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A . . 0 : ;. ; -.; c.tfpui iiui j ,-.s??s?ai5ac.-iisQr assfrsa. - un.6-astss sj.jirriU!?s rase : lass nsiss - . - J, vol:, i. '1 ...J.,. ' rTBtlSUCD WEEKLT BT);- 1 '- ; T ' VJNO. W.' & SAM'L B. O BRIEN. -' Ojtfct on Cctlar Street, East of th Public SyttarcJ. TERMS. Two Dollars in advance; Two' Dol lars axi Fiftt CE5T8 in tlx meSnths; Three Dol ' lars at expiration of yew. . ;.-; ,-.." r Advehtisemexts inserted at $1 per square for the first, and 50 Ceuta for each subsequent insertion. fH-.i f; .'. - - TEARLT RATES. . .. : Profeswonal Cards, (five lines,).... $ 5 , " " , (more than Eve lines,)... 10 Quarter of column,. 13 J - ' Half column... ................ 37. , . One column, 73 Announcing candidates, (adrnntv,).... f 3 " - 2T Address the Publisher, Post Paid. . LOUDON : FRIDAY, JULY 1, 1853. THE LOUDON FREE PRESS, For 1853. -: ' ' Ilaviti asfmmecl the onerous and responsible rhities of public jonrnnlist, we feel the jjst de sire to increase the circulation of our paper, as it will not only increase ourcapabililies of " doing good, but at the same time give us rca ; sonable remuneration for our labors.: . To ac complish this desirable (jnd, we have detennin- cd to send out this Prospectus with a request 4 that all who feel an interest hi the increased 4 circulation of our paper will send U3 the largest number of subscribers they possibly can. Yet, t we cannot make this request witliout tendering ( uppropriate acknowledgements to several friends - whose exertions in procuring us subscribers have not been unnoticed by us. i i - We deem it unneccFsaiy u occupy a lengthy exposition of the leading features of the Fueb Prfss. Its political complexion is uncompro misingly Whig )ut "we are truly glad tliat the evil limes of unrelenting political warfare has for a time at least ceased, and those so long and Mfrecently in antagonistic array, are drawing together in friendship and in purpose, to mingle united effort and united wisdom to advance the interests and the true ylori of iht land. We look to the promotion of the interests of Agricul- . ture, of Manufactories and of Commerce, aa being by far more important to the improve- : mentofthe countiy, than any political issue i upon which the American people are extensively divided. These great interests shall have our warmest support. Our leading aim shall be to arouse public sentiment to the importance of industrial progress of enriching our fields, of beautifying our homes of starting up the busy humofindustryandenterpri.se. As to the merits of the I'kee Press it is for the public to judge we can ouly claim that wc have earnestly endeavored to publish a paper worthy of public patronage. It is filled wiih . readable matter containing the latest Foreign. and Domestic News full and impartial quota-, lions of the Produce Markets of Loudon, Au gusta, Savannah, Macon, Charleston, and Xash- ' villc, with occasional quotations from other im portant points together with the prices and number of IIom sold in Cincinnati each week during Packing season also the prices of Tork .-. at numerous other points, so as to give our Tra ders a broad and correct basis cf judgement ia regard to this important article of trade. In .a word, our paper is for the business men of East Tennessee. Wc are anxious to increase our circulation, and have determined to offer the Free Pkess at greatly reduced prices to Clubs money to nccompany the names, as follows Single copy, p annum, . 2 00 5 00 12 00 15 00 20 00 Three. Copies, Eight Copies, -Twelve Copies, Twenty Conies, a a u - J. W. 4 S. B. O'BRIEN, Publishers. Loudon, 'Tenn., Jan. 15, So3. The Prospects or tub Cuoi's in Exglaxd. The Loudon Mark Lane Express states that under the combined influence of heat and niois- . ture, the .various crops have improved in ap-. , pearance, and the reports from the agricultural districts fere already of a more cheerful charac ter; at the same time, the estimates of the prob able result of the harvest are not by any means . sanguine. The extreme shortness of the breadth of land tinder wheat renders it very improbable that the produce of that graia can, under al most any circumstances, prove large, and the period to which the sowing of spring corn was unavoidably delayed, is certainly against an early or productive year. Still, . with an au spicious summer, the result ' might be better than anticipated, and merchants having profit ed by past experience are not likelylo be temp ted into speculative investments on the chance ; cf a possible deficiency aftrr harvest. Should tho f jreign supplies fall off however, and the consumption of bread continue as