WASHINGTON. D. C.
THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAIV.
Mm ArtUi?r?4tMl Mlalary la ihrtrl enii
iM ? Am ari it^rrHinj (?|illvN (ram iu?U<r and
pr*MM <!??? lb* irnlff ?! Ilielr inu?trrm,"
aMMMrrl Krbruary Iwrlltk, anr lliau?uaii wvh
Imrtrri aa4 aln>-t)-thrr*.
H? it enacted by the Senate and .House of
Representative* of the t 'nited States of
America in Con/^ress assembled, That (ho
persons who have been or may hereafter
he appointed commissioners in virtue of;
any uet of Congress, by the circuit courts
of the United States, and who, in conse- J
queuce of such appointment, are author
ized to exercise the powers that any jus
tice of the peace, or other magistrate ol
any of the United States, may exercise in
reaped to offenders for any crime or of
fence against the United States, by arrest
ing, imprisoning, or bailing, the same, j
under ami by virtue of the thirty-third
section of the act of the twenty-fourth of
September, seventeen hundred and eighty
nine, entitled " An act to establish the
judicial courts of the United States," shall
be, aud are hereby, authorized and requir
ed to exercise and discharge all the pow
ers and duties conferred by this act.
Skc. 2. And be it further enacted, That
the superior court of each organized Ter
ritory of the United States shall have the
same power to appoint commissioners to
take acknowledgments of hail and affi
davits, and to take depositions of witnesses
in civil causes, which is now possessed by
the circuit court of the United Slates; and
all commissioners who shall hereafter be !
appointed for such purposes by the supe
rior court of any organized Territory of
the United States, shall possess all the J
powers, and exercise all the duties, con
fcrred by law upon commissioners ap
pointed by the United States for similar
purposes, and shall moreover exercise and |
discharge all the powers and duties con
ferred by this act.
Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That
the circuit courts of the United States,
and the superior courts of each organized
Territory of the United States, shall from
time to time enlarge the number of com
missioners, with a view to afford reasona
ble facilities to reclaim fugitives from'labor,
and to the prompt discharge of the duties
imposed by this act.
Skc. 4. And be it further enacted, That
the commissioners above named shall have
concurrent jurisdiction with the judges of
the circuit and district courts of the United
States in (heir respective circuits and dis
tricts within the several States, and the
judges of the superior courts of the Terri
tories, severally and collectively, in term
time and vacation ; and shall grant certi
ficates to such claimants, upon satisfactory
proof being made, with authority to take
and remove such fugitives from service or
labor, under the restrictions herein con
tained, to the State or Territory from
which such persons may have escaped or
Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That
it shall be the duty of all marshals and
deputy marshals to obey and execute all
warrants and precepts issued under the
provisions of this act, when to then! di
rected ; and should any marshal or deputy j
marshal refuse to receive such warrant or
other process when tendered, or to use all j
proper means diligently to execute the
same, he shall, on conviction thereof, be
fined in the sum of one thousand dollars,
to the use of such claimant, on the motion
of such claimant, by the circuit or district J
court for the district of such marshal; and
after arrest of such fugitive by such mar
shal or his deputy, or whilst at any time
in his custody under the provisions under
this act, should such fugitive escape,
whether with or without the assent of such
marshal or his deputy, such marshal shall
be liab'e on his official bond to be prose
cuted for the benefit of such Claimant for
the full value of the service or lal?or of said
fugitive, in the State, Territory, or District,
whence he escaped; and the lietter to en
able the said commissioners, when thus
appointed, to execute their duties faith
fully and efficiently, in conformity with
the requirements of the Constitution of
? the United States and of this act, they
are hereby authorized and empowered,
within their ? counties, respectively, to
appoint, in writing, under their hands,
any one or more suitable persons, from
time to time, to execute all such war
rants and other process ns may be issued
by them in the lawful performance of
their respective duties; with authority to
such commissioners, or the persons to be
appointed by them, to execute process as
aforesaid, to summon and call to their aid
the bystanders, or po?*e com it at us of the
proper county, when necessary to insure
a faithful observance of the clause of the
Constitution referred to, in conformity
with the provisions of this act ; and all
good citizens are hereby commanded to
awl and assist in the prompt and efficient
execution of this law, whenever their ser
vices may be required, as aforesaid, for
that purpose; and said warrants shall ruu
and be executed by said officers anywhere
in the State within which they are issued.
Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That
when a person held to service or labor in
any State or Territory of the United States,
hat heretofore or shall hereafter escape
into another State or Territory of the
United States, the person or persons to
whom such service or labor may be due,
or his, her, or their agent or attorney, duly
authorized by power of attorney, in wri
ting, acknowledged and certified under the
seal of some legal officer or court of the
State or Territory in which the same may
be executed, may pursue and reclaim sucty,
fugitive person, either by procuring a war
rant from some one of the courts, judges,
or commissioners aforesaid, of the proper
circuit, district, or county, for the appre
hension of such fugitive from eervice or
labor, or by seizing aud arresting such fu
gitive, where the same can be done with
out process, and by taking, or causing
such person to be taken, forthwith before
snch court, judge, or commissioner, whose
duty it shall be to hear and determine the
etne of snch claimant in a summary man
nerand npon satisfactory proof being
rilftde, by deposition or affidavit, in wri
ting, to he taken and certified by such
court, judge, or commissioner, or by other
antia&etory testimony, duly taken and cer*
titled by some court, magistrate, justice of
the peace, or other legal officer authorized
to administer an oath and take depositions
under the laws of the State or Territory
from which such person owing service or
labor may have escaped, with a certificate
of such magistrate or other authority, us
aforesaid, with the seal of the proper court
or officer thereto attached, which seal
shall be sufficient to establish the compe
tency of the proof, and with proof, also by
affidavit, of the identity of the person
whose service or labor is claimed to be
due, as aforesaid, that the person so ar
rested does in fact owe service or labor to
the person or persons claiming him or her,
in the State or Territory from which such
fugitive may have escaped as aforesaid,
and that said person escaped, to make out
and deliver to such claimant, his or her
agent or attorney, a certificate setting
forth the substantial facts as to the service
or labor due from such fugitive to the
claimant, and of his or her escape from the
State or Territory in which such service or
labor was due, to the State or Territory in
which he or she was arrested, with author
ity to such claimant, or his or her agent or
attorney, to use such reasonable force and
restraint as may be necessary, under the
circumstances of the case, to take and re
move such fugitive person back to the
State or Territory whence he or she may
have escaped as aforesaid. In no trial
or hearing, under tfiis act, shall the testi
mony of such alleged fugitive be admitted
in evidence; and Ihe certificates in this
and the first section mentioned shall be
conclusive of the right of the person or
persons in whose favor granted, to remove
such fugitive to the State or Territory from
which he escaped, and shall prevent all
molestatiou of such person or persons, by
any process issued by any court, judge,
magistiate, or other person, whomsoever.
Sec. 7. Jlnd be it further enacted, That
any person who shaJi knowingly and will- ?
ingly obstruct, hinder, or prevent such
claimant, his agent or attorney, or any
person or persons lawfully assisting him,
her, or them, from arresting such a fugi
tive from service or labor, either with or
without process as aforesaid ; or shall res
cue or attempt to rescue such fugitive from
service or labor, from the custody of such
claimant, his or her agent or attorney, or
other person or persons lawfully' assisting
as aforesaid, when so arrested, pursuant
to the authority herein given and declared ;
or shall aid, abet, or assist such person so
owing service or labor as aforesaid, directly
or indirectly, to escape from such claim
ant, his agent or attorney, or other person
or persons legally authorized as aforesaid ;
or shall harbor or conceal such fugitive,
so as to prevent the discovery and arrest
of such person, after notice or knowledge
of the fact that such person was a fugitive
from service or labor as aforesaid, shall,
for either of said offences, be subject to a
fine not exceeding one thousand dollars,
and imprisonment not exceeding six
months, by indictment and conviction be
fore the district court of the United States
for the district in which such offence may
have been committed, or before the prop
er court of criminal jurisdiction, if com
mitted within any one of the organized |
Territories of the United States; and shall
moreover forfeit and pay, by way of civil
damages to the party iujured by such illegal
conduct, the sum of one thousand dollars
for each fugitive so lost as aforesaid, to be
recovered by action of debt, in any of# the
district or territorial courts aforesaid, within
whose jurisdiction the said offence may
have been committed.
Sec. 8. Jlnd be it further enacted, That
the marshals, and their deputies, and the
clerks of the said district and territorial
courts, shall be paid for their services the
like fees as may be allowed to them for
similar services in other cases; and where
such services are rendered exclusively in
the arrest, custody, and delivery of the
fugitive to the clnimant, his or her agent
or attorney, or where such suppo^d fugi- ;
five may be discharged out of custody for j
the want of sufficient proof as aforesaid,
then such fees are to be paid in the whole
by such claimant, his agent or attorney ;
and in all cases where the proceedings
are before a commissioner, he shall be |
entitled to a fee of ten dollars in full for j
bis services in each case, upon the delivery
of the said certificate to the claimant, his j
or her agent or attorney ; or a fee of five i
dollars in cases where the proof shall not,
in the opinion of such commissioner, |
warrant such certificate and delivery, in- |
elusive of all services incident to such ar
rest and examination, to be paid in either
case by the claimant, his or her agent or
attorney. The person or persons author
ized to execute the process to l?e issued
by such commissioners, for the arrest and !
detention of fugitives from service or labor |
as aforesaid, shall also be entitled to a fee j
of five dollars each for each person he or >
they may arrest and take before any such
commissioner as aforesaid, at the instance
and request of such claimant; Willi such i
other fees as may be deemed reasonalde
by such commissioner for Mich other ad- '
ditional services as may be necessarily
performed by him or them ; auch as at- j
tending at the examination, keeping the
fugitive in e?tody, and providing him with
food and lodging during his detention, ;
and until the final determination of such
commissioner: and in general for perform- !
ing such other duties as may be required
by such claimant, his or her attorney or
agent, or commissioner in the premises,
such fees to be made up in conformity
with the fees usually charged by the offi
cers of the courts of justice within the
proper district or county, as near as nay
be practicable, and paid by such claimants, i
their agents or attorneys, whether auch
supposed fugitives from service or labor be
ordered to be delivered to such claimants
by the final determination of such com
missioner or not.
