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For the Htttoul Art. THE SUMM11 WOOD. BY MRS. K. JKMrtUP KAMBS. In the green cloisters of the Suuimar Wood I ait, and muso on this serenest morning: Around and through tho gorgeous solitude? And overhead, wild Laurel wreaths adorning The branohiug trees! The Hemlock's fringy lingers Weave one rut netting o'er my dreamy head, The leafy boughs hold many a wild-wood singer ? The tetselated floor is gaily spread With scarlet berries?and the wild star mosses. As with a carpet, clothe the verdurous ground; The Oak's deep emerald with tho gray Beach crosses, And twinkling green lights shimmer all around ! 0, Summer Woods! ye bring unto the Karth Such vernal glory; and in your oool shadow Float whispering wood notes of rejoioing mirth, lied Oriole and the bright Jack of the ineadow. Thanks for the Woods! a pure perpetual blessing Breathes through the shelter of the leafy trees? Their swinging arms a thousand shrubs oaressing, Whose wilding odors load the morning breeze. Yes' here, clasped to the lioly Heart of Nature, I feel her Spirit thrilling through my own; And in the lessons of this august Teacher I learn the goodness of the All-Wise One! Are ye not sacred held unto the Muses Of sculpture, painting, poetry, and song ? For rtwh ye have your own transcendent uses, And tenderest meanings unto ye belong. Artist and Minstrel, Bard and Poet stand 'Neath those oool skylights of transparent foliage, And sunbar'd boughs, and shaded columns grand. And, hem, 0, Joy ! no feverish world-knowledge Telleth of sorrow, suffering, and strife; But the still wood scene wakens sweetest fancies, Brings radiant glimpses of fair Kden Life, In which are breathed a thousand heart romances! What marvel that the Woods in ages olden Wera hallowed by the " bright mythology" Of other days ? That tirooia's poesy golden Idealised them brightly, tenderly ? The dwelling place of wild faun, fay, and nymph; Of hamadryad satyr, elf, and fairy; The trysting spot where greenwood sprite and sylph Were wont within the magic ring to tarry? What marvel that our memories are taken Into the circle of the Mighty Past ? That on our lips the lays of Shakspeare waken ? And Milton's spell its magic o'er as cast? Ah! well I deem great artist souls were haunted By the vast images of Nature, till Their dreams took substance in a realm enchanted, And Art arose with warm creative will, And reproduced pillar, and arch, and column, Of those " first Temples " where religion came To worship truly the Great Spirit solemn. And rear a spotless Altar to His name! And thus did artists of the olden ages Immortalise their memory of the Woods? In form, and color, and on poet-pages, Preserve the grandeur of these solitudes' For ths National Era. THE ARISTOCRACY OP ENGLAND, no. n [concluded.] Al the conquest, the crown bad two main souroes of revenue?the orown lands and the feudal dues; these latter being in the nature of rent pud by the baronial aristocracy for the estates they held. The old peerage was, therefore, strictly territorial, and so it oontinned to be down to the reign of Richard the Second, for the first creation of a peer by patent was made by that monarch in the person of John De Beauehamp, of Holt Castle, who was raised to the dignity of Baron Kidderminster, in Wilt shire, with remainder to his htirs male, in the eleventh year of that king. This wag a great innovation in the ancient order of things, a* before that time peers of the realm were sum moned to Parliament by writ for their lands ' and baronies, but the introduction of peerage** S^?patent changed a territorial into a personal ^Hnity. It was a decided blow at feudalism, Boh had attached legislative power exclusive ly to the pommsion of land; at the same time it enlarged the prerogative of the crown. All the feudal estate*, held in capUe from the orown, were originally oonditionsJi and revo cable ; for the barbarian tribes of the north, who ; subverted the throne of the Caesars and estab lished the various kingdoms of Europe on the ruins of the Western Empire, enjoyed a very considerable degree of liberty. Hereditary right wae unknown, and.kings were no more than the ohieft of military leaders, primus inter 1 procere*, who united their troops under one command lor a special enterprise. The well known anecdote of Clovie and the soldier suf fioss to prove the very limited nature of royalty in the early ages. A sacred vase, belonging to the eathedral at