great as it . has hitherto been, the value ; of . wheat would probably improve even if nothing, should occur . from new to harvest to : give rise to apprehen sions as to the crops. . Man and Woman. Man is the creature of interest' and ambition. His nature leads-him forth into the struggle and bustle of the world. Love is but the embellishment of his early life 1 or a song piped in the intervals of the acts. He seeks for fame,-for a place in the world's thought, and dominion over his-fellow-inen. But a woman's whole life is a history of the af- fections. The he-rt is her world; It-is there her ambition strives' for empire; it is there her ava rice seeks for hidden treasures. - She sends forth her sympathies on adventure; she embarks " her whole soul in the traffic of affection; and if shipwrecked, the case is hopeless for it is - bankruptcy of the heart, 'Friend Jones, prepare yourself to. hear bad news., Mr gracious! speak what is it?' r . ' "Your wife is dead!' 'Oh, dear, how you frightened me; tho't the neighbors pigs had broke into my garden and destroved mv inyuns. t SENATOR EVERETT ON THE. CELTIC -i ... .: -EXODUS;'-' Wj Izj 'The distinguished Senator froni Massachu setts delivered an address before the New-York Historical Society last week, on the discovery and settlement of .America, which is a compre hensive sketch of that important movement. The New-York Ecening Ji'rrorjSp'eaking of tEe oration, says: - - ,.. , . .No historical document of greater interest and value, , or more inspiring to Republican pride, has ever fallen from American tongue or pen. It is succinct and complete. The dis covery of the New World; its colonization; the new political spirit generated in its colonies its freedom (speaking of our own race ) springing from that spirit; its mighty expansion of terri tory under the pressure of national growth and marvellous emigration; its overshadowing of Old Rome in 6plendor and power; its indepted ness to the Celtic race; its gigantic influence among the nations, even in its youth; and its promise in the future afe rapidly", boldly and beautifully traced. Of Mr. Everett's many no ble utterauceanone is grander than this. .. "If the address, had less merit of its own to win the admiration . and approval,' of Ameri cans; and all who had an f interest in the record and destiny of the New World, the name and fame of its author would bear it far..- But it, needs uo advantitious aids. Mr. Everett , has sounded the well of truth for his reflections and limpsos of prophecy betray the genius of phi-, sophy and insp"ration. In ' Great Britain, Jose where hi. career as Minister made him admired and respected, the address will be widely read and pondered. For the vassal world of Europe, it points to our almosfboundless public domain, a land of premise for the human race. "f The Historical Society and our city owe two large debts of gratitude one for the Farewell Discourse on History, by Daniel Webster, and the other for tho address of Edward Everett. Both are master pieces. Webiter is gone from among us; only his mighty memory remains. But Hvcr:tt still lives-not an unworthy suc cessor of America's greatest statesman and orator. Everett in the ripeness of his years; a scholar, a jurist, an orator, and a statesman, H" equalled by any, surpassed by none. A star in the Senate, we lift not the horoscope to scan his future; it will be ample for his fame , if his future be as radiant as his past." We regret that our limited space will not per mit us to lay this masterly production in exten so before our readers, and as we have room for an extract only, we shall confine ourselves to his notice of the present emigration, which will doubtless have so great an influence on the des tiny of Ireland, Germany," and the United States: ' "The races that invaded Europe came to lay waste and to subjugate; the hosts that cross the Atlantic are peaceful immigrants. The former burst upon the Roman empire, and by oft-repeated strokes beat it to the gfound. The immi grants to America from all countries come to cat iti their lot with the native citizens, and to share with us thij prea inheritance of civil and relegious liberty. The former were ferocious barbarians half-cladin skins speaking strange tongues, worshiping strange gods with bloody rites; the latter are the children of the coun tries from which the great European Settlers of this continent proceeded, and belong with us to the great common family of Christendom. The former destroyed the culture of the ancient world, and it was only after a thousand years that a better civilization grew up from its ruins. The millions who have established themselves in America