Src. 9. Jlnd be it further enactrd. That
upon affidavit made by the claimant of
auch fugitive, his agent or attorney, after
such certificate ha? been iaaued, that he
has reaaon to apprehend that such fugitive
will be rescued by force from hie or their
possession before he can be taken beyond
the limits of the State in which the artest
ia made, it shall be the duty of the ofRecr
making the arrest to retain such fugitive in
j his custody, and to remove him to the
State whence he fled, and there to de
liver him to said claimant, his agent or
attorney. And to this end, the officer
aforesaid is hereby authorized and repair
ed to employ so many persons as he may
deem necessary to overcome such force,
and to retain them in his service so long
as circumstances may require. The said
officer and his assistants, while ao employ
ed, to receive the name compensation,
and to be allowed the same expenses, aa
are now allowed by law for transportation
of criminals, to be certified by the judge
of the district within which the arrest is
made, and paid out of the treasury of the
Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That
when any person held to service or labor
in any State or Territory, or in the District
of Columbia, shall escape therefrom, the
party to whom such service or labor shall
be due, his, her, or their agent or attorney,
may apply to any court of record therein,
or judge thereof in vacation, and make
satisfactory proof to such court, or judge
in vacation, of the escape aforesaid, and
that the person escaping owed service or
labor to such party. Whereupon, the
court shall cause a record to be made of
the matters so proved, and- also a general
description of the person so escaping,
with such convenient certainty as may be;
and a transcript of such record, authenti
cated by the attestation of the clerk and
of the seal of the said court, being pro
duced in any other State; Territory, or
District, in which the person so escaping
may be found, and being exhibited to any
judge, commissioner,"or other officer au
thorized by the law of the United States
to cause persons escaping from service or
labor to be delivered up, shall be held and
taken to be full and conclusive evidence
of the fact of escape, and that the service
or labor of the person escaping is due to
the party in such record mentioned. And
upon the production by the paid party of
other and further evidence, if necessary,
either oral or by affidavit, in addition to
what is contained in the said record, of
the idenjity of the person escaping, he or
she shall be delivered up to the claimant.
And the said court, commissioner, judge,
or other person authorized by this act to
grant ?ertificates to claimants of fugitives,
shall, upon the production of the record
and other evidences aforesaid, grant to
such claimant a certificate of his right to
take any such person identified and proved
to be owing service or labor as aforesaid,
which certificate shall authorize such
claimant to seize or arrest, and transport
such person to the State or Territory from
which he escaped; Provided, That noth-'
ing herein contained shall be construed
as requiring the production of a transcript
of such record as evidence as aforesaid.
But in its absence, the claim shall be heard
and determined upon other satisfactory
proofs, competent in law.
Speaker of the Home of Representatives.
William R. King,
President of the Senate pro tempore.
Approved, Sept. 18, 1850.
INDEPENDENT DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM.
ADOPTED AT PITTSBURGH, AUGUST 12, 1861
Having assembled in National Conven
tion as the delegates of the Free Democra
cy of the United States, united by a com
mon resolve to maintain right against
wrongs, and freedom against slavery; con
fiding in the intelligence, patriotism, and
the discriminating justice of the American
people ; putting our trust in God for the
triumph of our cause, and invoking his
guidance in our endeavors to advance it,
we now submit to the candid judgment of
all men the following declaration of prin
ciples and measures:
I. That Governments, deriving'their just
powers from the consent of the governed,
are instituted among men to secure to all,
those inalienable rights of life, lilierty, and
the pursuit of happiness, with which they
were endowed by their Creator, and of
which none can be deprived by valid legis
lation, except for crime.
II. That the true mission of American
Democracy is to maiutain the liberties of
the people, the sovereignty of the States,
and the perpetuity of the Union, by the
impartial application to public affairs, with
out sectional discriminations, of the fun
damental principles of equal righto, strict
justice, and economical administration.
III. That the Federal Government is
one of limited powers, derived solely front
the Constitution; and the grants of power
therein ought to t>e strictly construed by
all the departments and agents of the Gov
eminent, and it ia inexpedient and dan
gerons to exercise doubtful constitutional
IV. That the Constitution of the United
States, ordained to form a more perfect
union, to establish justice, and secure the
blessings of liberty, expressly denies to
the General Government all power to de
prive any person of life, liberty, or prop
erty, without due process of law; and,
therefore, the Government, having no more
power to make a slave than to make a
king, and no more power to establish sla
very than to establish monarchy, should at
once proceed to relieve itself from all re
sponsibility for the existence of slavery
wherever it possesses constitutional power
to legislate for its extinction.
