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Fur tho National Km BELL SMITH ABROAD. No. IX. POLICE AND PRACTICAL. Dcak Khikno: One heard much of tbo po lice, their extraordinary discipline, activity, and buooom, but the stories are so strange that it requires a dccided organ of woudor to receive them with belief. I was disponed at first to set the majority of them to the account of won derful tales for strangers; but a littlo event, lately oocurring with us, bun opened my mind to the fact that an unseeu |s)wcr really sur rounds, and, whether for good or ill, exercises A startling influence. This system, I believe, grew up uuder Napoleon Bonaparte. His his torian eanuot claim the honor or dishonor, just as one views it, ol being the. invwitor. I he institution, aa we would call it, in the necessary part of a despotic Government, aud existed in France for centurion. Hut Napoleon tirHt ar ranged thin strong arm of Government, aud, in addition to uning it art a political engine, perfected it almost art a part of the criminal code. Thin, under various for.oh of govern ment hart continued ever active and effective. 1 think it had birth in the pcouliarity of the French; no other people would think of this system?certainly no other people would sub w?it to such. H would take up more spaco than 1 can give you, and call for moro postage than you would spare, to attempt anything like tbo details of this o implicated affair; and besides, to tell you tbo truth, I do not know them. We had been in Paris but a few month* when the discovery was made that our domes tio hart very impropor notions upon the (.acred rights of property, and appropriated various little article* to herself. We, of course, din missed the offender; and about three weeks after, Lucy announced the fact that a pioce of iewelry, nut worth in iUelf over a hundred dol tare, but valuable to her otherwise .is a keep sake, waa among tbo missing. The poor child was in tears, and, at her earnest request, I), went to the police with the grievance. To oomplain of our late domestic was absurd, as the article had boon missed so long after her departure. Wo were satisfied that she had taken the pin with her, but bad no evidence. The official listened patiently, asked numerous questions, made a few notes, and then, in an swer to some inqairics of D., shook his head, aud said nothing. !>. agaiu oallcd on him, in stigated by friends, who assured us the police would not let it rest, but received uo encour agement, and we let the matter drop. Some time after?so long, indeed, that wo had for gotten the domestic, police and all?Lucy sud denly rushed into the dining-room with the missing jewelry. Sbo had found it, carefully wrapped in paper, lying upon the table in her room. Between the time of the loss aud le oovery, we had removed to a distant part in Paris from our first residence, and again changed our domestic. D. immediately called u|tou the police (fticer, who smiled when he buw him enter, but gave no explanation of the mysterious return of the miesing triiie. Another instance was related to mo lately. An American lady hired a coach she met in the street, and kept it four hours. After re turning to her hotel, tho found she had lost a valuable watch and chuin, and, satisfied that she must havo dropped it in the coach, the gave information to the police, but could not remember the number of the carriage, and, as j she had engaged it in the street, had conse quently no clue to the stand or stable. She oould not even remember a peculiarity about home, carriage, or driver. The officer had only 1 the part of the street where the ooach was first engaged, and the fact that tho driver, on being dismissed, had turned round and driven 1 in an opposite direction from the one he came. This was exceedingly slight material to go on, yet in five hours her watch and chain were re- ; turned uninjured. Mrs. R., while walking on the Boulevards, dropped her pocket-book. She missed the ar ticle within five minutes of its Ins*, and going immediately to the nearest poliec station, stated her troubles. At the conclusion of her hhort description, the officer quietly opened a drawer, and handed her the misding port-monnaie. It had but a moment before been brought in by a street oleaner?con tents untouched. Resi- 1 dents and visiters at Paris will give you any . quantity of instances such as these. But it is i as a political machine that the system appeals the most startling. To bcliovo all uuo hears is , to put faith in necromancy. Wc do know, i however, that suspected persons havo no se crets, and no life out of tho keeping of the powers in existence. His apartments are open to the police?when the lodger is out, they are j in. His property is closely inspected?his [ trunks, drawers, writing desk, cupboards, and, in fact, every re ess known or r.ttemptcd to be hidden are opened, and written inventories, careful copies of all papers, made, for the in spection and consideration of their masters Nur will any attempts at ordinary concealment serve the purpose. The suspected cannot take a walk to the post office, that the spies are not at work?piercing clothes with long needhs, knocking at the furniture, pounding on the walls, aud rattling at locks. Should Monsieur, tho suspected, return unexpectedly, the ecn- ! oierge keeps him in conversation on some I trivial pretence, until the agenl-s escape. F. I'., oar friend who took so active a part under the Republic, and is now in oonscqnenoe an exile, said the Provisional Government made some aauxing discoveries?and he^ to his astonish nieut, found even copies of his love letters on file. What was remarkable under Ixmis Phil ippe, is twice so under the present Kmperor. I nave blamed myself for not writing yon, sines 1 first took to ink, the thousand and one things a woman observes which almoHt every ooe wishes to know?the little matters which ars generally considered beneath the dignity of a foreign correspondent, but which are ko useful and, in n??