within sixty years, are from the moment of their arrival, gradually absorbed into the mass of the population, conforming to the laws,-moulding themselves to the manners of the country, and contributing their share to its prosperity and strength. "It is a curious coincidence, that as the first mighty wave cf the hostile immigration, that burst upon Europe before the tiaie of our Savior, consisted of tribes belonging to the great Celtic race the remains of which, identi fied by their original dialect, are still found in Brittany, in Wales, in the highlands of Scotland,-, and especially Ireland so by far the greater portion of the new and friendly immi gration to the United States consists of persons belonirinj to the same fervid,imaginative and too often oppressed race. I have heard . in the vil ages of Wales and the highlands of Scotland the gospel preached in substantially the same language in which Brcnnus uttered his haughty summous to Rome, and in which the mystic songs of the Druids were chanted in the depths j of the primeval forests of France and England, in the time of Julius Casar. It is still spoken by thousands of Scotch, Welsh and Irish immi grants, in all part3 of the United States. This great Celtic race is one of the most re markable that -has appeared in history. Whether it belongs to that extensive Indo-European family of nations, which, in ages before the dawn of history, took up a line of march in two columns from lower India, and moving westward both by a northern and a southern route, finally diffused itself over Western Asia, ( Northern Africa, and the greater part of Eu rope; or whether, as others suppose, the Celtic raco belongs to a stilt older stock, and was it self driven down upon the South and into the West of Europe by the overwhelming force of the Indo-Europeans, are questions which we have no time at present to discuss. However, it may be decided, it would seem' tliat for the first time) as far as we. are acquainted with the fortunes." of this interesting race they' have found themselves in a really prosperous condi tion in this country!" Driven from the soil to which their 'fathers ' have clung for two thcni;' sand years, they have at length and for the. first time in their entire history, found a real lkmie' in a land of strangers! Having been told, in the frightful language .of political economy, that at the daily table which nature spreads for the human family, there Tis never laid for them ia Ireland, they Lave crossed the ocean to find occupation, shelter, and bread on a foreign soil. "This 'Celtic Exodus,' as it has been aptly ' termed, is to all parties immediately connected J with.it on6 of tlwjmbst important Vetjii oiflfio day, -To the, emigrants themselves 'it may be regarded as, a passfn'r from 'death fo life. , Tt will benefit Ireland by reducing a surplus pop plation, and restoring a sounder " and"4 ju'ster re lation of capital and, labor. ; Tt 'wilt benefit' tte laboring classes in England, where, wages have beea l-ept down to the starvation point by the struggle between the native population and tue inhabitants of the sister Island..1' This" ' benefit will extend from . England to ourselves, ' and will lessen the pressure Tjf that competition which our .labor is obliged to sustain, with the ill paid labor of Europe. While the constant influx into America of stout and efficient hands supplies the greatest want in a new country, which is that of labor, gives value to fand, and facilitates the execution of every species of private enterprise and public work. " " "I am not insensible to the temporary inconve niences which are to be offset against these ad vantages on both sides of the water.. Much suffering attends the emigrant there;,onhis passage, and after his arrival. It is possible that the value of our native labor may have Ijcen depressed by too sudden and extensive a supply from abroad; and it is certain, that oar asylums and alms houses are crowded with for eign inmates, and that the resources of public and private benevolence have been heavily drawn upon." These are considerable evils, but they have perhaps been exaggerated." "It must be remembered, in the first place, that" the immigration daily pouring in from Eu rope is. by no means a pauper' immigration. On the contrary it is already regarded with apprehension abroad, as occasioning a great abstraction of capital." It is attended no doubt with an influx of foreign pauperism. In refer ence to this, I believe your system of public relief is better here in New-York, than ours in Massachusetts, in which, however, wc are ma king important changes. It is said that, owing to some defect in our system