Rheims, had been seised with other plunder alter a battle. Before the spoil was divided, Clovie ordered the vase to be set aside, he wishing to return it to St Rcmigins, or Kemi, bishop of Rheims. A Frank warrior, indignant at this novel claim, struck the vain fiercely with his battle-axe, exclaiming, "Prinoe, you oaa pretend to nothing here but what may fell to veur lot*' This incident olearly show* that liberty and equality had a real existence at this era, and that the ehief of the nation did not oommand subjects, as a king, but soldiers, ae a general. But this relation oeaeed under the Merosmgian princes. Sovereignty became hereditary, and lands were oarved out of the royal domains and given to the nobles, but with this important limitation?that the sover eign eould resume them at pleasure. These stataii were oaUed bene)Ice*, which must not be confounded with JUft, the institution of which botany to a later data Onoe granted, the holders of the Itenefiocs diaired to make thom hereditary ; the biehope were in the same po sition, and ware influenced by the same motives; the two wlsisss Combined, and compelled the kkw to abandon his right of revocation. This j took place partially in 587, and definitively in ?IS, to assemblies held in Paris, when Cletaire confirmed the hereditary character of benefioes, and established feudalism proper ; and it was this system that William the Conqueror im ported into England. Rosrevnr, H must not be inferred that the baronial eteates were held unconditionally. A fiaf was a eoaoearion of lands, made on condi tion of reeepMng him who conceded them as kit paramount, of owing him fidelity, and tolling him in war. There were aleo many fntiulaeideats which continued down to the rorteeaiiondf Qtarlee the Seeond, the sumnder of wMeh was the condition on wbioh he was pMHttted In occupy Ik? throne of his ancestors, on which ininpletiuiiMy event we shall enlarge h waiter, At present, we shall only notice ?N> at Htm mm important restraints on the old Mtanw of England, In which fttie atten tion has been peidlf hieloriana, and also be eanee thom restraints show that Ae modern felhlM, that property has dnties to perform, as wsil as rights to enforce," is nmUf ancient. Tim reersgs, and the rights of hereditary legislation nttsahsd to tlm Peerage war* for feited either through poverty or absenteeism. In tfce nip of fcdweed the Fourth. George HtfHL Duke of Bedford, wee deprived of bis peer ami baaaaae hit had feBen Into pauperism, .I 0L - S.? l- .. f I - j. ?I j,! f-fa SSm^m Afci ?nail>?i I eitod at a fntnre period, when the claims .,1 heredKary legislation were brought Itefore Par | lianmnt The ease of George Nevill wae de-l eided by an act passed on the l?th of June, inl the itoftoiteeuth year of the reign of Edwardl jj^Wth, and the " Forasmuch as it is openly known that the auid George bath not, or by any inberitanoe may have, any livelihood to support the same n.une, estate, and dignity, or any name of es tate ; and oftentimes it is to be seen that when any lord is called to high estate, and hath not convenient livelihood to support the same dig nity, it induueth great poverty and indigenoe, and oauHeth oftentimes great extortion, em bruoory, and maintenanoe to be had, to the great trouble of all suoh oounties where such states shall happen to be ; wherefore the king, by the advice of his lords spiritual and tempo ral, and by the oommons in the present Par liament assembled, and by tbe authority of the Name, ordaineth, established, and ? enaoteth, that, from henceforth, the said oreation and making of the said duke, and all the names of dignity given to the said George, or to John Nevill, his father, be from henoerorth void, and of none effect." The famous oase on absenteeism is that of tbe Karl of Shrewsbury, and the deoision shows that the immense traots of land anoiently granted by the crown ?o the barons were wholly in the nature of a trust, to whioh ac countability was attaohed. These are the f'aots. Henry the Sixth created the Earl of Shrewsbury in England, Earl of Waterford and Baron of Dungarvan in Ireland, grant ing by letters patent " the oastlep, lordships, honors, lands, and manor of Dungarven, to the said Karl r.nd the heirs male of his body." In the Parliament, oalled the Parliament Dee Absentees, held at Dublin on the 10th of May, in the 28th of Henry the Eighth, it was de cided that the Earl of Shrewsbury should be deprived of all his Irish estates, " on account of