*?t instance*, pleasant How do you live, and what is the cost of living ? are the two questions most frequently asked by Americana, and so rarely answered satisfacto rily. To the first, I answer, that much defirnd? upon the purpose with which you come to Pari*?-if for that of study, it certainly offers advantages not met with probably anywhere aba. The grand old cathedrals, palaces, paint ings statuary?the vast libraries?the sohools established and supjjuried by Government?the many places covered with historical associa tions, offer advantages of snch a character that (MM can undergo many privations for the pur pose of enjoying them. But if comfort ot en joyment is the object, Paris is the last place to sack for a residence. Comfort is out of the question, and the enjoyments are traditions What can one think of a people without the word "home" in their language?without a chimney, i? an immense city, that smokos at ths right end; of a people who sell wood aud ooal by the weight, and burn them in homeo pathic doses ? a Frenchman never thinks of making a fir#, if he can lnok from his room anross the stie?t in at his neighbor's. What is to he thought of a people wh?e circulating mediant is copper, and sonnted by oentime* ? We have been oallcd a money-making peo ple, as com pat od to the French: it is a vile ?lander. To come from New York to this place is to leave a generous, impulsive people, far a narrow, avaricious crowd, that cctne so unexpectedly upon you that you ars astound ad, and hesitate about expressing the fact. Yea leave a great heart ot a great country, throbbing with the tremendous currents of a world-wid* commerce, and moving with the dqputy of a nation possessed of a destiny, for % toon try of trades people without trade, and u\ ArioiouB without noonej. The profusion, the waste even, th.it flnt- aroua.l you ut home lil >oi nl as tho day, an contrasted with the petty meanness, tho want that lives threadbare tot e, proves how we have been slandered. A mer chant with us is a gentleman; here he is a cheat You cannot enter a store Ui raris, and not have two prioes asked for any article von wish to purchase; and when you remon strate at such impudent exaction, the s/'-amj' invariably asks, "What will madamo give! There is not a oortain prioo carrying a lair tir tit upon any article in all I'aris. Thu is so pe.itively the tact, that you frequently see the si-'u " Prioe tixed," above the door ol the es tablishment, as an acknowledgment of the truth; and where this little notice makes its appearance, you must expeot to meet tho great est rogues. No such hotels as tho St. Niohe Ins or the Astor are to be met with in Paris; and tor what you pay $2.50 there, here could be had, if at all, at about ten dollars ner day Ym havo the opera in New York?that last reach of civilised enjoyment?lis they cannot h ive it here. They have the name alone, and on this account a great singer remains here lout enough to win a name, and then Hies to London, St. Potorshurgh, or New ^ ork, lor a living Rachel, the great tragic actress, who is to France what SsddonB was to England, and Cushman is to us has sold her lairy-like residence, and left for St. Potereburgh, never tv> return. Tho next greatest wus about fol lowing her example, when it is said that Na iHtleon considered it a sufficient matter of im portance to Bend for the discontented actor, and remonstrate The appeal to his patriot ism was of no avail, and nothing but an in crease of salary retained him. All this bounds probably very sweeping; and vet I contend this is not only true, but tic natural result of society organized as this; wbore orto class, holding unlimited away, and I ,flowed and apod by all, looks upon such honorable pursuits as merchandising and me chanics as dishonorable, 8uoh pursuits become of c mrsc dishonest. All this is a fair warning to me to be careful of first impressions. I said as 1 thought, in a former-letter, that there was more genuine democracy in the social life here than at homo. M. tho great democrat lirst called my attention to tho causo of the low tone of morals in the business oommdmty. The persons comprising this?much the larger number?are not considered, and do not feel themselves, respectable. Ho says this is the M>urce of all the failures to establish a repub lic, aud that Marat was right when he pro posed setting up six hundred blocks, and two thousand executiouers, to work night and day until the aristocrats were swept off. Not that Marat, or the men of that time, had anypecu liar hatred for tho nobles?" they were then, as now, a dull, helpless set; but the Jacob:ns sought to break up idols?the things of ribbon and paint, stuffed with bran, to which the peo ple wore forever making burnt offerings of their dearest rights." . 1 aui becoming quite political, and talking very glibly upon tiling 1 know little of, and, quite far from what I took my pen to write about. D., with his peculiar notions aud feel ings, has mado tho aequaintar.ee of all the democratic Frenchmen, refugee Hungarians, iind restlcHs spirits permitted now to remain in France. They gather round, and 1, much ugaiust my will, am forced to hear all about tho political state of Europe, and the priba blc results of this and that move, all concur. ring in tho fact, that moves are being made and events progressing to a crisis. I feel more interest in Kossuth's children, now here at pohool, who are sometimes brought to see us. Beautiful little innocents, they are genuine children, and all unconscious of having the name that once made the world thrill. These Hungarians are well educated and intelligent, and bear their reverses with much dignity and patience. Taking them as specimens of the people, the Hungarians are by far the great people of Europe. .... Lucy and 1 take much pleasure in visiting the markets?almost aa much as Boeing the galleries of paintings in the Louvre and l-ul* cmbourg. You pm through long with stalls on either side, occupied bv women, mostly old, who tit with feet upon ckayffe pieds, and salute you with shrill cries, setting forth your wants, and their ability to supply