OCR Interpretation

Daily national era. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1854, January 10, 1854, Image 4

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Am Act l? amruil lad ?U|>|?lriuriiiary tu Hie art run
l,ed " A? ??* re?|?e?Ua* fugitive* from junlict- and
perwiM mc?|iIb| from the service ?( their maaters," .
appr?rc4 February twelfth, ear thoaauud wvrn
hundred and alaaly-three.
Be it enacted by the Semite and House of!
Representatives of the United States of I
America in Congress assembled, That th< I
persons who have been or may hereafter .
be appointed commissioners in virtue of
any act of Congress, by the circuit courts
of the United States, and who, in con.se- ?
qucnce of such appointment, are author- j
ized to exercise the powers that any jus
tice of the peace, or other magistrate of
any of the United States, may exercise'in
reapect to offenders for any crime or of
fence against the United States, by arrest
ing, imprisoning, or bailing, the same,
under and by virtue of the thirfy-third
section of the act of the twenty-fourth of
September, seventeen hundred and eighty
nine, entitled " An act to establish the
judicial courts of the United States," shall
be, and are hereby, authorized and requir
ed to exercise and discharge all the pow
ers and duties conferred by this act.
Sec. 2. Jind be it further enacted, That
the superior court of each organized Ter
ritory of the United StateSfshall have the
same power to appoint commissioners to
take acknowledgments of bail and affi
davits, and to take depositions of witnesses
in civil causes, which is now possessed bv
the circuit court of the United States: and
all commissioners who shall hereafter be
appointed for such purposes by the supe
rior court of any organized Territory of
the United States, shall possess all the
powers, and exercise all the duties, con
ferred by law upon commissioners ap
pointed by the United States for similar
purposes, and shall moreover exercise and
discharge all the powers and duties con
ferred by this act.
Sec. 3. Jind be it further enacted, That
the circuit courts of the United States,
and the superior courts of each organized
Territory of the United States, shall from
time to time enlarge the number of com
missioners, with a view to afford reasona
ble facilities to reclaim fugitives from labor,
and to the prompt discharge of the duties
imposed by this act.
Sec. 4. Jind be it further enacted, That
the commissioners above named shall have
concurrent jurisdiction with the judges of
the circuit and district courts of the United
States in their respective circuits and dis
tricts within the several States, and the
judges of the superior courts of the Terri
tories, severally and collectively, in term
time and vacation ; and shall grant certi
ficates to such claimants, upon satisfactory
proof being made, with authority to take
and remove such fugitives from service or
labor, under the restrictions herein con
tained, to the State or Territory from
which such persons may have escaped or
Sec. 5. Jind be it further enacted, That
it shall be the duty of all marshals and
deputy marshals to obey and execute all
warrants and precepts issued under the
provisions of Oiis act, when to them di
rected ; and should any marshal or deputy
marshal refuse to receive such warrant or j
other process when tendered, or to use all
proper means diligentJy to execute the
same, he shall, on conviction thereof, be
fined in the sum of one thousand dollars, j
to the use of such claimant, on the motion
of such claimant, by the circuit or district j
court for the district of such marshal; and
after arrest of such fugitive by such mar
shal or his deputy, or whilst at any time
in his custqdy under the provisions under
this act, should such fugitive escape,
whether with or without the assent of such
marshal or his deputy, such marshal shall
be liab'e ou his official bond to be prose<
cuted for the benefit of such claimant for J
the full value of the service or labor of said '
fugitive, in the State, Territory, or District,
whence he escaped ; and the better to en
able the said commissioners, when thus
appointed, to execute their duties faith- I
fully and efficiently, in conformity with
the requirements of the Constitution of!
the United States and of this act, they
?re hereby authorized and empowered,
within their counties, respectively, to
appoint, in writing, under their hands,
any one or more suitable persons, from
time to time, to execute all such war
rants and other process as may be issued
by them in the lawful performance of
their respective duties; with authority to
such commissioners, or the persons to be
appointed by them, to execute process as
aforesaid, to summon and call to their aid
the bystanders, or ponnt comitntui of the I
proper county, when necessary to insure 1
a faithful observance of the clause of the I
Constitution referred to, in conformity ;
with the provisions of this act ; and all
good citizens are hereby commanded to J
aid and assist in the prompt and efficient
execution of this law, whenever their ser- !
vices may be required, as aforesaid, for j
that pnrpose; and said warrants shall mil !
and he executed b? said officers anywhere
m the State within which they are issued.