his long absenoe from that country ; the said Karl being a peer of both realms, and residing in England." In 1612, this oase was argued again by oounsel before the ohief justices and chief baron, Who, after taking into considera tion tho act of tho 28th of Heniy tbe Kighth, raised the following two questions, involving all the merits, and on whioh they adjudicated, their sentence being unanimous. ^ " 1st. Whether, by the long absence of the Karl ot Shrewsbury out of Ireland, by reason whereof the king and hiB subjects wanted their defence and assistance there, the title of the honor be lost and forfeited, the said Earl being a peer of both realms, and residing hero in England." '? 2d. Whether, by the Aot Des Absentees, the title of the dignity of Earl of Waterford be taken from the said Karl, as well as the man ors, lands, tenements, and other heredita ments in the said aot specified." As to the first point, it was resolved that, forasmuch as it does not appear what defence was requisite, and that tho consideration exeo utory was not found by office to be broken as to that partioular, tho said Earl of Shrewsbury does remain Earl of Waterford. As to the Becond, it was resolved, that tbe act of the 28th of Henry the Eighth doth not only take away tbe possessions whioh were given to him at the time of his creation, but also tbe dignity itself; "for," says Lora Coke, "al though one may have a dignity without any possession, atl sustinendum nomen et onus, yet it is very inoonvenient that a dignity should be clothed with poverty; and, in oases of writs and suoh other legal proceedings, he is aooount ed in law a nobleman, and so ought to be oall ed in respect of his dignity; but yet, if he want possessions to maintain his estate, he oannot press the King in justice to grant him a writ to call him to the Parliament; and so it was resolved, in the oase of tho Lord Ogle, in the reign of Edward the Sixth, m the Baron of Burleigh?Lord Treasurer of England, at the Parliament 35th Elisabeth, did report; and, therefore, the act of the 28th of Henry the Eighth (as all other acts ought to be) shall be expounded to take away all inoonvenience, and, therefore, by the general words of the acts, 4 honors and hereditaments,' the dignity itself with the lands given for maintenanoe of it, are oven to the King, and tbe dignity is extinot in the crown.-' It appears from this memorable oase, that, aooording to the spirit of the feudal oonstitu tion, the condition of personal residence was attaohed to the possession of baronial lands. Those who enjoyed them stood, as it were, be tween the crown and the subject, acting on the one hand as local lieutenants for the sov ereigns, to preserve his prerogative and coerce rebellion, and on the otner band as conserva tors of the rights of the people among each other. Their duties, therefore, were not oon fined simply to legislation, bat they also had an executive office, it being their duty to see that the laws were enforced and obeyed in their respective neighborhoods. "Those who are earls," says Lord Coke, " have an offioe of great trust and confidence, and created for two purposes ? to advise tho king in time of peaoe, and defend the king and country in time of war; and. therefore, antiquity hath given them two ensigns to resomble those two duties; for first, their head is adorned with a oap of honor and a coronet, and their body with a robe, in resemblanoe of oonnsel; and seoondly, thsy are girt with a sword, in reaemblanoe that they should be faithful and loyal to defend their prinoe and oountry " To fix a pecuniary standard for the peerage, and exactly settle the amount which should exempt a man from the legal penalties of poverty, may seem to be extremely difficult; bat tbe Englinh had established a scale for this purpose, whioh is thus explained by I-ord Coke: ' And it is to be known that, as in ancient times the senators of Rome were elected d eenm of their revenues, so here in ancient times, in conferring of nobility, respeot was had to their revenoes, by whioh their dignity and nobility might be supported and maintained. Than a knight ought to have ?20 per annum ; a baron thirteen knights' fees ; (for there was not any dake in England from tbe time of the conquest until tbe ilth of Edward the Third, and tbe Duke of Cornwall was the first duke after tbe oon quest in England,) and this appears by tbe statute Magna Charta, o. 2. For always tbe fourth part of sach revenue, which is