them. You are struck with tho neatness and oleanliness of every department?vegetables piled up in tho moot artistic manner. But, as 1 said be fore, you miss the abundance one is so aocus tomcd to at homo?heaps of everything roll ing and tumbling about, Bilkoa corn and golden apples, sun-colored peaches and purple grapes, with huge strawberries, all poured carelessly out, as if good Dame Nature had abundance for all. How this contrasts with tho ucat little piles, where every leaf is counted and cvory stem worth a won*?where the small est pear oauuot be had for less than throp sou-, good apples for no money?where you see u bonnes " with little bankets, which would not nerve a fcohool girl for apio-nic, carrying away the provisions for a whole family, and poor women higgling with the dealers over a mor sel that seems to you not worth accepting as a present. .... i When to this scarcity you add the universal dishonesty, you may appreciate the troubles foreigners have to encounter. \ ou take apart ments, furn shid, in your careless Western way, make a verbal agreement; at the end of the month you find a very misty recollection on the part of your landlady and hor prime min ister the converge, and twice as much to pay as you consented. ^ ou now reduce all to writing, call in everybody to witness the sol emn agreement. You will pay sixty dollars per month for four little apartments, furnished comfortably, on a oourt, and on the 34 story in a fashionable quarter?this without inclu ding lights and fire. When you come to p*y, a host of unexpected items are presented. \ on supptwe, for instanoe, that in tho sixty dollars is included the ordiuary use of the furniture? not so. The concierge goes through a careful investigation, and even the slightest evidence of wear has to be paid for, at a rotn whioh, at the end of s.x months, makes almost the value of the furniture. Dr. Bob has disoovored an ink spot on a writing table, whioh has been paid for six times in less than a year? nearly twice the value of the article itself. You provide your domestic with money to pur chase provisions, and soon make the discovery of a large per centage going into the pocket of your agent?and you request him or her to bring tho bills with the artioles. This is promptly complied with, until an acquaintance uoe? and inquires how it is that yon pay so much more than the proper cost You inves tigate, and discover that the hills have l?een made out to suit your domestic, and by the clerk of quite an extensive establishment, for the sake of securing the patronage. Of all classes visiting I'aris, our much-abused countrymen are the most abominably fleced. The Parisians consider them enormously rich, and call them gee so We are sharp enough. Heaven knows?but we have been acou?tomed t<> dealing where principlo has some existenoe, and honesty is the true basis of success. As we were leaving tho market place a few dsys Bince, Lucy priced a bouquet?the boy asked twenty sous, and she offered ten, which was refused. We had walked quite a square, when the dealer overtook us, running. With a smilo and a bow that would have been a wonder at homo, ho begged permission to pre pent 14 the beautiful MAdetnoiaello the boil quetw for the sum of ten sous. Wo respect fully declined tho present, hot wade ttie pur chase?and in ten sons paid twice its value. Jednthan Brown, of the Sherman House, Chicago, died on the 24th. WASHINGTON, D. C. FRIDAY, JANUARY 6, 1854 It required a little time to beoouie used ti> uew maubinery, and to get it to work well. The paper lor our Daily in not ho Rood as it will be. The arrangement in not exactly what we intend to make it. Our ageuoies are not yet organized And the pajscr has tailed, in two or three cases, in being sent off by tho altor noou'e mail. These are all matters which will he remedied. In two or three weeks wo shall be relieved partially from the hoavy pressure of business, attending the renewal of our large Weekly lint, und thon we shall devote more attention to the Daily. HEBEA9KA AOITATIOH-THU WHOLE QUES TION RE-OPENED. Wben we said, yesterday, that the Proviso ol' the Missouri act of 1820 virtually divided the Louisiana Territory into two "parte?the one below 36 deg. 30 inin. being scoured for slave labor, the ono above 3(i deg 30 min. to free labor?we did not mean to admit that the provision itself secured the existence of Slavery anywhere. It did no such thing; but Slavery existed below 36 deg. 30 tu'n. as a fact, and Congress, forbearing to legislate for its exclu sion theuce, while it did banish it expressly from above that parallel of latitude, taoitly and wrongfully sanctioned it below. With this explanation, wo resume tho con sideration of the subject of Territorial tJovern ment for Nebraska. While the Whig and Democratic Partus stand committed, through the declarations of their National Conventions, to resist the agita tion of the Slavery Question, a report has been made in the Senaui, which formally rc-opens the whole Question, and brings tip again lor discussion the issues of 1X50. We refer to tho report of Mr. Douglas, from the Committee on Territories, recommending the organization of Nebraska. We were told, in 1850, that there was not one loot of soil belonging to the United State?, tho condition of which, as it rejects Freedom and Slavery, was not fixed by law. No one ventured to ooutradiot this assertion of Daniel Webster, so far as the old territory belonging to the United States north of 36 deg. 30 min. was concerned. Southorn men admittod the fact, and reasoned upon it. Mr. Calhoun, in portrayiug the power of tho free States, uni formly spoke not only of all that Territory, hut also of Oregon, as Fr. e Soil, and the nursery of future non-slaveholding States. Ho knew that Law bad lecognised its exemption from Slavery, and solemnly secured it; for he was a member of the Cabinet under whose express sanction Mr. Monroe signed the bill containing the Anti-Slavery Proviso. Before committing himself, Mr. Monroe submitted tw? questions to his Cabinet : Had Congress