V. That, to the persevering and impor
tunate demands of the Slave Power for
move slave States, new slave Territories,
and the nationalization of Slavery, our dis
tinct and final answer is?no more slave
States, no slave Territory, no nationalized
Slavery, and no national legislation for the
extradition of slaves.
VI. Thst Slavery is a sin against God
and ? crime against man, which no human
enactment nor nssge can make right; and
that Christianity, humanity, and patriotism,
alike demand i<s abolition.
VII. That the fugitive Slave Act of 1850
is Repugnant to the Constitution, to thp
principles of the common law, to the
spirit of Christianity, and to the senti
ments of the civilized world. We there
: fore deny its binding force upon the
Amnriean People, and demand its imme
diate and total repeal.
VIII. That the doctrine that any human
law is a finality, and not subject to modi
fication or repeal, is not in accordance
with (be eltH ?f thr fcwim ?TmiUm.
?"???<, and i? d??<> ?wm ?? ??? NbwHwii
m - ? ftJkiMtt *? ?~ i. *-?A
IX. That tlkr act* ?# <*I.if!IIIIII known
M (tie Comp?it?? Heanw ?f IHW fcf
making the admi***** ?f ? wwwif Huh?
contingent upon thr ?l <4fcw
row?Owen demanded by rtw NMrv*
hkI of Slim; ; 1*^ tJwtt ??? guar
anty fntnlom mi tree TrmtmiN; l?j Um>?
attempt to i?|NMr um vHMiiN(H>M*l tm?M
ationa on the |Hi?rr of < ?m-n ?a imi it*
people |o admit new fit*** it* tbro
vinioni for the iM?m|*tH)ii of l?f hiiIVmi.
of tin* Slata of Tcim, km! fuf the
payment of #*e million* N?>re, and th#
CMiioti of ? Iarge it tti.'fy to iIm ?am?
Slate under meuace. a* m rtnliM*i*irt to
the relinquiahment of a groundl*** ?l?im
and by their iut??ion of the w??em ?nn
of the Stale* and the liberties ?f the peo
ple, through the enactment ??i at* .?n?u*t
oppressive, and unconstitutional Fusfitoe
Slave Law, are pro ted i? be iur?n?i*iriit
with all the principle* and maxim* of De
| inocracy, and wholly inadequate to the
settlement of the question* of which they
are claimed to be an adjustment.
X. That no permanent weulement of
the Slavery question can lie looked km,
except in the practical recognition of tin
truth that Slavery is sectional, ami Free
dom national; by the total separation of
the General Government from Slavery, and
the exercise of its legitimate ami ron?tt
tutional influence on the skle of Freedom;
and by leaving to the Statea the whole
subject of Slavery and the extradition of
fugitives from service.
XI. That all men have a natural right to
a portion of the soil; and thai, a* the use
of the soil is indispensable to life, the
right of all men to the soil it as sacted a*
their right to life itself.
XII. That the public lauds of the U lil
ted States belong to the people, and should
not be sold to individuals nor granted to
corporations, but should lie held as a sa
cred trust for the benefit of the people,
and should be granted in limited quanti
ties, free of cost, to landless settlers.
XIII. That a due regard for the Federal
Constitution, and sound administrative
policy, demand that the funds of the Gen
eral Government be kept separate from
banking institutions; that inland and
ocean postage should be reduced to the
lowest possible point; that no more reve
nue should be raised than is required to
defray the strictly necessary expenses of
the public service, and to pay off the puli
lic debt; and that the power and patron
age of the Government should be dimin
ished by the abolition of all unnecessary
offices, salaries, and privileges, and by the
election by the people of all civil officers
in the service of the United Stales, so far
as may be consistent with the prompt and
efficient transaction of the public business.
XIV. That river aud harbor improve
ments, when necessary to the safety and
convenience of commerce with foreign
nations or among the several States, are
objects of national concern, and it is the
duty of Congress, in the exercise of its
constitutional powers, to provide for the
XV. That emigrants and exiles from
the Old World should find a cordial wel
come to homes of comfort and fields of
enterprise in the New ; and every attempt
to abridge their privilege of becoming
citizens and owners of the soil among us
ought to be resisted with inflexible deter*
XVI. That every nation has a clear
right to alter or change its own Govern
ment, and to administer its own concerns
in such manner as may best secure the
rights and promote the happiness of the
people; and foreign interference with
that right is a dangerous violation of the
law of nations, against which all independ
ent Governments should protest, and en
deavor by all proper means to prevent;
and especially is it the duty of the Ameri
can Government, representing the chief
Republic of the world, to protest againot,
and by all proper means to prevent,
the intervention of Kings and Emperors
against nations seeking to establish for
themselves republican or constitutional
XVII. That the independence of Hayli
ought to be recognised by our Govern
ment, and our commercial relations with
it placed on the footing of the most favor
XVIII. That as, by the Constitution,
" the citizens of each State shall l>e en
titled to all privileges and immunities of
citizens of the several States," the prac
tice of imprisoning colored seamen of
other States, while the vessels to which
they belong lie in port, and refusing to
exercise the right to bring such cases be
fore the Supreme Court of the United
States, to test the legality of such pro
ceedings, is a flagrant violation of the
Constitution, and an invasion of the rights
of the citizens of otther States, utterly in
consistent with the professions maoe by
the slaveholders, that they wish the pro
visions of the Constitution faithfully ob
served by every State in the Union.