requisite by tbe law to the dignity. shall be paid to the king as a relief for tbe relief of a knight's fee is ?5. whioh is the foorth part of ?20, whioh is a knight's revenue;- and the relief of a baron is 100 marks, whioh is the fourth part of his revenue, via: 400 marks, and inoludss thirteen knights' feat and a qnar tor ; and the relief of an earl is ?100, whioh is the fourth nart of ?400, whioh is the re re nue of an earl. And it appears, by the reoords of tbe Exchequer, that the relief of a duke shall amount to ?200 per annum, and, by oon sequence, his revenue ought to be ?800 ; and that is the reason in our books that every one of the nobility is presumed in law to have sufficient freehold orf vutinendum nomtn et onut, for npporting his rank and the hardens of itV This rapid sketch of the substance and forms of the feudal monarchy when in its pristine vigor, of tbe rtatw of the aristoeraey, and of the political rise of the Commons, may be te dious to those who wish to arrive rapidly at immature conclusions; to those, these remarks are not addressed. In the United States a great experiment is being tri?d in the soienoe of Government, and Europe anxiously looks at every movement on its various platforms But how can tbe true democrat, however gifted or sinoere, perfect his own institutions, unless he has carefully traced the errors of monarchies and aristooraoies ? And where will be find more instruction than in the history of the raoe from whioh his fore fathers sprang ? It is wrong to anticipate, bat perhaps the writer may be permitted to state to those who honor this series with perusal, that the ultimate point he will endeavor to estab lish. as he advances from epoch to epoch, is the tendenoy of England towards that form of Government whioh George Washington found ed. Wait for the evidence. J. D. ttrTh# Daily Era can be had every morning at tha Periodical Stand of Mr. J. T. Batbs, Ex change, Philadelphia; also, the Weekly Era. Mr. Jambs Elliott ia anthoriaed to receive and receipt for subacriptioni and advertiaeuentH for the Daily and the Weekly National Era, in Cincin nati and vicinity. WASHINGTON, D. C. WEDNESDAY, JANUARY II, 1854. u Bill Smith."?Who ia "Bell Smith?" it a question repeatedly asked. She ia an Amer ican woman from the Went, now raiding in Paris, and, as her Letters show, n dashing, lively, independent, original writer, making no (jgetenaion to oraoular wisdom, indifferent to ordinary formulas, and never hesitating at good-natured caricature, when it will serve, better then precise and fastidious statement, to convey a true impression. For it is a fact, that suoh statement not unfrequently fails to pro duce any impression of an event or soene, when a little oarioature would oompel attention to it. A writer in a Philadelphia paper, (the name of which we have forgotten,) awarding her the credit of vivacity and piquanoy, undertakes to criticise with exemplary sobriety some of her gay sketohes, on the ground that they do great injustice to Paris, and he even goes into a serious vindication of the virtues of Parisian landlords, nurses, maids, and haokmen, against the comical abuse of Bell Smith. We may expect to see next a solemn sermon on the levities of Don Quixote and Diedrioh Knick erbocker. CHIVALRY ILLUSTRATED. Last winter, tho majority of the Senate, at the dictation of the Power that rules this Gov ernment, exoluded Messrs. Chose oi\d Sumner, two of the most able lawyers and best-read men in that body, from any respectable posi tions on the Standing Committees, beoause they did not choose to fall down and worship tho fetish which commands the homage of the drivelling, tribe of politicians. The notice taken of this magnanimous con duct was such, that this year there was some hesitation at repeating the experiment. The Democratic Caucus, by an extraordinary effort of horoiem, ventured so far as to provide for Mr. Chase, whose business habits and experi ence render his services on- any committee in valuable ; but the Whigs, unable to rival this daring act, suffered Mr. Sumner to drop, al though requested by the opposite Party to pro vide for him. The constitution of the Seleot Committee on the Pacific Railroad affords another illustration of the ignoble spirit of sectionalism that reigns in the Senate. Soon after the commencement of the session, Mr. Chase submitted a resolu tion that the Committee on Roads and Canals, (of which he is a member) be instructed to in quire into the expediency