the constitu tional power to prohibit Slavery in a Territory ? Was the term "forever," in the prohibitive olauie of the Missouri bill, to be understood as referring only to the territorial condition of tho district to which it related, or was it an at tempt to extend the prohibition of Slavery to such States as might be erected therefrom ? u On the first question, all the Cabinet de clared themselves in the affirmativej though neither Calhoun, Crawford, nor Wirt, could t-ee any express authority, and though Wirt himself was strong against implied powers As to the second question, Adams thought that the term 1 forever1 muvt be understood to meau forever, and that the prohibition, instead of ceasing with the territorial condition of the district, would extend to any States that might at any time be erected out of it. The others? including Thompson, ot New-York, placed in the Navy Department about a year before as successor to Crowninshield, and, as well as Baldwin, elevated at the fint opportunity to the benoh of the Supreme Federal Court?were all of opinion that this 'forever ' was only a territorial forever, not interfering with the right of any State, that might at any time be organised within the district referred to, to establish or prohibit Slavery. But to pievent this delicate point being mooted, and to give to the opinion of the Cabinet an appearance of unanimity, the second question was modified, at Calhoun's suggostion, into tho mero inquiry, Was the proviso, as it stood in the bill, constitutional or not? To thi*, not withstanding the fundamental difference above pointed oat, they could all say yes. They all did Bay so in writing, and no more; and on tho strength of these deceptively unanimous opin ions, ordered to be deposited in the arohives of State, whenoe they have sinoe disappeared Monroe put his name to the two bills ' * This restrictive clause, exempting all of I.on ibiana Territory north of 36 deg. 30 min from the ourse of Slavery, has l?een hold to be in force ever since. No attempt has been made to repeal it; but an effort was made, pending the questions or Territorial Government for Ore gon, New Mexico, and California, in 1848-49 '50, to extend the restrictive line to the Pacific. A motion of this kind was made in the House by Judge Douglass, and sustained by those members, North and South, who were oppo-ed to the Wilmot Proviso. Did they believe they were voting for tho extension of a line which was unconstitutional, null and void 1 Wo repeat, nobody dreamed that there could Iw any question whether the territory north of 36 deg. 30 min. was exempt from Sla very. The non-slaveholders of the country have always congratulated themselves on this exemption. If any fact soems settled in our political system, it was the faot that all that broad territory was consecrated forever to Freedom?the home of Free I.aW and Free Laborers. Hosting in th'n conviction, the A nti Slavery men raised no question about Slavery last win I ter, when the Nebraska Territorial Bill was I acted upon in tho House. Not a word was said about tho Wib.nt Prov'.so. Tkry did not agitate : the organisation of Nebraska was so clearly right, its exemption from Slavery was no absolutely seoured, in their opinion, by a compromise agreed to thirty-throe years ngoi and never disturbed, that they oould hardly imagino it possible that the Slave Power would manifest opposition. They wore doomed to disappointment. In tho Sinate, the bill was resisted by tho whole slaveholding delegation, with one exception, and failed. They had rea son to be disturbed by such opposition, and when they saw Senator Atchison, of Missouri, deeply interested as that State is in Nebraska, opposing the jolicy of organising it, unless on ? Hildreth's History of lb* United States, ?rond ?oriel, vo) 3d, page condition of tlie repeal of the Missouri Com promise, tLey felt that the Slave Interest, while pretending to deprecate the agitation of Sla very, had, by its own aot, revived that agita tion, not now on the stale pretext of defending it* righto, but with the audacious purpose of converting Territory guarantied free, by law, into Slaveholding Territory, so a* to augment its power and perpetuate its domination. \ oe? the conspiracy of the Slavery Propagandists now in, to abrogate the Missouri Compr<*niBe, to make all the Territory, west of our bor der States, Slave Territory, out of which to erect a oordon of Slave States around the Free Went! And this conspiracy is to be carried on under cover of tho bill reported in the Senate by Mr. Dougla<-s. We said the provision iu it wliich guaran tiee the admission of any State or States whieh may hereat'tor bo organised, iuto the Union, with or without Slavery, does not touch tl ?e territorial relations of Nebnuka to Slavery, so long as it roinains Territory, and that those relations have been detioed and settled '? lor ever " by the Missouri Compromise. But, why wan such a provision insorted f 1 ho proposi tion is to org'inizo a Territorial Government lor f|obra?ka. Why attempt to anticipate any question concerning the organisation ol Stated ont of it ? VVhy not let each Congress determine for it wit' what course shall he pur Huod on the practical questions calling tor its action? t The task of this Congress is to form a Ter ritorial Government for Nebraska, not to act upon a propositi ;n for its admission as a State. Why insidiously connect with the bill to organ ize a Territorial (Jovo.rument for Nebraska, a reaffirmation of that port of the Compromise ol 1850, which declares that a State applying for admisttion to tbo Union, shall ho reeei\C'3, whether with or without Slavery? Is it sup posed that such a declaration can pass now, any more than it did thou, without hot discus sion and contention ? and is this the entertain ment to which tho Pro-Slavery Party, with its whining* agaiust agitation, invites the country ? The truth is, tho effect, if not the intention, of tho hill is, to remove Nebraska lrom the ground of the Proviso of 1820, and organise it upon tho basis of