Sec. 6. Jind be it further enacted, That
when a person held to service or labor in '
any State or Territory of the United Stales, j
has heretofore or shall hereafter escape
into anoiher Stale or Territory of the
United States, the person or persons to
whom such service or labor may be due,
or his, her, or their agent or attorney, duly ;
authorized by power of attorney, in wri- i
tin#, acknowledged and certified under the
seal of some legal officer or court of the
State or Territory in which the same may
be executed, may pursue and reclaim such
fugitive person, either by procuring a war
rant from some one of the courts, judges,
or commissioners aforesaid, of the proper
circuit, district, or county, for the appre
hension of sitr.h fugitive from service or
labor, or by seizing and arresting snch fu
gitive, where the same cm be done with
out process, and by taking, or causing
such person to he taken, forthwith before
such court, judge, or commissioner, whose
duty it shall be to hear and determine the
c?e of such claimant in a summary man
ner ; and upon satisfactory proof being
made, by deposition or affidavit, in wri
tmg, to be taken and certified by surh
court, judge, or commissioner, or by other
sttirfactory testimony, duly taken and cer-1
titled by aome court, magistrate, justice of
the peace, or other legal officer authorised
to administer an oath and take deposition)*
under the laws of the State or Territory
from which such person owing service or
labor may have escaped, with a certificate
of such magistrate or other uuthorily, as
aforesaid, with the seal of the proper court
or officer thereto attached, which seal
shall be sufficient to establish the compe
tency of the proof, and with proof, also by
affidavit, of the identity of the person
whose service or labor is claimed to be
due, as aforesaid, that the person so ar
rested does in fact owe service or labor to
the person or persons claiming him or her,
in the State or Territory from which such
fugitive may have escaped as aforesaid,
and that said person escaped, to make out
and deliver to such claimant, his or her
agent or attorney, a certificate setting
forth the substantial facts as to the service
or labor due from such fugitive to the
claimant, and of his or her escape from the
State or Territory in which such service or
labor was due, to the State or Territory in
which he or she was arrested, with author
ity to such claimant, or his or her agent or
attorney, to use such reasonable force and
restraint as may be necessary, under the
circumstances of the case, to take and re
move such fugitive person back to the
State or Territory whence he or she may
have escaped as aforesaid. In no trial [
or hearing, under this act, shall the testi
mony of such alleged fugitive be admitted
in evidence j and the certificates in this
and the first section mentioned shall be
conclusive of the right of the person or
persons in whose favor granted, to remove
such fugitive to the State or Territory from
which he escaped, and shall prevent all
molestation of such person or persons, by
any process issued by any court, judge,
magistrate, or other person, whomsoever.
Sec.. 7. Jliul be it further enacted, That
any person who sh:ill knowingly and will
ingly obstruct, 'hinder, or prevent such
claimant, his agent or attorney, or any
person or persons lawfully assisting him,
her, or them, from arresting such a fugi
tive from service or labor, either with or
without process as aforesaid ; or shall res
cue or attempt to rescue such fugitive from
service or labor, from the custody of such
claimant, his or her agent or attorney, or
other person or persons lawfully assisting
as aforesaid, when so arrested, pursuant
to the authority herein given and declared ;
or shall aid, abet, or assist such person so
owing service or labor as aforesaid, directly
or indirectly, to escape from such claim
ant, his agent or attorney, or other person
or persons legally authorized as aforesaid ;
or shall harbor or conceal such fugitive,
so as to prevent th?^discovery and arrest
of such person, aft* notice or knowledge
of the fact that such person was a fugitive
from service or labor as aforesaid, shall,
for either of said offences, be subject to a
fine not exceeding one thousand dollars,
and imprisonment not exceeding six
months, by indictment and conviction be
fore the district court of the United States
for the district in which such offeuce may
have been committed, or before the prop
er court of criminal jurisdiction, if com
mitted within any one of the organized
Territories of the* United States; and shall
moreover forfeit and pay, by way of civil
damages to the party injured by such illegal
conduct, the sum of one thousand dollars
for each fugitive so lost as aforesaid, to be
recovered by action of debt, in any of the
district or territorial courts aforesaid, within
whose jurisdiction the said offence may
have been committed.
Sec. 8. Jind be it further enacted, That
the marshals, and their deputies, and the
clerks of the said district and territorial
courts, shall be paid for their services the
like fees as may be allowed to them for
similar services in other cases; and where
such services are rendered exclusively in
the arrest, custody, and delivery of the
fugitive to the chiinftut, his or her agent
or attorney, or where such supposed fugi
tive may be discharged out of custody for
the want of sufficient proof as aforesaid,
then such fees are to be paid in the whole
by such claimant, his agent or attorney *.
and in all cases' where the proceedings
are before a commissioner, he shall be
entitled to a fee of tdn dollars in full for
his services in each case, upon the delivery
of the said certificate to the claimant, his
or her agent or attorney ; or a fee of five
dollars in cases where the proof shall not,
in the opinion of such commissioner,
warrant such certificate and delivery, in
clusive of all services incident to such ar
rest and examination, to be paid in either
case by the claimant, his or her agent or
attorney. The person or persons author
ized to execute the process to be issued
by such commissioners, for the arrest and
detention of fugitives from service or labor
as a foresaid, shall also be entitled to a fee
of five dollars each for each person he or
they may arrest and take before any such
commissioner as aforesaid, at the instance
ami request of such claimant; with such
other fees as may be deemed reasonable
by such commissioner for such other ad
ditional services as may be necessarily
performed by him or them ; such as at
tending at the examination, keeping the
fugitive in custody, and providing him with
food and lodging during his detention,
and until the final determination of such
commissioner; and in general for perform
ing such other duties as may be required
by such claimant, his or her attorney or
agent, or commissioner in the premises,
such fees to be made up in conformity
with the fees usually charged by the offi
cers of the courts of justice within the
proper district or county, as near as may
be practicable, and paid by such claimants,
their agents or attorneys, whether such
supposed fugitives from service or labor be
ordered to be delivered to such claimants
by the final determination of such com
missioner or not.