XIX. That we recommend the intro
duction into all treaties, hereafter to be
negotiated between the United States and
foreign nations, of some provision for the
amicable settlement of difficulties by a re
sort to decisive arbitration.
XX. That the Free Democratic party is
not organized to aid either the Whig or
Democratic wing of the great Slave Com
promise party of the nation, but to defeat
them both ; and that repudiating and re
nouncing both, as hopelessly corrupt, and
utterly unworthy of confidence, the pur
pose of the Free Democracy is to take
possession of the Federal Government,
and administer it for the better protection
of the rights and interests of the whole
XXI. That we inscribe on our banner,
Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor,
and Free Men, and under it will fight on
and fight ever, until a triumphant victory
shall reward our exertion#.
XXII. That upon this Platform the Con
vention present* to the American People,
as a candidate for the office of President
of the United States, John P. Hale, of
New Hampshire, and ns a candidate for
the office of Vice President of the United
States, George W. Julian, of Indiana,
and earnestly commends them to the sup
port of all freemen and parties.
ns Dcxitrunc platkokm
AtMrm* AT ?ALTIMfWa. JtfVB 1, 1851
I. Mbmthmd, TImi? tlM? Amerfctaa Democ
rat ? th? ir lru?i in lit* intelligence,
dkr pstrvMtHMvi, imI the discriminating jus
W* of llw Atantrw people.
||. Rmmkwd, Tint *?? n>(an) this an a
itMiRriiif fnMnn* rf ?i?r political creed,
?k?h ?f Mr p*r>*?d it* maintiaii l?eforf
tkr *mH4 as iIm gvrsl moral rh infill in I
lum #1 |om>tmhm nl springing from md
ttpht ld t?* tb?- ,i .? ill } hi.I Wf cull
irwl M ? ilk ikr creed and practice of
Kr<J*r?U?m ?*<ter ?lt?if if r name or form,
? hu ll seek* lo palsy ike will ??f the con
si ii unit, aud atiHh roiicfiVM h?> imptw*
IWf tun numimI^ik li?r Ike public ere
III. Mr??/iW,l*rrr^'f?, Thai, rtitrrlain
ing the-* views, Iht Ofwoi rttUc party of
lht? I next through their ih lftf*t< M,ii?MMii
kled in a <?foeral Convention, couiih;;
togetker in ? spirit ot'i iHif owl, ?I*devotion
In tke docimies and lank of a frfr reprt
w*ai?im> Governmftit, and to
their fc lk*w-<nix? u? for iIn> rectitude of
the ir iMraium*, teiw w mm) wimpH befiw
the American peoplf ltd* declaration* of
principles avowed bt ihrm when, un
fitnatf nrfanoRi, in General Convention.
Iby ha*f presented their candidates tor
tke |HjMitar Miffriifw t
1. Thai tkf Federal Goveriirnent ia oim?
of limited jMiaim, demed wolf I y from the
('? ?H"iiiutk?h , anil ihi- grant* of [xiwrt
therein ought lo be strictly constated by
all llif dr |?arlttif nts and agents of I hi- Gov
ernme lit j aod that it ia inexpedient and
dangerous to f xercise doubt hi I eonatitu
2. Thai the Constitution does noi coif
ffi upon ihf General (*overnm< nt the
power to commencc and c*rrf on a gfn
fral svstem of internal uu|?mvemeui*.
3. That tbf Constitution does not con
frr authority upon thf Federal Govern
ment, directly or indirectly, to aaautne thf
debts of thf sevr-ral State*. contracted for
local and internal itnprotemerit*, or oilier
State purposes: nor would such assump
tion kf juat or expedient.
4. That justice and aouud policy forbid
thf Federal Government to fosler one
branch of industry to thf detriment of any
otker, or to chert?h tne inlere*ts of one
portiou to tbf injury of anotlier portiou of
our common country ; that every citisen,
and every aection id' the country, kaa a
right to demand and inaiat upon au equal
it) of rights and privileges, and to com
plete and ample protectHin of penuma and
property from domestic violence or Ibreign
5. That it ia the duly of every brauch of
the Govern me n t to enforce and practice
the moat rigid economy hi conducting our
public affairs, and thu no more revenue
ought lo be raiaed than ia required to de
fray the necessary expenses of the Gov
ernment, and for thf gradual but certain
extinction of the public debt.