or its administra tion, we support more than our share of needy foreigners. They are sent in upon us from other States. New-York, as the greatest sea port, must be exposed to a similar burden. However the evil arises, it may no doubt be mitigated byjudicious legislation;aid Irk the mean time Massachusetts and New-York might do a much worse thing, with a portation .of their surplus means, than feed the liungry, clothe the naked, give a home to the stranger, and kindle the spark of reason in the mir.d of the poor foreign lunatic; even though thr.f lunatic may have been, (as I am ashamed for the CTcdit of humanity to say has happened,) set on shore in the night from a coasting vessel, and found in tho morrinjr in the fields half dead withcoldj and hunger, and fright. ; "But you say 'they are foreigners.' Well, do we owe no duties to foreigners? What was th; founder of Virginia, when a poor Indian girl threw herself between him and the war club of her father? What were the friendly savage if we mast call him so, met them with the ' salu tion of 'welcome Englishmen?' 'They are for eigners; and suppose they are. Was not the country all but ready a year or two ago to plunge into a conflict with the military despo tism of the east of Europe, in order to redress the wrongs of the oppressed races who feed their flocks on the slopes of the Carpathians, and pasture their herds upon the tributaries of the Danube, 'and do we talk of the hardship of relieving destitute foreigners, whom' the hand of God had guided across the ocean ' and con duct to our doors? - - - "I am not indifferent to the increase" of the public burdens'; but the time has been when I have felt a little proud of the vast sums paid in the United States for the relief of poor emi grants from Europe. It is an " annual sum, I have no doubt, equal to the interest on the for eign debt of the States which have repudiated their obligations. When I was in London a few year3 ago, I received a letter from one of the interior counties of Enland,t piling me that they had in their House of Correction an A merican seaman (or a person who wis both pauper and rogue. They were desirous of be ing rid of him, and kindly offered to place him at my disposal. , Although he did not bid fair to be a very valuable acquisition, I ' wrote hack that he might be sent to London, where he could be shiped by the American Consul to the United States. I ventured to add the sugges tion, that if her Majesty's . Minister, at "Wash ington were applied to in a similar way by the overseers of- the poor and wardens of the pris ons in the United States, he would be pretty busily occupied. But I really felt pleased, 'at a time when my own little State of Massachusetts was assisting from ten to twelve thousand des titute British subjects annually, to be able to re lieve the British Empire of Jhe only American pauper quartered upon it." Kote. In - an instructive article relative to German emigration in Olio llubners Jahrhuch fur Volksicirthschaft und Staiistik,tie numbers who emigrated from Jeniany from 1846 to lSol inclusive, are estimated to have amounted to an -annual average of 9G, C76 and the a monnt of capital abstracted ' by them from the country to an average of 19,370, 333 rix dollars (about fifteen millions Spanish doflars) per an irom'J J ''. - ' - ' : . A. noted hap once went into the sanctum of an editor, and' indulged in a tirade against a citizen, with whom he was on "bad terms." "I wish" said he, ?ahat you would write a very se- .vere article r against B -, and put in your paper.".. "Very well," was .the reply, and after some conversation the visitor went away. The n3Xtm9rning he came cursing into the office in a violent" State of excitement. : "What did you put into your pa-Mir? I hav had my nose pul led, and been kicked twice." ''I wrote a severe article as you desired," camly returned the'ed itor, "and" sijned your- name,' to it" - '' From-lhW Charleston Couriei'.Oir'f-: -rr. i csmberL ad tjtaf k. ti. toTio. f .Tlve,CoMWtioa prpposed la 'ja"htid.at Cum berland, onjthe llih of 'Juhelbjp'ue'eof taking into con3idexation,the;!cpn4trucjiQn-Qfi a Railroad,- to commence .at some-'noinfoji the . Ohio River, .aa'd 'to -terminate at Charfe'ston. & v., uu umuc points, assemrjieu at ;ue time ap pointed,' .. A -; y;y, ;-'.;. . ; , .-.There were.lar're clelcsratio'ns from' Tennessee and Keuiuclfj-.anda pood nil in be'r.bf strong ahd influential men from North Carolina -and V irgi-- uia, and .2000 persons present-.'