Sec. 9. Jlnd be it further enacted, That
upon affidavit made by the claimant of
such fugitive, his agent or attorney, after
such certificate has l?een issued, that he
has reason to apprehend that such fugitive
will be rescued by force from his or their
possession before he can be taken beyond
the limits of the State in which the arrest
is made, it shall he the duly of the officer
making the arrest to retain such fugitive in
his custody, and to remove him to the
State whence he fled, and there to de
liver him to said claimant, his agent or
attorney. And to thin end, the officer
aforesaid is hereby authorized and requir
ed to employ ho many persons an he may
deem necessary to overcome such force,
and to retain them in his ttervice so long
as circumstance.'* may require. The said
officer and his assistants, while so employ
ed, to receive the same compensation,
and to be allowed the same expenses, as
are now allowed by law for transportation
of criminals, to be certified by the judge
of the district within which the arrest is
made, and paid out of the treasury of the
United States.
Sec. 10. Jlrul be it further enacted, That
when auy person held to service or labor
iu any State or Territory, or in the District
of Columbia, shall escape therefrom, the
party to whom such service or labor shall
be due, his, her, or their agent or attorney,
may apply to any court of record therein,
or judge thereof in vacation, and make
satisfactory proof to such court, or judge
ill vacation, of the escape aforesaid, and
that the person escaping owed service or
labor to such party. Whereupon, the
court shall cause a record to be made of
the matters so proved, and also a general
description of the person so escaping,
with such convenient certainty as may be;
and a transcript of such record, authenti
cated by the attestation of the clerk and
of the seal of the said court, being pro
duced in any other State, Territory, or
District, in which the person so escaping
may be found, and being exhibited to any
judge, commissioner, or other officer au
thorized by the law of the United States
to cause persons escaping from service or
labor to be delivered up, shall be held and
taken to be full and conclusive evidence
of the fact of escape, and that the service
or labor of the person escaping is due to
the party in such record mentioned. And
upon the production by the said party of
other and further evidence, if necessary,
either oral o.r by affidavit, in addition to
what is contained in the said record, of
the identity of the person escaping, he or
she shall be delivered up to the claimant.
And the said court, commissioner, judge,
or other peison authorized by this act to
grant certificates to claimants of fugitives,
shall, upon the production of the record
and other evidences aforesaid, grant to
such claimant a certificate of his right to
take any such person identified and proved
to be owing service or labor as aforesaid,
which certificate shall authorize such
claimant to seize or arrest, and transport
such person to the State or Territory from
which he escaped; Provided, That noth
ing herein contained shall be construed
as requiring the production of a transcript
of such record as evidence as aforesaid.
But in its absence, the claim shall be heard
and determined upon other satisfactory
proofs, competent in law.
Howell Cobb,
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
William R. King,
President of the Senate pro tempore._
Approved, Sept. 18, 1850.
Millard Fillmore
Having assembled in National Conven
tion as the delegates of the Free Democra
cy of the United States, united by a com
mon reaolve to maintain right against
wrongs, and freedom against slavery; con
fiding in the intelligence, patriotism, and
the discriminating justice of the American
people ; putting our trust in God for the
triumph of our cause, and invoking his
guidance in our endeavors to advance it,
we now submit to the candid judgment of
all men the following declaration of prin
ciples and measures:
I. That Governments, deriving their just
powers from the consent of the governed,
are instituted among men to secure to all,
those inalienable rights of life, liberty, and
the pursuit of happiness, with which they
were endowed by their Creator, and of
which none can be deprived by valid legis
lation, except for crime.
II. That the true mission of American
Democracy is to maintain the liberties of
the people, the sovereignty of the States,
and the perpetuity of the Union, by the
impartial application to public affairs, with
out sectional discriminations, of the fun
damental principles of equal rights, strict
justice, and economical administration.
III. That the Federal Government is
one of limited powers, derived solely from
the Constitution ; and the grants of power
therein ought to be strictly construed by
all the departments and agents of the Gov
ernment, and it is inexpedient and dan
gerous to exercise donbtful constitutional
IV. That the Constitution of the United
States, ordained to form a more perfect
union, to establish justice, and secure the
blessings of liberty, expressly denies to
the General Government all power to de
prive any person of life, liberty, or prop
erty, without due process of law; and,
therefore, the Government, having no more
power to make a slave than to make a
king, and no moi* power to establish sla
very than to establish monarchy, should at
once proceed to relieve itself from all re
sponsibility for the existence of slavery
wherever it possesses constitutional power
to legislate for its extinction.