6. That Congreaa has no power lo
charter a National Bank ; that we believe
such an inatitulion one of deadly hostility
to tke beats interests of the country, dan
gerous to our republican institutions and
the liberties of Hie people, ami calculated
to place the business of the country within
the contiol of a concentrated money
power, and above the lawa and the will of
the people; and that the reatilta of Dem
ocratic legislation, in thin and all other
financial measures upon which issues haw
been made between the Iwo political par
ties of the country, have demount rated, to
candid and practical nirn, of all parties,
their soundness, safety, and utility, in all
7. That the *e pi ration of the moneya
of the Government from banking iiisiitu
tiona i* indispensable for the safety of the
funds of the Government and the rights of
8. That the liberal principle* embodied
by Jefferson in the Ueclaraiion of Inde
pendence, and ^auctioned in the Coiirti
tution, which makes our* th?- land of lib
erty and tlie asylum of ilw oppressed of
every nation, have ever been cardinal prin
ciples in the Democratic faith ; and every
attempt to abridge the privilege of be*
coming citizens and the owners of soil
among us, ought to be resisted with the
name spirit which swept the alien and
dition lawn from our statute books.
9. That Cougress has no power under
the Constitution to interfere with or con
trol the domestic institutions of the ???
eral States, and that such States are the
sole and proper judges of everything ap
pertaining to their own affairs, not prohib
ited by the Constitution; that all effort*
of the Abolitionists or others, made to in
duce Congress to interfere with questions
of slavery, or to take incipient steps in re
lation thereto, are calculated to lead to
the most alarming and dangerous conse
quences ; and that all such efforts have an
inevitable tendency to diminish the happi
ness of the people and endanger the ata
i bility and permanency of the Union, and
ought not to be countenanced by any
friend of our political institutions.
IV. Resolved, That the foregoing prop
1 oaition covers and was iutended to em
brace the whole subject of slavery agitation
in Congress; and therefore the Demo
cratic party of the Union, standing on this
national platform, w ill abide by and adhere
to a faithful execution of the acts known
as the Compromise measures settled by the
last Congress, " the act for reclaiming fu
gitives from service or labor," included;
which act, being designed to carry out an
I express provision of the Constitution, ran
; not with fidelity thereto be repealed or ao
I changed as to destroy or impair ita effi
V. Resolved, That the Democratic party
will resist all attempts at renewing, in
Congress or out of it, the agitation of the
Slavery question, under whatever ahape or
color the attempt may be made.
VI. Resolved, That the proceeds of the
public lands ought to lie sacredly applied
to the national objects specified in the
Constitution ; and that we are opposed to
any law for the distribution of such pro
ceed.-! among the States, as alike inexpe
dient in policy and repugnant to the Con
VII. Resolved, That we are decidedly
' opposed to taking from the President the
qualified veto power, by which he ii ena
bled, under restrictions and responsibilities
amply sufficient to guard the public inter
est, to suspend the passage of a bill whose
merits cannot secure the approval of two
thirds of the Senate and House of Repre
sentatives until the judgment of the people
; can be obtained thereon, and which has
saved the American people from ihe cor
! rupt and tyrannical domination of the
[Bank of the United States, and from a
corrupting system of general internal im
VIII. Rttohed, That the democratic,
party will faithfully abide by and uphold
the principles laid down in the Kentucky
and Virginia resolutions of 1798, and in
the report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia
Legislature in 1799; that it adopts those
principles as constituting one of the main
foundations of its political creed, and is
resolved to carry them out in their obvious
| meaning and import.
IX. Reaobed, That the war with Mex
ico, upon all the principles of patriotism
and the laws of nations, was a juet and
! necessary "waron our part, in which every
American citizen should have shown him
self on the side of his country, and neither
morally nor physically, by word or deed,
hate given " aid and comfort to the
X. Resolved, That we rejoice at the res
toration of friendly relations with oursister
Republic of Mexico, and earnestly desire for
her all the blessings and prosperity which
we enjoy under ftepublican institutions;
aud we congratulate the American people
upon the results of that war, which have ,
mi manifestly justified the policy and con
?luct of the Democratic party, and insured
to the United States " indemnity for the j
past and security fot the future."
XI. Resofaed, That, in view of the con
dition of popular institutions in the Old
World, a high and sacred duty is devolved,
with increased responsibility, upon the
Democratic party of this country, as the
party of the people, to uphold and maintain
the rights of every State, and thereby the
Union of the States, and to sustain and
advance among us constitutional liberty,
by continuing to resist all monopolies and
exclusive legislation for the benefit of the
few at the expense of the many, and by a
vigilant and constant adherence to those
principles and compromises of the Con
stitution which are broad enough and
strong enough to embrace and uphold the
Union as it was, the Union as it is, and
the Union as it shall be, in the full expan
sion of the energies and capacity of this
great and progressive people.
THE WHIG PLATFORM.