. For thi purpose. oi organization, ,11011. Fayette ."IcJUci.LENyol Virginia,-was -'.called. to'. the Chair, 'and on mo tion of Hon. A.DISON White, of Kentucky, a Couvmitt.ee of three froni each. State represent ed, were appointed to report permanent officers for the Convention. The committee consisted of H'ffv. A.' White. Wm. Garrard 'and Silas Tenn.; N. W. Wood fin, John E. Patton, and" W. D. Rankin, of N. C, who reported, r after delib eration, the gentlemen below as officers of the Convention: For President, Jame3 W. Patton, N. C. For Vice Presidents, . Col. D. Garrard, of Ky., Col. D. Sharpe.'of Va., Hugh Graham, of Tenn., and James M. Smith, of NJ C. For Secretaries, Jas. M. Edncy,'of N. C, Lewis A. Garrett, of Tenn.j Geo. H. Mc Kinney, of Ky., and J. D. Sharpe, Jr., Virginia, who were unan imously elected. " On motion of Hon. F. McMullenthe rules of the Howijc of Representatives of the:. United States, were adopted, to govern the Convention in its deliberations. - . ;.,...'.. : -Ou motion of Hon. Ar White, it was, Resoled, That a Committee of five from, each State,-be appointed to report suitable business to be acted on by the Convention, and that the several Delegates fro'm each State retire, agree among themselves, and report the names of the Committee. The several Delegates met, and reported as follows: ' ' ' From Kentucky, Hon. D. White, Silas Wood son, Hon. A. White, Jas. Culton, -and Robert M. Sivis.' . From Virginia, Col. F M. Garnett, Walter Preston, Saml. V. Fulkcrson, Elkany Filanery, and Charles Couk.- ' From North-Carolina, N. W. Wood fin, W. D. Rankin, A. B. Chunn, B. J. Smith, and Z. B. Vance. From Tennessee, W. R. Evans, H. P. Shan non, Dr. S. B. Cunningham, A. Bettis, and Dr. A. B. Hampton. The Committee having retired, J. M. Edney, made a few remarks and sang 'Hail Columbia.' After which the Convention was entertained for three hours, by stirring addresses in favor of speedy action, union and concentration of ef forts, in the accomplisment and completion of the proposed Railroad, from Col. D. Sharpe, Hon. F. McMullen, and S. V. Fulkerson of Vir ginia; W. Garrard of Kentucky, Jas. M. Edney of North Carolina; Col. S. J. Johnson, and Hu. Graham, of Tennessee. At the conclusion of the response from the several States of Tennes see, Kentucky and Virginia, three hearty cheers were given, and for the "Old North State," (yhictt was sung as well as represented) -four clieeii -r-re' given, and one additional (.-rid for "Biiaamiber The utmost enthusiasm and good feeling pre vailed in the whole audience. The Convention took a short recess, whon the committee of Twenty, after mature deliberation, appeared, and ihrough their Chairman, Hon. D. White, reported the Resolutions that follow: 1st. Ilciotei'd, That the interests of the Road proposed, East and South of the Cumberland Gap, will be most effectually secured by the best line of railroad to Louisville, having at the same time a due regard to a proper connection with Cincinnati. 2'. lle.10l.nd, That ia the selection of a route to Louisville from Cumberland Gap, regard should be had to the distance, cost, character of grade, amount ot tonnage to be exported, ana amount of new Rood to be made. . . :W. Rcsolced, That in the opinion of this Convention, the route through Knox, Clay, Es tell, Madison, Fayette, and Stirling. Connecting 1 with the Lexington and Summerviilo Road at Lexington, combines most of the foregoing con siderations. .- ' itlt. Ziesohrd, That we most cordially ap prove of the construction of a Railroad from Cumberland Gap, vi the Gap in Clinch Moun tain, near Btjaif Station, .to the line of the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, and from such point in the line of .said East Tennes see and Virginia Railroad, as will constitute the most direct and elligible route to tho North and South Carolina markets.. ''.v. O '' - . '. . oth. llesulvai, That feeling as we do, a most livelv interest in the construction and comple tion of such continuous line of Railways desig nated, we do pledge ourselves to use our utmost exertions to accomplish that end, and -that we will heartily co-operate with the states of Ken tucky, Virginia, ' Tennessee," Ohio, North and South Carolina, to effect that important object. Gtk Rcsohei, That we requst the citizens of the various counties, through which the contem plated line of Railway above designated, may pass, to take steps at as early an hour S3 practi cable, to- have an instrumental survey of said routes, and earnestly request the aid of the citi zens ia said counties to effect that object. 