V. That, to the persevering and impor
tunate demands of the Slave Power for
more slave States, new slave Territories,
and the nationalization of Slavery, our dis
tinct and linal answer is?no more slave
States, no slave Territory, no nationalized
Slavery, and no national legislation for the
extradition of slaves.
VI. That Slavery is a sin against God
and a crime against man, which no human
enactment nor usage can make right; and
that Christianity, humanity, and patriotism,
alike demand its abolition.
VII. That the fugitive Slave Act of 1850
is repugnant to the Constitution, to the
principles of tHe common law, to the
spirit of Christianity, and to the senti
ments of the civilized world. We there
fore deny its binding force upon the
American People, and demand its imme
diate and total repeal.
VIII. That the doctrine that any human
law is a finality, and not subject to modi
fication or repeal, is not in accordance
with the creed of the founders of our Gov
ernment, and i? dangerous to the liberties
of the people.
IX. That tli** acts of Congress known
an the Compromise Measures of 1850, by
making the admission of a sovereign State
contingent upou the adoption of other
measures demanded by the special inter
est of Slavery; by their omission to guar
anty freedom in tree Territories; by their
attempt to impose unconstitutional limit
ations on the power of Congress and the
people to admit new States ; by their pro
visions for the assumption of five millions
of the State debt of Texas, and for the
payment of five millions more, and the
cession of a large territory to tlje same
State under menace, as an inducement to
the relinquishment of a groundless claim,
and by their invasion of the sovereignty
of the States and the liberties of the peo
ple, through the- enactment of an unjnst,
oppressive, and unconstitutional Fugitive
Slave Law, art! proved to be inconsistent
with all the principles and inaxiins of De
mocracy, and wholly inadequate to the
settlement of the questions of which they
are claimed to be an adjustment.
X. That no permanent settlement of
the Slavery question can be looked for,
except in the practical recognition of the
truth that Slavery is sectional, and Free
dom .national; by the total separation of
the General Government from Slavery, and
the exercise of its legitimate and consti
tutional influence on the side of Freedom;
and by leaving to the Slates the whole
subject of Slavery and the extradition of
fugitives from service.
XI. That all men have a natural right to
a portion of the soil; and that, as the use
of the soil is indispensable to life, the
right of all men to the soil is as sacred as
their right to life itself.
XII. That the public lands of the Uni
ted States belong to the people, and should
not be sold to individuals nor granted to
corporations, but should be held as a sa
cred trust for the benefit of the people,
and should be granted in limited quanti
ties, free of cost, to landless settlers.
XIII. That a due regard for the Federal
Constitution, and sound administrative
policy, demand that the funds of the Gen
eral Government be kept separate from
banking institutions; that inland and
ocean postage should be reduced to the
lowest possible point; that no more reve
nue should be raised than is required to
defray the strictly necessary expenses of
the public service, and to pay off the pub
lic debt; and that the power and patron
age of the Government should be dimin
ished by the abolition of all unnecessary
offices, salaries, and privileges, and by the
election by the people of all civil officers
in the service of the United States, so far
as may be consistent with the prompt and
efficient transaction of the public business.
XIV. That river and harbor improve
ments, when necessary to the safety and
convenience of commerce with foreign
nations'or among the several States, are
objects of national concern, and it is the
duty of Congress, in the exercise of its
constitutional powers, to provide for the
same. ,
XV. That'*emigrants and exile* from
the Old World should find a cordial wel
come to homes of comfort and fields of
enterprise in the New ; and every attempt
to abridge their privilege of becoming
citizens and owners of the soil among us
ought to be resisted with inflexible deter
XVI. That every uation has a clear
right to alter or change its own Govern
ment, and to administer its own concerns
in such manner as may best secure the
rights and promote the happiness of the
people; and foreign interference with
that right is a dangerous violation of the
law of nations, against which all independ
ent Governments should protest, and en
deavor by all proper means to prevent;
and especially is it the duty of the Ameri
can Government, representing the chief
Republic of the world, to protest against,
and by all proper means to prevent,
the intervention of Kings and Emperors
against nations seeking to establish for
themselves republican or constitutional
XVII. That the independence of Hayti
ought to be recognised by our Govern
ment, and our commercial relations with
it placed on the footing of the most favor
ed nations.'
XVIII. That as, by the Constitution,
" the citizens of each State shall be en
titled to all privileges and immunities of
citizens of the several States," the prac
tice of imprisoning colored seamen of
other States, while the vessels to which
they belong lie in port, and refusing to
exercise the right to bring such cases be
fore the Supreme Court of the United
States, 4o test the legality of such pro
ceedings, is a flagrant violation of the
Constitution, and an invasion of the rights
of the citizens of otther States, utterly in
consistent with the professions mane by
the slaveholders, that they wish the pro
visions of the Constitution faithfully ob
served by every State in the Union.
XIX. That we recommend the intro
duction into all treaties, hereafter to be
negotiated between the United States and
foreign nations, of some provision for the
amicable settlement of difficulties by a re
sort to decisive arbitration.