tho Compromise of 1850, placing it iu tho suno Category with Utah and Now Mexico, leaving it an open question whether it be exempt from Slavery or not. This Question, shut by the Missouri Compro mise, is now, alter a lupse oCthirty three years, to bo again opened. In the name of the God of the Oppressed, we a*k, why ? Who is to 1k> the gainer? If tho slaveholders really wanted peace and quiet, why did they not suffer the Territory, Free by Law, to be organised as Free Territory ? If Mr. Djuglas and b's Committee had really been opposed to agitation, nothing was easier than to avoid it on such a question. They might have done what was done last winter in tho House?framed ju*t such a bill? a bill for the simple organization of a Territo rial Government, without allusion to Slavery. Instead of this, we have, first, a report going over all the issues passed upon in 1820 and 1850, 'and then a bill with oertain provisions in it relating to Slavery, which evidently con template tho possibility that this new Territory may fall under tbo domination of the Curse. And all thiB gratuitous provocation to the agi tation of the Slavery Question, oom^s from those who are pledged to resist all attempts to renew such agitation! It may be said, if the provision in the bill i oonoerning Slavery, does not touch the relation of the Territory to Slavery, ?) long as it ehall remain a Territory, why be disturbed, why , agitated by it? We have already answered i the question in part, in another number we ?hall answer it in full. ( Meantime, let us admonish the country, | that, by tho action of the Pro-Slavery party, ( every issue pa-wed upon by the Compromiso i measures of 1850, is againT submitted to di* oussion, the Missouri Compromise itself is again dragged into tbo political arena, the whole question of Slavery is foroed upon the 1 Federal legislature; and that the object th:s time is, not to protect existing Slavery, as was the case in 1820, not to propagate Slavery into territory acquired by conquest, and whOM con dition is undetermined by American Law, us was the case in relation to Now Mexico*and Califoftiia ; bat to convert into Slave Territory a vast tract of oountry which for thirty-throe years has been oonsecrated by American Law to Freedom and Free Labor. If the non-slaveholders of the Republic sul> mit to this last exaction, to the wisdom and goodnesB of the All-wise alone shall we l.>ok, to rescue thetu from the deep damnation ol their apostacy and servility. THE KOSZTA AFFAIR From the indications furnished by the de'.ate 1 in the House yesterday, on the reaolutions.ol i thanks I? Captain Ingrabam, we infer that the j eonduot of the Administration in the K?**'a affair does not meet with the approbation of a portion of the Southern member*. They are j afraid to thank ^aptain IngTaham, lest they should impliedly sanction, the principles affirm ed in the Maroy Letter, respecting the right inchoate citizens to the protection of tho Gov eminent, and also give oountenanee to the idea that the Principle of Humanity may, at tim -s, j rightfully dictate tho action of the Govorn- i ment. Of course, every intelligent observer feels that it is the extreme jealousy and timid Con servatism engendered by Slave Institutions, that obstructs the passage of these simple res olutions in honor of a gallant American officer. Mr. Chandler, of Pennsylvania, spoke with great forcc and portinenco in support of tho resolutions: "The Queen of Kngland never permitted an act of humanity towards a suffering Rriton to escape a distinctive token-of regard ; nnd wns an American less to be regarded than a Tor eigner? Was the prinoiple ol humanity less to bo regarded and less to l?e approved of here than abroad ? This moasnre was one of self- j respect, and there was no proverb more appli- | oable to it than tho old Latin proverb: lh* (tat qin a to dat?he gite* twioo who givos quickly. , While they were deliberating, the spirit of their good act was evaporating, and the whole mat ter was becoming a piece of lormal legislation. This was a question that ap|<oaled to the reel ings of every Amerioan?one that appealed to them as representatives of the American j>oo ple, It was not a question whether this ninn or that man hail a particular claim for our do fence. It was a question whether the flag of the United States should not afford protection to the oppressed and suffering who (night claim exemption from that apeoica of tyranny to whioh Knszta was subjected, and whether Con grew might not in t-elf-respeot dignify their legislation by showing that they appreciated the virtue of humanity so far as to reward an action which rtfijoted credit at home and abroad upon the navy of o?ir country. A few mouthN ugo; while abroad, he had an oppor tunity of listening to discussions "upon this questiou, and though many doubted whether we were not involving cursive* in difficulties in undertaking to dofend a oitiieu whose claim wad not a full one, still they believed that hu manity and the progress of human right.) jus tified the u-.ition of Cupt. Ingrahain, and called for applause n[H>n it. In another column will bo fouud the rendu tions, and the speech of Hon. Gerrit Smith. MITIGATION OF THE SLAVE CODE. Tho following bill, in re'ution to the aalo and division oi slave mothorH from their chil dren, id now liefure the Legislature of Georgia: " Skc. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Hcpredent.itivea of the State of Geor gia, iu General Assembly mot, and it ia hereby onacted by the authority of the aame, that the children not exceeding five yearn of ago, of any woman slave, and auch woman blave, shall not be separately sold, or exp mod to bale under execution or othor legal procoa, order, or de cree, or at any aale made by an cxecutor, ad ministrator, guardian, or other trustee, nor ahall thoy be separated in any division made by any executor, administrator, guardian, or other trustee, but ahall be placed together, in one of tho parts into which the estate to which they belong is tn bo divided, unload such divis ion cannot in any wise be effected without such repartition. " Skc. 2. And bt it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that by consent of the or dinary, slaves living in a different county from a deceased owner may be sold in tho county in which said slaves may reside, upon applica tion being made for suoli purpose. '< S>:c 3. And be it further enacted, that all lawd and parts of laws militating againat this act, be and the same are hereby repealed " This proposition servea to bring more dis tinctly to light, what wo all kuow, that under the Slave Code, as it exists in Georgia, chil dren of any age, mere infants at the brCost, may be forever separated from their mothora ; and that thia cruelty is too often practiced is proved by the attempt to prevent it. Were not the evil such as to call for romody, no bill of the kind would be introduced. At best, it is a small concession to humanity?a proposition to pre vent children under Jive yean of age, from be ing separated from their mothora ! Children over five, are not to be the subjects of such benevolence! It were well if the Legislature of Georgia would modify the bill, so as to embody in it the recommendations of tho Governor of Ala bama in his late annual message. These we have already published, but so important do we regard them, that we again solicit attention to them: / " Tho Code very properly provides that slave children of tender years shall, at judioial and some other sales, bo offered with their mother*, where the defendant in execution, &o., is roe Dwner both of the mothor und children ; and that, at such sales, slaves must be offered, and, if practicable, sold in families. But it is al lowable for either of tho parties in interest to impair, to a great extent, these very salutary enactments. These provisions, in Miy judgment, should be absolute, at least as it rcspects moth sre, and children of ten years of age and under, and husband and wife, whore the latter rela tion is admitted by the owner if the tlavos. Hiese are relatione whioh moral duty requires as to res|*ect, acid it can be no violation ot pol icy to conform municipal law to good morala. It is universally conceded that slaves are rea ?onable beings?with the moral feelings, it is true, often obtuse, but susceptible of improve ment. The husband and wife generally cher ish affection for each othor, and tho mutual ittacbmenttj of mother and child are usually ttrong. Tho mother is not always a wise coun sellor; but she mu-t be presumed to be the most constant and sincere the obild has. Let, then, tho lattor enjoy this parontal oversight luring ohildhood, that it may be the better prepared by good prinoiplos and industrious iiabits to act its part afterwards.-*' However far short the?e views fall of the ?Utndard of Right, still thoy manifest a respect Tor relations, earned iu themselves, but which :he Slave Code has always ruthlessly disregard id. The Governor would have the law make Ike marriage relation indiss tluble, and the par tie a \o it inseparable, when it has once been admitted by the master. He would have the law to pro vide absolutely against tho separation of chil dren under ten from their mothers, and that where families of slaves are sold, they shall be sold together. He asserts the Humanity of the Blavea, and tho sacreduaa of the Family rela lions. "These are relations," he adds, " whioh moral duty requires us to respect, and it can It no violation of policy to conform municipal law to gootl mot a! We hail such sentiments, emanating from the Governor of a slavelioldiog State. He gives utterance, we doubt not, to opinions quite prevalent among the more intelligent classes of tlie Sou h. Tho Raitigk Register (KiiLigb, N. C.) c irdiully rescinds to his rec ommendations, remarking: "This proposition of the Governor of Ala bama will l*i responded to by every humane bre;iet. It is an important movement, in the right quarter, coincident in spirit with that which pervades the nddrcs of the Southern Agricultural As*<iciation, which wo published a few weeks since. "The general adoption of this humane rec ommendation by the Southern States would prove the wisest and mo-t efficient defensive measure agiinst tSe o?aults of Abolitionism that has ever been conceived of. The abuses of Slavery, or certain unessential though bad features of the syeiom, have givon a point and force to the attacks of its enemies, whioh ameli orations such as are suggested by Governor ('oilier would render harmless. " We arc firmly convinced that these salu tary reforms will go fur to remove Northern prejudices against Southern expansion, where it can tuke place consistently with the rights of other nation*.'' It is perfectly immaterial to ns, whether the buying ai d selling of slaves, separation of slave families, denial to slaves of the means of education, k<s, &<i.,-bo regarded in the South as abuses of the system, or not, provided the law interfero to comct them. Let what the South regards as the abuses, and we, the essentials of Slavery, bo remedied, and Abolitionism will have nothing to do. Mr. Jas. Bridge, a**?ciatfl editor of the Jer sey City Aluror, died of apoplexy last Friday. J allien will give another seriee of concerts in Boston shortly. THE H LIBERAL POLICY." "Our exchange list is *> overgrowu that we are compelled jfo cut it down. I he Pr^P?V^ f.ir general use has been standing ? the t ? for two or threo weeks. By publishing thia, bo that it will attract attention, or by giving tfnoh an abstract and notice of it as shall bring the Era fairly before their readers, Mifl iiH entitle themselves to an exohauge If ttuy choosu t?