of constructing a road from the western boundary of the Missis sippi States to California?thus taking the in itiative in that great work. Not long after wards, he called up his resolution, and Mr. Gwin moved an amendment to it, (which was carried,) ordering a Seleot Committee on the subject. The resolution, as amended, passed. According to Parliamentary usage or oourtesy, Mr. Chase was fairly entitled to the post of Chairman of the Select Committee; but, be longing to neither of the ruling party organi sations, it was not surprising that the custom ary rule should be disregarded, and Mr. Gwin be selected as Chairman. Still, it was the gen eral expectation that he would be appointed a number of the Committee. This was absolutely required, not by oourtesy, but byjustioe; for it was on his motion, after all projects in rela tion to a Pacific Highway had failed in the last Con gross, that a resolution was passed, author ising the President to institute a series of ex plorations of the different routes proposed for the road, with a view of submitting whatever information might beoolleoted to this Congress I nder that resolution, explorations have been aotively going on, and a great mass of invaluable information has been obtained Nor did Mr Chose intermit his labors after the adjourn ment of Congress. He brought the subject be fore the People of the West, and his services were notioed in the most honorable manner by the Authorities and People of St. Ixwis. In view of aU this, and of the foot that he had taken the initiative in the business in the Senate this session, it war due to him that he should be plaoed on the Seleot Committee. So thought the oauous that arranged the mat ter for the final decision of the Chair ; but it will surprise the country when it shall learn that from this Seleot Committee, as named bj Mr. Atchison, President pro tem. of the Sen ate, the able Senator from Ohio has been ex eluded ! Here are the names: Mr. Gwm, of California, (Chairman. Mr. Rrioht of Indiana, Mr. Ritsk of Texas, Mr. Douqlas of Illinois, . Mr. Heli. of Tennessee, Mr. Evkrktt of MaMaohusetts, Mr. Skward of New Vork, Mr. Gbyko of Miseonri,* Mr. Kvans of South Carolina? Any one of whom ooald have been quite as well spared, a majority of whom oonld have been better spared, than the man who (sinoe Mr. Benton's retirement from the Senate) thus far has devised the only measures in that body relating to the road, of any praotioal value. Does any man imagine that, had Mr. Chase bent hie knee to the dark spirit of Slavery, he wonld have been thus proscribed ? How long do the supporters of the " peouliar institution " think they can thus arrogate to themselves all honor and power 1 It has eome to this, that a man most swear by negro slavery before he is considered en titled te political position, or even social equality. / For one, we reject the test, defy those who propose, and detest and soorn those who ae oept, it. ? Ths Psopis of Missouri will spprsoiste Mr. Ateh taMi'* devotion to thoir inter****, when they leant that the nam* of Mr. (Isjrer, whom nicknss* and absence will probably prevent from giving any attention te lbs ha*inea* of lbs Committee, wss robstitnted for tbsl of Mr Cbs*s, the known Mid active friend of tks Csntrsi root* bdccavkekinu or califorbia. The late arrivals from California bring ac counts of a mow remarkable state of affaim. Various parties of American citizens are openly attempting to obtain possession of Sonora, a State belonging to Mexico, and annex to it to the United States. Cap. Walker, as has already been announced, has made a descent upon it, with a handful of followers, set up a Govern ment, organised a Cabinet, and adopted the oivil code of Louisiana. Mr. Emery, Secre tary of the sham Republic, having returned to San Francisco, has been raising recruits. Cali fornia is in a state of high excitement; the buocaneering spirit is everywhere aroused; the Hag of a recruiting station has been hoisted in San Prancisoo. Hands of armed men embark in broad daylight, and more than a thousand adventurers have sailed to reinforce Walker, without molestation from State or Federal au thorities. More atrocious violations of the rights of a friendly nation have never been committed. The whole scheme from beginning to end is one of robbery and murder. It is a damning disgrace to the people of this Union, and to the Government, which from remissness or oonnivanoe has failed to ourb it. Had it been less engaged in crushing out the free spirit of the country, it would have had more time to devote to the suppression of these buccaneering projects. A San Franoisoo paper Bays that tho depart ment of Sonora oomprises 75,000 square miles?about one-half as much as the area of California?and that the population is estima ted at from 60,000 to 100,000, inoluding 10,000 or 15,000 Apachos, and other wild Indians. A portion of the oountry is susceptible of till af5?