1th Rcsohtf, That .ihe Legislature of Virgi nia bo requeued to grant to the East Tennessee and Kentucky Railroad, all the privileges and immunities conferred upon Railroads through their territory- . ; . . Upon , reai'ing of the resolutions, various amendments were offered, one by Mr. Sawyer, of Kentucky to connect at Lexington and thence to Loavsville and Cincinnati, wlijch elic ited considerable debate, in which .Messrs. Saw ycr, White,' Sharpe; Wood fin, Voodson, Gar rard, Sivis, tmd others, participated. Finally Mr. Sawyer withdrew the amendment and the Resolutions U.ing put as reported by tlnj Com mittee, were Adopted without a dissenting voice. ; Dr. Cuniiigham, President of the East Ten nessee and Virginia Railroad, briefly addressed the Convention, and presented the following Report from lir. Lyuch, the Eugineor, who had just passed oifcr the route spoken of in said Re port, viz. , . To the Presiittnt of the Eat Tenn., and ' ' ' Virginia Railroad Company. Sir: In accordance with your wishes, I have examined camfully the proposed route for a rail road comraeici:! near Cheek's y, Roads 6n the line of .le East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, piising the general route of the Bean's Statiqi Turnpike Road on to the Cum berland Gap I unhesitatingly pronounce the route altoge; ier practicable, and so far as I am able to judg( without an instrumental examina tion, believe there are but two places on the line of the joposed route that will exceed the average cos of your road: one place is the crossing of t e Clinch Mountain, which will re quire a tunn I of one fourth of a mile in length, and the othc is the crossing of Waldcn's Ridgr WooCson, ,of Kj., Samuel V. Fulkerson, N. A Preston, and . Woodward, of Va.;' Col. W. Ilbuxv:, W. H: Evans, and L. S. Garrett, of which will require some extra gtading. About .1400 feet. of. truss bridging 011. the whole line will .be, required. (The Jlqlston, Clinch and PoweirRivers being to "cross.)'' For the details of the route I Selected, I fefer:y d, I refer-youto rv-r J",tt :': -,' panymg sKetcn. ..' .-s,- 2: sir tu; '.. Most respectfully yours, &c, T,i-,,,., ,. , .. Montgomery Lynch. 4fc ' ttoodsoh, ' ofKy-f offered the" following Resolutions, which were unanimously adopted: r- " . i t n i . 'ri ji " ' , r I ,ist. iiwMiw, j nar me menus 01 wnmeuu the above States by way of the proposed Rail-" road . communication by Cumberland . Gap, baL requested to ..meet at Richmond, a v., oa- the 23th of July next, (Monday.) and nt Asheville, -N. C, on the 23th ' of August, (Tharsdaj.) . ---2(7. ResolDnt, That th Stiites of Vu-jrinia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, .North and South Carolina, , (and other States interested) be re: j quested to send Delegates to the pr pos il Con ventions. '-' - ' f Hon. A. White --.dd N. W. Woodfur briefly and eloquently addressed the Couvntio--'-i be-1 halt ot. their respective States, and .the great enterprise. .... ..; On motion of J. M. Edney- it was . .: Resolced, That the Secretaries furnish eopies of the entire proceedings of this Convention to two papers in each State . interested in the pro posed Railroad, with a request that they publish them, and that all other papers' friendly to" the cause copy the same. . : ? On motion of Hon. A. White, the thanks of the Convention were tendered its officers, for a faithful discharge of their duties, and the Con vention adjourned. '(Siirred) ' ' .' JAS. W. PATTON, President. VICE-PRESIDENTS. . D. Garrard,. I Hugh Graham, J. D. Sharpe, j James M. Smith. . v , - SECRETARIES. J.vs. M. Edney, I Geo. n. McKin'key,' Lewis'A. Garrett, I J. D. Sharpe. Cumberland Gap, Jnne 14, 1833. THE WINTER'S GAP ROUTE. We find in the Loudon Free Press an editori al which claims the route, via Loudon, through Winters Gap to Louisville, as superior to that by Jvnoxville. The chief advantage urged, is the distance, which it says is forty-three miles shorter by the Winter's Gap route. How thisdia tance is measured, whether by the Rabun Gap route or by the railroads through Georcjj. the editor leaves uncertain. If he meanr :k? can establish, that by the .Rabun Gap, Loudon i3 23 miles nearer to Charleston than Knoxville is then it may be well for tho people of Ten nessee to consider as to the extension of the road through Winter's Gap. Eut the editor of the Loudon Press seems to think that it is for the people of South Carolina to consider this. Surely he does not expect them to do every thingl South Carolina expects to build the road through her own territory, and to aid the citizens of Georgia and North Carolina in ex tending it to the Tennessee line. It will prob- aoly stncl" this line just where the Little Ten nessee breaks through tho Smoky Mountains. At this point we expect the citizens of Knox, Blount, etc, to take in hand and complete it to Knoxville. But we have no objection w hatever to another road from Loudon, intersecting at the same