ADOPTED AT BALTIMORE, JUNE 8, 1851
The Whigs of the United States, in
Convention luembled, firmly adhering to
the great conservative republican princi
ples by which they are controlled and gov
erned, and now. a? ever, relying upon the
intelligence of the American people, with
au abiding confidence in their capacity for
self-government and their continued devo
tion lo the Constitution and the Union,
do proclaim the following m the political
sentiment* and determinations, ]?* ?>?
establishment and maintenance or which
their national organization as a party w
* I. The Government of the United Stales
is of limited character, and it is confined
to the exerciae of power* expressly granted
by the Constitution, and such aa may be
iteceasary and proper for carrying the
granted powers into full execution, and
that all power* not thus granted or neces
sarily implied are expressly reserved to
(he State, respectively and to the P^P'**
II. The State Governments should be
held secure in their reserved right*, and
the General Government sustaiued in its
constitutional powers, and the Union
should lie revered and watched over as
??the palladium of our liberties.
HI. That while struggling freedom,
everywhere, enlists the wannest sympathy
of the Whig party, we still adhere to the
doctrines of the Father of his Country, as
announced in b?. Farewell Address ol
keeping ourselves free from nil entangling
alliances with foreign countnea, and of
never quitting our own to stand upon h?t
t-ign ground. That our mission as a Re
public ia net K? propagate our opinions
or imp??ae on other countries our form of
government, by artifice or (brce, but to
teach by example, and show by our sue- (
cess, moderation, and justice, the bless
ing* of i*lf-govern?ent and the advan
tage* of free institutions.
IV. That where the people make and
control the (toveromeut, they should obey
MS constitution, laws, and treaties as they
would retain their self-respect, and the re
?hH I. ?W, ?Wa ??*
V. Government should be rondo* tea
upon |?nneiples of the MricteM economy,
.id revenue *o?cieot ?he
ihrreof. in time * ""J* *Vbr
mainly derived from . dnl, on import*,
and not from direct taxes . and, ? levying
such duties, sonnd pnlmy requite* a jpm
el isc rimtnation and projection >?f*
by specific duties, when praettuhle,
where Wv nHaWe eneowraffe*"" ""J *r
a.-nred to American mdntry. eqoaMv to
all clashes and to .N portion. nf (he roan
,r7- m ??
VI. The Constitution ve*? m <1*1^
ikr power to open and repair ha*l?-tts. ami
remove ebsirwctioos from navigat4r rtrees;
and it m expedient that <?T*"
ere is. that power wAmvrtr mu* "T"
mrrct with foreign nntw ?
(Mates . snch improvement, being, m
instance. national am4 general m the
character. ... ...
I VII. Tte IW-rf Vi 2
menta are port. nf one sy-om. *??
cesrtry *w the rnmmnm preeper.t y, HV ;
and aecnritjr, *?d a
?like with ? cordial.
bin attachment. H> .
of each, and acqnieeceoc* m the . ?
tional measures nf eneh, ?
quired by the plainest i.M?i , T
VIII. The series of acts of the Hat
Congress commonly known a* the Cn??
promwe or Adjustment (the net farwr
r* * f
Whig* of the United Stat**? a final ^
tlement, in principle and sohrtance^ of
subjects to which they relate; mi ?
as these acts are concerned, we will main
tain them, and insist on tticir strict en
forcement, until lime anil experience shall
demonstrate the necessity of further legis
lation to ((iiarri against the evasion of the
laws on the one hand, and the abuse of
their powers on the other, not impairing
their present efficiency to carry out the
requirements of the Constitution ; and we
deprecate all further agitation of the ques
tions thus settled, as dangerous to our
peace, and will discountenance all efforts
to continue or renew such agitation, when
ever, wherever, or however made: and we
will maintain this settlement as essential
to the nationality of the Whig party and
the integrity of the Union.
John G. Chapman, ofAfd.,
President of the Whig National Convention.
KF- The following is a list of the Free Dem
ocratic and Anti-Slavery papers published in
the United States:
FREE DEMOCRATIC PRESS.
Inunirer, Portland, Me.; A. Willey; $2 per annum.
Ina. Democrat, Concord, N. H.; G, G. Fork; $2.
News, Koene, N. H,;. S. Woodward; $1.25.
Democrat, Manchester, N. E; ? II. Gnodale j $1.50.
Messenger, Portsmouth, N. H.; T. J. VVhittam ; $1.
Freeman, Montpelier, Vt.; D. P. Thompson; $2.
Observer, Morrisville, Vt.; J. A. Somerby; $1.25.
Telegraph, Springfield, Vt.; L. T. Guernsey; $175.
Democrat, Brattleborough, Vt.; W.Nichols; $1.50.
Brandon Post, Brandon, Vt.; P. Welch; $1.
Courier, Burlington, Vt.; G. U. Samson, $1.50.
Commonwealth, Boston, Ma.; J. D, Baldwin; dailv
$5, weekly $2.
Sentinel, North Adams, Ms.; A. D. Brook; $1.50.
American, Lowell, Ms.; W. S. Robinson; tri week., $3.
News, Fitchburg, Mass.; R. F. Rollins ; $1.50.
Essex County Freeman, Salem, Ms.; J. Emmett;
Republican, Greenfield, Ms.
Spy, Worcester, Ms.; J. M. Earle; $2.
Standard, Now Bedford, Ms.
Courier, Northampton, Ms.