> do this, we shall recognise their olann to the Era for one year. Some publishers, pre fer to pay a differenee of one dollar on the ex change." , ? We take the above from the National Era of the 8th ult. It is required of all country pa rxirs to publish a long prospectus of that paper to entitle them to an exobange, or to pay one dollar a year for the honor and privilege of re ociving that superior paper. Now, the Era is a itood paper?everybody knows that; its edi tor is a m mi of talent, and a firm advooute (-1 Truth and R ght?everybody knows that too; but we do not consider it worthy of such hom age from us Had it been asked of us, ai a matter t f courtly, to publish the prospects, we should have been Uppy to have donei w.; but we will not play second fiddle for the Era, or any otbvr pa, er. When we Dubl.sb a pros pootus, we generally do it upon the same terms tiH other advertisements. Weekly Sparta Journal. |ri the editor of tho Journal aware that the paragraph purporting to be quoted from the Era nevor appeared in that form in tho Era f Where did he find *uch a quotation ? What we did say appeared in the Era of Dooember 8th, and was this: rr5=-0i/R Exchange List is so overgrown that wo aio compelled to out it down. We cannot afford, of course, to exchange Willi a thousand or two papers. Some editors print a short propped us, which was intended tor W?e use of our voluntary agents; they print this, too, in sonin obscure corner, aud without oven calling attention to it, and then claim an ex change. As wo have never requested them to do anything of the sort, they will please ex cuse us for not complying with the request. The prospectus for general use has been standing in the Era for two or three weeks. By publishing this, so that it will attract at tention, or by giving such an abstract and no tice of it as shall bring the Era lairly before thoir readers, they will entitle themselveB to an exchange. Wc do not ask this, for wo are desirous to keep our exchanges within mode rate limitH; but if thoy choose to do so, v.e shall recognise their claim to the Era for one year Some publishers prefer to pay a. difference ot one dollar on the exchange. . We intend nothing offensive to any ot our cotomporaries, nor would we intimate that the Era is superior in merit to their papers; but their own experience will show theui the ne cessity of fixing some limitation upon these oditorial courtesies. A very different thing this, from tho offensive paragraph attributed to us. Again, let u* say, once for all, that we have nevor made it a con dition to exchange with any Free Democratic paper, that it should publish our Prospectus, or notice the Era in any way; and that, it an exchange is not kept up with every such paper, it is entirely from inadvertence, not intention. As this is the fourth time, within a few weeks, that we have been misrepresented, may we ask tho Free Democratic Press to print this lost paragraph? The United Statks and Mexico?A des patch from this city is published in various Northern papers, which state* that a treaty with Mexico ha* been negotiated by Geueral Gadsden, and is uow before the President, the first article of which provides that Mexico shall five to the United States such a bound ary as will enable us to pr >tect her from the incursions of tho frontier Ind.ans; the second provides for a right of way for a railroad to the Pacific, " as a means of forming a commer cial barrier against tl.o attacks of the 1 ndians;v the third provides for an abrogation of the sec tion of tho treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo whioh guaranties the defence of the frontier in con sideration of money given, whioh is to be in full of all past depredations ; the fourth pro vides for the specific enforcement of the Tqhu antepec right of way; and the fifth contains an alternative proposition to the second article, t > the effect that Mexico shall oede to the United States a boundary which will include the route known in Lieutenant Parke's map as " Lieut Col. Cooke's wagon route," extending nearly to the 31st parallel, and going due weat, so as to give us a large accession of territory, and taking in tho whole of the peninsula of Lower California, including Sonora, upon the payment by tho U. State* to Mexico of fifty millions of dollars. Doubt is thrown upon this statement by other writers, but we are inclined to think there is MOUlO at least plausible basis for it. The Senate or the United States?W* have re a J with surprise a statumeut in a morning paper, to the efft ct that of the Sena tors in CongretK* who wero member* at the December ensaioo of 184^, the following hate mate at present, m: Meurn. Atchison or Missouri, Bright of Indiana, Caas of Michi gan, Clayton of Delaware, Pearcc of Mary land, and Mr. Phelps of Vermont; and khai bat Jlne of the present body were in scr?i?e a Senators at any time previous to the above date. Truly, death has done it* wirk in this l>ody; but the mutation*! of partien hare grown more frequent, and Senators do not, ait <<f old, grow gray in its ser?iee. Tsrenty year* ago there wan not ayoong member, and there were but few middle-aged members of that body. Now there are but four aged men among them. Mr. Akors, a young artist of Maine, bit' modeled a beautiful boat of Mr. Speaker Boyd. A slight shook of earthquake was felt in Memphis, Snnday morning. The emigration into Iowa the prenent sea-nxi is astonishing and unprecedented. The eitiaens of Lafayette, I*., are farnbhed with 6ret rate eoal at 13 oente per bushel. S.. much for railroads. Beet Inmp butter retails in Albany at 16 a 20 cents per pound : 1?cef ft a 6 cents ; pork a a 7 oents; mutton 5 a cents; real 4 a 8 cents ; cheese 8 cents. A male slave, 24 years old, ? ?Id at Clatkt bnrg, Va., last week, for t ,502, and another, a female, 18 years old, lor 1,030 / In Florence, Alabama, the town c mnoil hava raised the Hot-nee for retailing apiritiK?ujp liquors to one thousand dollar*, and on billiard tabl<? and ten-pin alleys to five hundred dollars. Gov. Farwoll has o <mnmtod the sentence of McDonald, who was nnder sentence of death at Milwankee, to imprisonment for lift. Forrest and Anderson, the tragedians, hi* playing in Boston, at different theatres?the lormer at the u National," and the latter at the " AtheiiHBum " LITERABY NOTICES. Utsv Momknis OF AN Jdi.k Womak. N'?w ^ul Appletou A Co. For ??l? by Robort Fari.haui, Washington, D. C. 1 vol., pi> 281) This fanciful little.book has beguiled us cf busy ho.irs, ho winning have wo f..uud it. The tales are: ' Edith;" "An Everyday M?, '?The Widow;" 1 O.dMaidlum v* Marriage;" ? An Episode in tlie Life of a Woman or Fa-h ian." Uotohks TO You no Mkn. By w. Q Kliot, v**Ur of the Church of tho Messiah, St. LouU, 1 vol, pi>. 