XX. That the Free Democratic party is
not organized to aid either the Whig or
Democratic wing of the great Slave Com
promise'party of the nation, but to defeat
them both ; and that repudiating and re
nouncing both, as hopelessly corrupt, and
utterly unworthy of confidence, the pur
pose of the Free Democracy is to take
possession of the Federal Government,
and administer it for the better protection
of the rights and interests of the whole
XXI. That we inscrilie on Our banner,
Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor,
and Free Men, and under it will fight on
and fight ever, until a triumphant victory
shall reward our exertions.
XXII. That upon this Platform the Con
vention presents to the American People,
as a candidate for the office of Resident
of the United States, John P. Hale, of
New Hampshire, and as a candidate for
the office of Vice President of the United
States, George W. Julian, of Indiana,
and earnestly commends them to the sup
port of all freemen and parties.
I. Resolved, That the American Democ
racy place their trust in the intelligence,
the patriotism, and the discriminating jus
tice of the American people.
II. Resolved, That we regard this as a
distinctive feature of our political creed,
which we are proud to maintian before
the world us the great moral element in a
form of government springing from and
upheld by the popular will; and we con
trast it? with the creed and practice of
Federalism, under whatever name or form,
which seeks to palsy the will of the con
stituent, and which conceives no impos
ture too monstrous for the public cre
III. Resolved, therefore, That, entertain
ing these views, the Democratic party of
this Union, through their delegates assem
bled in a General Convention, coming
together in a spirit of concord, of devotion
to the doctrines and faith of a free repre
sentative Government, and appealing to
iheir fellow-citizens for the rectitude of
their intentions, renew ami-reassert before
the American people the declarations of
principles avowed by them when, on
former occasions, in General Convention,
they have presented their candidates for
the popular suffrages:
1. That the Federal Government is one
of limited powers, derived solely froin the
Constitution, and the grants of power
therein ought to be strictly construed by
all the departments and agents of the Gov
ernment; and that it is inexpedient and
dangerous to exercise doubtful constitu
tional powers.
2. That the Constitution does not con
fer upon the General Government the
power to commence and carry on a gen
eral system of internal improvements.
3. That the Constitution does not con
fer authority upon the Federal Govern
ment, directly or indirectly, to assume the
debts of the several States, contracted for
local and internal improvements, or other
State purposes; nor would such assump
tion he just or expedient.
4. That justice and sound policy forbid
the Federal Government to foster one
branch of industry to the detriment of any
other, or to cherish the interests of one
portion to the injury of another portion of
our common country ; that every citizen,
and every section of the country, has a
right to demand and insist upon an equal
ity of rights and privileges, and to com
plete and ample protection of persons and
property from domestic violence or foreign
5. That it is the duty of every branch of
the Government to enforce and practice
the most rigid economy in conducting our
public aiTairs, and that no more revenue
ought to be raised than is required to de
fray the necessary expenses of the Gov
ernment, aud for the gradual but certain
extinction of the public debt.
6. That Congress has no power to'
charter a National Bank ; that we believe
such an institution one of deadly hostility
to the bests interests of the country, dan
gerous to our republican institutions and
the liberties of the people, and calculated
to place the business of the country within
the control of a concentrated money
power, and above the laws and the will of
the people; and that the results of Dem
ocratic legislation, in this and all other
financial measures upon which issues have
been made between the two political par
ties of the country, have demonstrated, to
candid and practical men, of all parties,
their soundness, safety, and utility, in all
business pursuits.
7. That the separation of the moneys
of the Government from banking institu
tions i.s indispensable for the safety of the
funds of the Government and the rights of
the people.
8. That the liberal principles embodied
by Jefferson in the Declaration of Inde
pendence, and sanctioned in the Consti
tution, which makes oars the land of lib
erty and the asylum of the oppressed of
every nation, have ever been cardinal prin
ciples in the Democratic faith ; and every
attempt to abridge the privilege of be
coming citizens and the owners of soil
among us, ought to be resisted with the
same spirit which swept the alien and se
dition laws from our statute books.
9. That Congress has no power under
the Constitution to interfere with or con
trol the domestic institutions of the sev
eral States, and that such States t>re the
sole and proper judges of everything ap
pertaining to their own affairs, not prohib
ited by the Constitution ; that all efforts
of the Abolitionists or others, made to in
duce Congress to interfere with questions
of slavery, or to take incipient steps in re
lation thereto, are calculated to lead to
the most alarming and dangerous conse
quences ; and that all such efforts have an
inevitable tendency to diminish the happi
ness of the people and endanger the sta
bility and permanency of the Union, and
ought not to be countenanced by any
friend of our political institutions.