point. It is supposed here that our most practicable decent into the Tennessee Valley, is by this opening through the mountains. If so, then we strike the Tennessee as near to Loudon as we can. One location is, therefore, H3 fair to that place as to Knoxville. Thus locating their road to the Tennessee line, the people of South Carolina are not to choose or indicate the course of its extension through Tennessee. Let Blount and Knoxville extend it they seem resolved to do so. But this need not prevent or retard the exertions of any who deem another route more desireable. They too may connect with the Rabun Gap road at the Tennessee line. The Bine -Ridge Company will gladly shake hands with any who reach out to them. Charleston Standard. Declivity of Rivers. A very slight decliv ity suffices to give the - ruuning motion to the water. Three inches per mile, in a smooth, straight channel, gives a velocity of abont three miles an hour. The Ganges,, which gathers the waters of the Uynialaya Mountains, the lof tiest in the world, is at 1800 miles from its mouth, only about 800 feet aboro the level of the sea about twice the height ef St Paul's in London, or tin height of Arthur's seat in Edin; burgh and to fall this 800 feet in its Jong course, the water requires more than a month. The great river Madalt-na, in South America, running for ' 1000 miles between two ridge's of the Andes, falls only 300 in all that distance; above the comme ncement of the 1000 miles, it is seen deseetvling iu rapids and cataracts from the mountains. The gigantic Rio do La Plata has so- gentle a descent to the ocean, taat in Pa ragua, 1300 miles from its mouth, large ships are seen which have sailed against the current all the way,bythe force of the wind alone that is to say, which on the lnautifiil inclined plane of the stream, have been gradually lifted by the soft wind, and oven against the current, to an elevation greater th.au that of our loftiest spires. Arnot's Physics. .. CrsTOM House. An official report from the Treasury states that the "advance from the Treasury, on account of the expenses of each Custom'House in the United States, daring the year ending June the 30, 1832," i2,0dc!,35J,ap- proprmteu as iouows: New York City... Boston and Charleston.'...!.... New Orleans.: $7df,090 210.7TG PJOJH t 11X3:- 117,781 5.86-1 ....... 31,42 ....... 2S.72 2.3,170 27,984 ...... 23,413 14.H31 23,800 23,82 ....... 381,340 Philadelphia ...... Baltimore ... Charleston Savannah... Mobile.- .' Detroit.... Delaware, (dist.).. Norfolk '. Passamaqnoddy..; Salem... Oswego All others. - ' $2,088,385 The amount of duties collected during the year wa3 18,333,32 thus showing the cost ot collection to have been auout 1. 1- per ccm. . HEALTH ANDTBODTLT -'VIGOR HOW : -2 , TO OBTAIN T3I0I by J, .Q-prrioN-, Jr.Tr. "The esieutial liigredleirfbThumr tcom-LwudJMia -f 1 lit- 3 - t. -.4 r..v,,.u : m-uiLii uepeuus upon ana creates doiijv vigor. uton The art of improving tkrljealth! Iand prcdoiig ing life, has been, much" studied, and many im portant principled have been, s.vJudi -i pro pose ia this essay, very briefly, to 'notice some of the m'dsi valuable of these principles. '' I'Let me premise, howeverj that bodily vigtij is if 4. to be obtained, (taking- tba question, for- a moment tucjaiirchj by drinking "Elephailt's milt," ."preparations.1 of "Iron," "Sasaparilfa," or other drugs' or- nostrums. - Drugging 'often 'makes the matter -worse; : self-drugging ia the height of folly. Taking -all sort3 of advice from people incompetent to judge the cause "of your debility, or of the nature of remedies', is absurd and ruinous to health. ''A carpenter Am A Aon will attempt to mend your boots Jbot he will prc suax to mend yoar health! - .. ,, . " The chief important source of bodily Vigor to which I shall call attention,' are the ' follow ing. .......... ' ' .' 1. Tho first, and one of the most important sources ot bodily vigor, i.i Exercise. . ' . J . It promotes the rapid breaking up, and rapid formation of flesh. . It. produces greet power of contractility ia. the muscular fibres. , . . It enables a person to eat ft lager quaotitv of food than he otherwise could, and, to' convert "that food successfully into blood. ".' : ; ' It keep's the body from fat and dead matter, and renews the flesh often, keeping up the high est' degree of' vitality. " : " .- '. It reduces the nervous sensiintij of the body and brain, ami reiidess the individual cool,calm, hardy, good humored, and insensible to slight causes of uneasiness or pain ' Sensibility is not Jiappincss; if i were,it would be wise to get the Itch, for the pleasure of scratching. Rough good' health is better than sensibility. Again, while Exercise lessens" nervous sensi bility, it increases' animal couroge andam bi'.ioii. " ' . ..'