Gasette, Dedham, Ms.: Henry 0. Hildreth; $2.
Democrat, Dedham, Ms.; E. G. Robinson; $2.
Sentinel, Lawrence, Ms.; John Ryan A Co.; $2. '
Rhode Island Freeman, Providence, R. I,; Crawford
A Harris; $1.
Republican, Hartford, Ct.; Bartlett A Hawley; $2.
Herald, Ellington, N. Y.; A. S. Brown.
Evening Chronicle, Syracuse, N. Y.; II. R Raymond;
daily $3, weekly $1.50.
Spirit of the Age, Norwich, N. Y.; J. D. Lawyer; $1.
Wyoming Co. Mirror. Wamw, N. Y., A. Holley , $2.
Telegraph, Oneida, N. Y.; D. H. Frost; $1.25.
Banner of the Times, De Ruyter, N. Y.
Free Press. Wellsville, N. Y.; A. N. Cole; $1.50.
Frederick Douglass' Paper, Rochester, N. Y.; Fred
erick Douglass; $2.
Free Press, Goaverneur, New York; Mitchell A Hul
Herald, Jamestown, N. Y.
Carson League, Syracuse, N. Y.; J. Thomas; $1 50.
American Banner, Cherry Valley, Pa.; Jonh B. King
Courier, Coneantville, Pa.; G. W. Brown
Olivf Branch, Norristown, l'a.; Joseph Moyor; $1.
Saturday Visiter, Pittsburgh, Pa ; Jane G. A William
Freeman, Mercisr, Pa.; W. T. Clark; $1.50.
Weekly Crescent, Erie, Pa.; Caughcy A McCreary;
The People's Journal, Condersport, Potter county,
Pa.; Dougall, Mann A Huskell; $1.50.
Dispatch, Pittsburg, Pa.; Foster A Fleeson; daily
$3, weekly $1.
Clarion of treedmn, Indiana, Pa.; Moorhead A Mc
Die Frie Press, Philadelphia, pa.; F. W. Thomas; dai
Homestead Journal, Salem, 0.; A. Hinksmaa; $1.EP.
Christian Press, Cincinnati, 0.; $2.
True Demoorat, Cleveland, 0.; Thomas Brown; dai
ly $6, weekly $2.
Ashtabula Sentinel, Jefferson and Ashtabula, 0.; W.
C. Howell; $2.
Mahoning Free Democrat, Youngstown, 0.; M. Culio
Commercial, Cleveland. 0.: H. M. Addisun ; $1.50.
Journal, Wellington, 0.; George Brewster; $1.50.
Western Reserve Chronicle, Warren, O.; K. 0. How
ard ; $2.
Telegraph. Painsville, O.; Gray A Doolittle ; $2.
Ohio Times, Mount Vernon. O.; Chapman A Thrall:
Independent Democrat, Elyria, O.; Philemon Bliss;
Columbian, Columbus, 0.; L. L. Rice.
Free Demoorat, Chardon, 0.; J. 8 Wright; $1.
Star. Ravenna, O.; Lyman W. Hall; $1.50.
Herald of Freedom, Wilmington, O.; J. W. Chaffin ;
Truo Republican, Greenfield, O.
Williams Democrat, West Unity, 0.; Wm. A Hunter.
Free Democrat, Detroit, Mich.; 8 H. Baker; daily
$5, weekly $1.
Free Democrat, Indianapolis. Ind.; R. Valle ; $1.50.
Western Cititen, Chicago, D|.; Z. C. Eastman ; daily
Journal, Sparta, HI.: 1.6. Coulter; $1.25.
Western Freeman, Galesburg, III.; W.J. Lane; $2.
Standard, Freeport, III.
Free Demoorat, Waukesha, Wis ; 8 M. Booth; dai
ly $4, weekly $2.
Telegraph, Kenosha. Wis.; 8boles A Frank; $2.
Free Press, Janesvilie, Wis., Joseph Baker; $1 50
Free Presa Sheboygan Falls. Wis.; J. A. Smith; $2.
Advocate, Racine, Wis.,; C. Clements, $2.
Kentucky News, Newport, Ky.; W. 8. Bailey; $1.
Trae Democrat, Mount Pleasant, Iowa; J. W. Howe;
Der bemokrat, Davenport, Iowa; Th. Gnlich; $2.
Pacific Statesman, San Francisco, Cal.; J. H. Pnrdy.
Der National Demokrat, Washington, D. C'.j Fred.
Schmidt, editor; Buell A Blaorhanl, publishers; $2.
Liberator, Boston, Ms.; Wm. Lloyd Garrison; $2.50.
Peawvlvnla Freeman, Philadelphia, Pa.; C. M. Bur
National Anti-Slavery Standard, New York, N. 7.;
8. H Gay A K Quinej ; $>.
Anti Slavery Bagle. Salem. O , M. R. Robinson; $1.50.
Veiee of lite Fugitive
FELL A RLANCU ARD. WAHHINOTON D 0.
ktH a?? rmmAj lav Mhr>n
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