IV. Resolved, That the foregoing prop
osition covers and was intended to em
brace the whole subject of slavery agitation
in Congress; and therefore the Demo
cratic party of the Union, standing on ihis
national platform, will abide by and adhere
to a faithful execution of the acts known
as the Compromise measures settled by the
last Congress, " the act for reclaiming fu
gitives from service or labor," included ; '
which act, being designed to carry out an
express provision of the Constitution, can
not with fidelity thereto be repealed or so
changed as to destroy or impair its effi
V. Resolved, That the Democratic party
will resist all attempts at renewing, in
Congress or out of it, the agitation of the
Slavery question, under whatever shape or
color the attempt may he made.
VI. Reioh>ed, That the proceeds of the
public lands ought to be sacredly applied
to the national objects specified in the
Constitution ; and that we are opposed to
any law for the distribution of such pro
ceeds among the States, as alike inexpe
dient in policy and repugnant to the Con
VII. Resolved, That we are decidedly
opposed to taking from the President the
qualified veto power, by which he is ena
bled, under restrictions and responsibilities
amply sufficient to guard the public inter
est, to suspend the passage of a bill whose
merits cannot secure the approval ol two
thirds of the Senate and House of Repre
sentatives until the judgment of the people
can be obtained thereon, and which has
saved the American people from the cor
rupt and tyrannical domination of the
Bank of the United States, and from a
corrupting system of general internal im
VIII. Resolved, That the Democratic
parly will faithfully abide by and uphold
the principles laid down in the Kentucky
and Virginia resolutions of 1798, and in
the report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia
Legislature in 1799; that it adopts those
principles as constituting one of the main
foundations of its political creed, and is
resolved to carry them out in their obvious
meaning and import.
IX. Resolved, That the war with Mex
ico, upon all the principles of patriotism
and the laws of nations, was a just and
necessary war on our part, in which every
American citizen should have shown him
self on the side of his country, and neither
morally nor physically, by word or deed,
have given "aid and comfort to the
X. Resolved, That we rejoice at the res
toration of friendly relations with our sister
Republic of Mexico, and earnestly desire for
her all the blessings and prosperity which
we enjoy under republican institutions;
and we congratulate the American people
upon the results of that war, which have
so manifestly justified the policy and con
duct of the Democratic party, and insured
to the United Stales " indemnity for the
past and security for the future."
XI. Resolved, That, in view of the con
dition of popular institutions in the Old
World, a high and sacred duty is devolved,
with increased responsibility, upon the
Democratic party of this country, as the
party of the people, to uphold and maintain
the rights of every Stat5, and thereby the
Union of the States, and to sustain and
advance among us constitutional liberty,
by continuingAo resist all monopolies and
exclusive legislation for the benefit of the
few at the expense of the many, and by a
vigilant and constant Adherence to those
principles and compromises of the Con
stitution which are broad enough and
strong enough to embrace and uphold the
Union as it was, the Union as it is, and
the Union as it shall be, in the full expan
sion of the energies and capacity of this
greal and progressive people.
The Whigs of the United States, in
Convention assembled, (irmly adhering to
the great conservative republican princi
ples by which they are controlled and gov-'
erned, and now, as ever, relying upon the
intelligence of the* American people, with
an abiding confidence in their capacity for
self-government and their continued'devo
tion to the Constitution and the Union,
do proclaim the following as the political
sentiments and determinations, for the
establishment and maintenance of which
their national organization as a party is
effected :
I. The Government of the United States
is of limited character, and it is confined
to the exercise of powers expressly granted
by the Constitution, and such as may tx<
necessary and proper for carrying the
granted powers into full execution, and
that all powers not thus granted or neces
sarily implied'are expressly reserved to
the States'respectively and to the people.
II. The State Governments should bo
held secure in their reserved rights, and
the General Government sustained in its
constitutional powers, and the Union
should be revered and watched over as i
" the palladium of our liberties."
III. That while struggling freedom, :
everywhere, enlists the warmest sympathy j
of the Whig party, we still adhere to the
doctrines of the Father of his Country, as
announced in his Farewell Address, of
keeping ourselves free from all entangling
alliances with foreign countries, and of
never quitting our own to stand upon foi
eign ground. That our mission as a Re
public is not to propagate our opinions, I
or impose on other countries our form of
government, by artifice or force, but to
teach by example, and show by our suc
cess, moderation, and justice, the bless
ings of self-government and the ad van- >
tages of free institutions. *
IV. That where the people make and
control the Government, they should obey !
its constitution, laws, and treaties, as they 1
would retain their self-respect, and the re- i
spect which they claim and will enforce ,
from foreign powers.
V. Government should be conducted
upon principles of the strictest economy, j
and revenue sufficient for the expenses
thereof, in time of peace, ought to be
mainly derived from a duty on imports, j
and not from direct taxes; and, in levying
such duties, sound policy requires a just
discrimination and protection from fraud
by specific duties, when practicable,
whereby suitable encouragement may be
assured to American industry, equally to
all classes and to all portions of the conn- 1
VI. The Constitution vests in Congress |
the power to open and repair harbors, and
remove obstructions from navigable rivers;
and it is expedient that Congress shall ex
ercise that power whenever such improve
ment* are necessary frr the common defence
or for the protection awl facility of com
merce with foreign nations or among the
States ; such improvements being, in every
instance, national and general in their
VII. The Federal and State Govern
ments are parts of one system, alike ne
cessary for the common prosperity, peace,
and security, and ought to l?e regarded
alike with a cordial, habitual, and immova
ble attachment. Respect for the authority
of each, and acquiescence in the constitu
tional measures of each, are duties re
quired by the plainest considerations of
National, of State, and individual welfare.