> but its great attraction is vast mineral woalth?the plains and the region near the mountains abounding in mines of silver and gold. The same journal adds : "There ?re several good ports on the Gulf: Guayamas is the best. If Sonora should be annexed, tfce Gila route would rise in import ance, and '<he Pacific railroad would necossa r?ly. go thither. Sonora is nearer to the Mis sissippi Valley than California, and would, per haps, attract more immigrants. From Santa Fe to the neanst mines is 350 miles, and to Guay amas is about 550 miles. TTie annexation of Sonora woild make El Paso a place of import ance, which is only about 350 miles from Guayamaa and would be on the main route to the Mississippi Valley. Guyamas is about 900 miles from this city by the land trail." One faot is overlooked or suppressed in tho acoounts gsnerally published in the newspa pers this sido of the mountains: it is, that at the bottom af all these buocaneering projects lies that root of evil, that ever-working ele ment of violence, disoord, and ruin?Negro Slavery. Tha samo sinister influence which planted Slave Labor in Texas, brought about a war with Mexioo, has repeatedly interfered for the purpose of bolstering up Slavery in Cuba, forced upon the oountry the Compro mises of 185#, and is now demanding entranoe nto Nebraska, has originated the piratioal movements against Sonora. To prove that we do not speak at random, we copy the following from an editorial in the Alt a California of De cember 15th. the oldest journal, we believe, in that State. "As long ago as last winter, there was a great scheme in the process of formation, lor the purpose of taking the State of Sonora, and planting the institution of Slavery on the Paoific. The headquarters of these ?manifest destiny' m?D! who foresaw that the people of the Uni- ! tod States must oarry the principles of liberty, equality, and republicanism, to all parts of North America, was Kenicia A delectable crowd of bangers on were about the oapital, whose chief object was to mature their plans for this campaign. They saw the duty clearly before them, to oarry the glorious institution of Slavery into territory now free from it, at the point of the bayonet. To perfect their plans, they met at Betucia, and, like prudent and sen sible men as they were, got olerkships in the Legislature, and, without doing any duty, they got from f 10 to $20 each, per day. Sinoe then, they have been at work, cautiously and adroit ly arranging their plans, and the ball has now opened. The great work has begun, and our oi titans are rushing to the scene of aotion to share the booty, the beauty, and the glory. " It is a well-known fact, that for years there has been a class of men in this State who have been wild to get Slavery introduced, and who have devised various projects by which to effect that most desirable objeot. But they have failed ?signally failed; and though men of great energy and talent have boen engaged in it, with wealth at home and assistance from the older States to hejp it along, their labor hos been lost. On a direct vote, we venture to assert, the Slavery propagandists could not get one vote out of seven throughout the State But they wore not so to be balked. If they could not get what they wanted here, and oould get it in the neighboring State of Sonora, it would spread from there, and gradually crawl up in this direction. If a foothold oould once be obtained on tfce coast, they fancied it would spread, and the broad flag of Slavery encircle in its glorious folds a large part of our ooun try's possessions on the Paoific ' Suoh was the object, in its inoipiency, of the expedition against Sonora. What are the probabilities of its sneoess ! " ft proceeds to say that the People of Cali fornia, when fully awakened to the true nature of this soheme, will overwhelm it with their indignation. " They art decidedly and unequivocally op posed to Slavery on the Pacifie, as they have repeatedly shown on various oooasions. And when it shall become known