She baa seen more than
one dainty dame set forth for the can-
ons clad in aux, wiui law aim u.-
monds. She notioed the other day, in
a party starting for Pike's Peak, a pret
ty yonng girl, most ooqnettiMhly attired,
and carrying in her soft-gloved hand
the last new novel. Hnch flimy pre
parations and slight provisions for as-
ti 1 1 1 ii r? t hat avfnl trail and daring the
winds and tempests of the dreary sum
mit makes one Bail.
A Detroit gentleman who purchased
Ik-.t tit ranches at the Central market.
the other day, looked around for a boy
ho would carry them home, ami pre-
ant.lv hn fonnil a racced tau penum vu
bench eating the last remuan. of a pear.
The man asked him if he wouldn't like
to earn ten cents by carrying the box 10
such a numWr and street, aud the loy
promptly replied that he wouldn't.
"Why?" queried the man. "Why?"
echoed the boy. "leeiiuse dad died
the other day and now I'm head of the
family, and bow'd I looklnggin' peaches
around 1"
Dally Death.
Tim .tn rot inn fif lifn in anv of its par
ticulars is but short : they die and tin ir
places are occupied by others, and so
continues a substitution which ODly
ends in death. After every meal an
amazing number of white corpuscles
are added to the blood ; break fnt dou
bles their proportion to the colored oor-
puscles in half an hour; supper in
creases their prororwon vuree uui,
and dinner makes it four times as great
They come from buc.1i solid glands as
tha anlAAn Tn the blood eoinff to this
organ, their proportion is one to two
thousand two nnnared ana wny -, iu
that returning from the spleen it is as
one to s;xty. Terhaps the most Btnpen
dous miracle of organization is the
steady maintenance of bnt slightly vari
able characters in the living and moving
blood, which is every momens unuerjri
ing changes of different kinds as it cir
culates through each tissue and organ
in the body.
Cost of the German-Franco War.
Tbe war of 1870 'coat France 371.-
000,000, to which ir3.(X0,000 may be
added as the value of the otdei tern
Inn Of eonrne tho cost to tho North
German Confederation was much less.
as their troops operated in the enemy a
country and the commissariat was much
m . -..at -. 1
better managea loan wiin me r rrocu.
The cost to Germany haa been offloial ly
stated as 47,000.000, but when peace
was concluded the treasury was empty,
and bad it not been f :r the 1 rench in
demnity a new loan would have Ihii
necessary. The 0.000,000 of tho Ger
man war chest and the 58,000,0)0 of
the war loan must, therefore, have been
exhausted. Compared with other mod
ern wars, the cost ot the 1 ranco-uerraan
War, on the vumv, wm mum-ran, nuia-
much a private compensation is in
cluded seven millions on the Oerman
and twenty-four millions on the Franco
side.

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