190. Crosby, Nichols, A Co , Boston. LtcrUKKS OH THI FoKMA HON OK ClIAUACTKK OK Yotiso Mkn. By Rev. Kufus W. Clark. Bunion john 0 Jewett A Co. 1 vol., pp. 379. Hie alwve are wild by Cray & Ballantyno, ? of Washington. Wo have oarefully examiued these vilumes. They are worthy of all ac ceptation Wo hope evory Young Men's Cbus tian Asa* ciatiou may place duplicate copies, if riot a d "aan, in all their librarian. Mr. Eliot is a native of Washington, and Mr. Clark wu for a tin? tli3 Minister of the Four-and-a-half streot Presbyterian Church. Ill Washington these geutlemcn are greatly rej ected for their piety and well knowu tal ents ; both h ive appeared bofofo the public aa authors of works which have been well receiv ed. The lecture oa "Lslsure Time," by Mr. Kliot and the chapter on Pernicious Litern- - ture," by Mr. Clark, we road with especial in terest. Fa* Okk; or, Asia and Australia Deicrlhod, with Anecdotes and Illuslnuiuus. By lb- author of " '1 he l'cop-of Day.1' 1 vol : Carter A Brothers, New York. For wilo hy Uray A Ballantyne. This is a very nice little book, lull ol iuler citing geographical history, illustrated with wood cats. If tho children of the pre^ut and coming generations are not wiser than their lathers, it will not be for waul of instructive books. Minnesota, and itb Resources. By J. W. Bond. Now York : Rodfield A Co. Fur salo by Taylor A Maury, Pa. avenuo, Washington, I). C. 1 \olume, pp. 364. This new Territory is to shine forth with tho ^ uplrndors of a new-risen miii, " which as a bridegroom ouuioth out ??1 his chambers to run a race,v and a race which will w>on distance, in population, wealth, and power, those old " fogy States hitimted nearer the Atlantic than the Paoific ocean, and who were young grooms a oentury siuco. But, sotiouaIy? this volume, de voted to this now Territory, is of special inter est to all who hope for the gaowth ??1 Iree opin ions with the growth of new free States. We believe every State which will be henceforth admitted will be an incroaee to the power of . Freedom, and Hiat the inrtuence of thwecoming future States will \<o felt for tho advancement of liberty aud religion?ft religion founded upon the Bible, a? tho only rule ol Faith and Prac t'.oe, and freedom base! on tho Bible and the Declaration of Independence, read by brave men and women, who are as incapable of the - refinements of in >d.:rn statesmanship and di vinity aH they are of adopting the latest Paris-. ian mod?* of drws and manner*, in whioli what is gained in grace is lost in honesty, manliness, and virtuo. ? ' Th* Souls Duki.s.?Our newspapers find this a fruitful topic of comment,' and mauy of them are facetious upon the subject, an^erting that the duels were fought ? about Mrs. Soule's drees," &e. We are uot in \omemoa of the particulars, but wo km-w this to be an error. They did not fight about Mrs. Soule's drew*. Had the rcmaik of the titled fopling been mada of Mrs. SouU's complexion, her walk, or the tones of her voice, it would have been all tho same. An offensive and disrespectful re- ^ mark, we have every reason to believe, waa^ made, which young Soule was prompt to re sent; and from this prooeedeJ these duels. We aro oppoeod to all duels ; but it is never theless our decided conviction, that the very thought of casting ridicule upon either lather or eon, is simply ridiculous ; and we know Mrs. Soule to be a lady of great worth nod elegant aooontplish incnts. Winkm?The culture of the graj.e utiJ the manufacture of wiu? have been suooemfully oommenc d in thin country, %nd tho prospect, indicate s a great increase in the busiueM. It may therefore bo well fur the American People to look at tbe subject, and to form their judg ment* upon it. The Secretary of the Treasury ha* recently * recommended the repeal of the duty or im ported wine, ail of which, if we are correctly informed, in (strengthened by the addition of brandy, that it may he traitsported in a good state of preservation. In speaking of the pro duction of the article in thin ountry, Thurlow Weed says, in a rcccnt letter from the wine making region of Cine unati? "I eannot hat Hay that cheap wine, free, a* thie, from alcohol, would prove the m<*t bene ficial Maine I.aw that ooo'.d be enacted Fur nuh the people at a email co t jo?f so iiiuoh of stimulant an thin beverage conanis, and drunk enness would dee away from us. Me (.Mr. Greeley) hat mm, an I have, countries where all clasnm drink ehcap wines, ar.d where ibere in nothing of intoxication, and. from this caone, noth'n ? of o.ime or destitution.'* This in a practical question of ^reat import 1 anee, and wo shall be pleaded to see it properly investigated and discussed. Maryland I, roisi. atomic.?The organisation of this luidy ajq>ears to he retarded through the ii ll-.icnoe (f a small balance .>f-power Maine Law p irty, who have wisely determined to cause '^leir power to l>e known. It is be lieved that they will c,>mpel a coalition or a compromise between the old parties. We are gratified to be informed, a'ai, that the enact ment of a salutary prohibitory or restrictive 1 law is uttnfidcutl^ex|iectod to l>e pa ncd this session. Nrwspackr I'i.kamantmik*.-?The Albany A tin*, a few days age, contained an editorial, the heguining whereof was as follows "We loam that the admirers of the Albany Argm intend presenting that sheet with a oopy of the Whoi.k Art or I'oi.itk ai. Lvinm, gilt and bound in hras-4, mm a New Vear's gift. It ii the most perfect adept in tbe science of men dsoity, and if it hnd not destroyed it? own rep utation, would Ih? good for som -thing. As it is, it only exoitas the admiration of tnoee phi 1 losophers who adinirn falsehood tor its own sake." Kdwin Kohinsoil, aged sixteen year', reocued | a lad from drowumg, at Schuylkill Haven, ' on Monday.