-" ' "! Exercise also increases the size and power of ali the organs and faculties, under th(j-condition; that i:-, if exercise be regular and not' too great, and alternated with natural periods of lest. , . ,,'f What isthe amount of Exercise necessary to create a high state ot bodily vijror? .Answer: Four or five hours of active walking, riding on horseback, or labor in the open air,daily. Two hours, of active exercise in the open, air, daily, thjj? smallest quantity compatible with the usual habits of eating and living, to maintain unin terrupted good health. " ' ; T The less exercise, the less must be the Quan tity of food consumed. If yon feed a horso freely, and don't work him he will die. . , II. The serond important source of bodily vigor.is the Di'u REori.ATioy op the Food: Sim ple Abstemious Diet; Temperance ix Eat ing. . , Remember Dr. Abernethy's advice to a weal tLy invalid:"Live on sixpence a day and earn it. The Prize i'ighters,while training, are made to undergo an immense amount of severe exer tion iu the open air daily, for months while fed 011 a bimple, though abundant diet of bread, water anil meat until the requisite vigor and in sensibility to blow is attained. The proper quantity of solid food for a per son who does not labor in the open air, is from one to two pounds, only, in twenty-four hour3. This should be lean meat, (boot', mutton and fowls being best,) bread, vegetables and fruits. Abstemiousness is the great principle for per sons leading a sedentary life. III. The third source of bodily -igor is a CHEAT EXTENSION OF THE ClIEST AND A LARGE COXSrMPT-ON- OT" PCRE AlR. Walk always with the body erect, shoulders thrown back, chest expanded, breathing deeply and heavily; never sit down and bond forward, cramping up the chest and stomach; keep your apartments well aired, particularly your .cham ber at night. "When you are thirsty," say a ski ful modern writer, ''drink water; when low spirited, drink air." - 1 " The advice is as valuable as it- is forcible. Air cud water are sources of electricity. The oxygen of these two fluids has some singular and inportant affinity with the vital tluid of the body. Hence oxygen has been styled "the ex onerating wine of life!"' Drink any qnantity of this wine; it is a species of indulgence tj which there is no sort of objection. I V. The fourth source of bodily vigor, L Freqcen't Bathing, to keep the skin clear., open, healthy, and to keep the internal vital or gans free form inflammation and congestion. Bronchitis is essentially a. disease of deficient action of skin; so is catarrh, or common cold; so is -inflammation of the lungs, diarrhea, 4c. Too much mental excitement produces a cold skin. -..!-. The skin on the exterior of the body, and. the lining of the Inns.stomaclr, intestines, &c, nre composed of the same material, and have an intimate sympathy. It is a tnitji to say that the skiu is iu fact a part of the Lings, stomach, iutc-tines, kidneys, bladder, ic, a3 it really may perform the function of either of these or gans, and cither of these may do the. work of the skin. ; .- . . The skin has in it fourteen millions of airholes, so to speak, and should be kept "free to dis charge from three to live pounds of matter per day. ; - .-..-.: If not often and properly washed, with tho aid of a little soa, alcohol r.lk;i!i, it will be cov ered over with a waterproof varnish. V. 1 he Jit in means ot creating hcxtily vigor, is Abstinence from Stimclaxts, and the pure, nutritious, aiid unstiinulating- food. It is a maxim of cooks, "never use one spice, if you ca'u'get more." Pray you avoid this mn -iin. ' , , Take a hint from Tom ITycr. He Vsed no tobacco, cofi'ee, tea, liquor, spices, or stimu lants of any kind, while training for the fight with Yankee Sullivan. - VI. The sixth moan-? of "creating bodily vig or, is to AYOID- ALL. LlXCUIES AX C'O-Mt'OKTS, and live iu a frugal and hard? manner.. .Use-. Jiard beds, mattrasses; avoid feather beds, hot rooms, 'thick' bed covering, !'C. Don t clothe the body too warrnlv or muhle up the nsck. " ' - ;";- x One pound of Cotton, which formally could' only be spun into thread of 108 yards long, can now, by the application .of steam, producu a thread of I'Jl miles in length. ' . . .' The JW 'of Boxes. "What box govern', .the world?" asked aNew'.York paper. It an swers the'qnestion thus: 'The cartridge box, t!i ball 't bos, the. jury lox aud'tha band-box. .Litt'e can be done' without'oVtcnuinRtion, and certainly no greal acquirement ' Van be made without patience and stcadv application.