VIII. The series of ffcts of the 31st
Congress, commonly known as the Com
promise or Adjustment, (the act for the
recovery of fugitives from labor included,)
are received and acquiesced in by the
Whigs of the United States as a final set- j
tlement, in principle and substance, of the
subjects to which they relate; and so far
t*t these acts are concerned, we will main
tain them, and^insist on their strict en
forcement, until time ami experience Khali
demonstrate the necessity of further legis
lation to guard against the evasion of the
laws on the one hand, and the abuse of
their powers on the other, not impairing
their present efficiency to carry out the
requirements of the Constitution : and we
deprecate all further agitation of the ques
tions thus settled, as dangerous to our
peace, and will discountenance all efforts
to continue or renew such agitation, when
ever, wherever, or however made; and we
will maintain this settlement as essential
to the nationality of the Whig parly and
the integrity of the Union.
John G. Chapman, of M(/.,
Presilient of the Whig National Convention.
[CP" The following is a list of the Free Dem
ocratic and Anti-Slavery papers published in
the United States :
Inquirer, Portland, Mn.; A. Willey ; $2 per annum.
Ind. Democrat, Concord, N. U, j 0. 0 Fogg; $2
News, Keene, N. II, j 8. Wo??dwardr $1,257
Democrat, Manchester, N. II.; J. II. Goodalu; $1 50.
Messenger, Portsmouth, N. U.; T. J. Whittam , $1.
Freeman, Montpelier, Vt.; D. P. Thompson; $2.
Obeerver, Morrisville, VI.; J. A. Souierby; $1.25.
Telegraph, Springfield, Vt.; L.T Guernsey; $1.75.
Democrat, Brattleborough, Vt.; W. Nichols. $1.50.
Brandon.Post, Brandon, Vt.; P. Welch; $1.
Courier, Burlington, Vt ; fl. C. Samson, $1.50.
Commonwealth. Boston, Ms.; J. D. Baldwin; daily
$5, weekly $2.
Sentinel, North Adams, Jtfa.j A. D. Brock; $1 50.
American, Lowell, Ms.; W. S. Robinson; tri-week., $&
News, Fitchburg, Mass.;1 K. F. Rollins; $1.50.
Essex County Freeman, Salem, Ms ; J. Burnett;
semi-weekly, $3.60.
Republican, Greenfield, Ms.
Spy, Worcester, Ms.; J. M. Karle; $2.
Standard, New Bedford, Ms.
Courier, Northampton, Ms.
Gazette, Dedhniu, Ms.; Henry0. Ilildreth; $2.
Democrat, Derihaiu. Ms.; E. G. Robinson; $2.
Sentinel, Lawrence, Ms.; John Ryan k Co.; $2.
Rhode Island Freeman, Providence, R. I.; Crawford
k Harris; $ I.
Republican, Hartford, Ct.; Bartlett I Hawley ; $2.
Herald, Ellington, N. Y.; A. S. Brown.
Evening Chronicle, Syracuse, N. V.; If. R. Raymond :
daily $3, weekly $1.50.
Spirit of the Aire, Norwich, N. Y.; J. D. Lawyer; $1.
Wyoming Co Mirror. Warsaw, N. Y.; A. Holtey ; $2.
Telegraph, Oneida, N. Y.; D. H. Frost; $1.25."
Banner of the Times, De Ruy ter, N. Y.
Free Press. Wellsville, N. Y.; A.N.Cole; $150.
Frederick Douglass' Paper, Rochester, N. Y.; Fred
erick Douglass; $2.
Free Press, Gouverneur, New York; Mitchell k Hul- 1
bert; $1.
Herald, Jamestown, N. Y.
Carson League, Syracuse, N. Y.; J. Thomas; $1.50.
American Bannur, Cherry Valley, Pa.; Jonh B. King
Courier, Cone.intville, Pa.; G. W. Brown.
Olive Branch, Norristown, Pa.; Joseph Moyer; $1.
Saturday Visiter, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Jane G. A William
Swisshelm; $1.50.
Freeman, MenSer, Pa.; W. T. Clark; $1.50.
Weekly Crescent, Erie, Pa.; Cauirhey k McCreary;
$1.50. J
The People's Journal, Coudersport, Potter county,
Pa.; Dougall, Mann k Haskell; $1JS0.
Dispatch, Pittsburg, Pa.; Foster k Fleeson ; daily
$3, weekly $1.
Clarion of Freedom, Indiana, Pa.; Moorhead k Mc
Claran; $1.
Die Frie Press, Philadelphia, Pa.; F. W. Thomas; dai
ly, $3.
Homestead Journal, Salem, 0.; A. Hinksman; $1 60.
Christian Press, Cincinnati, 0.; $2.
True Democrat, Cleveland, 0.; Thomas Brown; dal
ly $0, weekly $2.
Ashtabula Sentinel, Jefferson and Ashtabula, 0.; W.
C. Howell, $2.
Mahoning Free Democrat, Youngstown, 0.; M. Cullo
tan; $1.50.
Commercial, Cleveland, 0.; U M. Addison; $1.50.
Journal, Wellington, 0.; Geoive Brewster; $1.60.
Western Reserve Chronicle, Warren, O.; E 0. How
ard; $2.
Telegraph. Painsville, 0.; Gray k Doolittle ; $2.
Ohio Times, Mount Veruon, 0.; Chapman k Thrall:
Independent Democrat, Elvria, 0.; Philemon Bliat;
Columbian, Columbus, 0.; L L Rice.
Free Democrat, Chanlon, 0.: J. 8. Wright; $1.
Star, Ravenna, 0.; Lyman W. Hall; $1 50.
Herald of Freedom, Wilmington, (4; J W. Chaffin;
True Republican, Greenfield, 0.
Williams Democrat, West Unity, 0.; Win. A Hunter.
Free Democrat, Detroit, Mich.; S. H. Baker; daily
$5, weekly $1. ??^
Free Democrat, Indiauapolis, Ind.; R. Vaile; $ I 50.
Western Citisen, Chicago, HI.; Z. C. Eastman ; daily
and weekly.
Journal, Sparta, III.; I. S. Coulter; $125.
Western Freeman, Galesbarg, III., W J.Lane; $2.
Standard, Freeport, III.
Free Democrat, Waukesha. Wis.; 8 M? Booth; dai
ly $4, weekly $2.
Telegraph, Kenosha, Win., Sholes A Frank ; $2.
Free Press, Janesvilie, Wis.; Joseph Baker; $1.50.
Free Press, Sheboygan Falls, Wis., J. A. Smith; $1
Advocate, Racine, Wis ; C. Clements; $2.
Kentucky News, Newport, Ky.; W. 8. Bailey; $1.
True Democrat, Mount Pleasant, Iowa; J. W Howe;
Der Demokrat, Davenport, Iowa; Th. Gnlich; $2.
Pacific Statesman. San Francisco, Cat.; J. H. Pnrdy.
Der National Demokrat. Washington. D. C.; Fred.
Schmidt, editor; Buell k Blatu hard, publishers; $2.
Liberator, Boston, Ms.; Win. Lloyd Garrison; $2 50.
Pennsylvania Freeman, Philadelphia, Pa.; C. M. Bur
leigh ; $2.
National Anti-Slavery Standard, New York, N. Y.;
S. H. Gay k K. Quincy; $2.
Anti-Slavery Bugle, Salem, 0.. M R Kobin*on ; $1.50.
Voice of the Fugitive.
bin now mariy (or delivery
View of Soulkei>? Imiim, Life, nnrf Ho^yitaht^.
Written In Charleston, 8. O , by K C. ? ? r *
THE above work for tut- u liaitulil.il I2m?> volume of
over 300 page*, small p5en Pi ice in paper, f?0
oer.tji, muslin, 75 cent* The usual discount to the
Trade. Order i solicited. Copies sent bjr mail, pre
paid, anv distance under 3,000 uiilee, for ft! cent*
The above work ia a delineation ol the scone* end
incident* connected With the imprisonment. in lfcirt,
of Manuel Pereira, steward of tne British brig .1 an
ion. in the jail of Charleston. 8. O.
The following notice of thin work ia copied from (ha
National Rra of February 17 ;
"The above ia the title of a work now in presa,
founded upon that infamous statute of South Carolina,
by which her oititens olaim a right to imprison roi&ud
tmmtu, of all nations, and even those cast upon their
ahore* in distress We have perused the booh in ad
vance of iU publication, and And that it gives a life,
like picture of Pereiro, the v?-ss?>1 in which he sailed,
the storms she encountered, and her wrccked condition
when brought into the port of Charleston, 8. C. j to.
gether witli the imprisonment of Pereira, several sea
men belonging to the New Knglnnd States, and two
French seamen; the prison regimen, character of th?
Charleston police, and the mendacity of certain offi
cials, who make the law a medium of peculation. The
work is replete with inoident* of Southern life and
character, pointing Southerners to the things that call
for correction at their own hands, with a force that
cannot be mistaken. The work is written by ony who
has taken a prominent part in the affairs of the South,
and cannot fail to Interest alike the general reader,
commercial man, and philanthropist."
The above work can be obtained, at wholesale
prices, from
John P. Jkwktt A Co., Boston. Mass.,
Skkvit* J. Batkx, 48 Beekuinn st., New Vork,
WilmaP. IIa*/a iin, Philadelphia,
And from the publishers.
BURLL A BLANCHARD Washington, I> 0 '
Pamphlet printing imativ **ecuted t>y
Hiilh itraet annth of Pannrylvania avannw

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