that this crusade is for the purpose of thwarting their wishes in this particular, the whole scheme will appear most damnably wicked in their eyes. A howl of indignation will go up from one end of the State to the other against it, and against all who have favosed it, and the people will not calmly look on and see organized companies go forth on so unrighteous a mission. It will give rise to a fierce and bitter war at home against it, and whoever shall be found linked in with it had best join in. and go to the scene of aotion himself. He will be utterly repudi ated here, and from thenoeforth be a marked man, who had sought by stoalth to set at naught the great principle of republicanism, that tho voioe of the people should bs the voioe of authority and rule throughout the land. ? ?????* "Three quarters of our population are North ern men, and of those from the Sooth the ma jority are opposed to Slavery on the Pacific. And of those who go to Sonora, that is, if the country is worth hating, we have no question that an immense majority will be opposed to introducing Slavery there. It will he impossible for the leading filibusters to suoeeed in their great objeot; and though we feel little hesita tion in saying so, we wish people |p understand what there is in the white heap yonder, that men who are at heart bitterly and fixedly op posed to the introdution i?f Slavery here, may not be led into aiding a sherae which, if they understood it, they would look upon as too I oh tunefully wicked to be oonoooted bv the self ish and perverted ingenuity of man.'' So mote it be. Name Wanted.?Some one Bends uh five dollaru from McOrawsville, New York, as subscription for the Doily Era, but neglect* to give uh bin name. THE RESOLUTION Of THANKS TO CAPTAIN IN GBAHAM. Tbe " organ " thinks that Congress ought not only to thank Captain Ingrahatn for his -gallantry, but endorse the conduct of the Ad ministration in the Koazta affair, and the prin ciples set forth in the Kow-ta i.etter. It would pirale a committee to define these principles. Some of the assumptions of the Letter are doubtful, some of its arguments inconclusive. Let us have no wholesale endorsement of such a dooumeut. If the Letter is to be passed upon, let the resolution be referred buck to the com mittee, with instructions to present a synopsis of the Principles maintained in it, so that mem-' ben may vote intelligently and with a clear discrimination. Tbe articles in the. "organ," like some of the speeches of members, assume that the whole world is looking at us, just now, watching with anxiety for Che verdict of the American Con gress in this Kopzta affair. It is an epoch in the history of the world. The Eastern Ques tion sinks into insignificance, compared with it The letter of the Araerioan Secretary of State quite threw into the shade the protocols of the four great Powers. Austria was stunned? Turkey forgot her danger in her admiration? Russia suspended her maroh, to gaze upon the flight of the Amerioan eagle! One of the most patriotic orators, declaiming in the House in favor of the resolutions, had no doubt that their passage would quicken the war feeling in England, breathe new spirit into the lan guishing English Ministry, and bring back Lord Palmerston to power! Well, next to being great in foot, is being great in our own conceit As tbe fate of Eu rope seems to haiig upon the passage of a vote of thanks to Captain Ingraham, we submit whether it bo right to delay tho matter any longer. ________ Arrival of the Yankee Blade.?The steamer Yankee Blade, Captain Henry Ran dall, arrived yesterday morning at New York, from Aspinwall, with a large number of pas sengers. Captain Randall left Aspinwall on the 31st of December, and touched at Jamaica on the morning of the 3d instant, and left again at 7 P. M., and arrived off the light ship at Sandy Hook at 5 o'clock yesterday morning. When off Cape H atteras, Captain Randall enoountered a hurricane, during whioh the steamer rode out the gale in safety, Thomas H. Shreve.?Our readers have been apprisee of tbe death of Thomas H. Shreve, one of the editors of the Louisville Journal. He was a man of fine literary taBtos, a polished essayist, and a vigorous politioal writer. In our earlier manhood we were in the 'habit of daily intercourse with him, and cherish now the most pleasing reoolleotions of his brilliant social qualities, his genial and hu mane sentiments, and his unassuming integrity. He dies in the prime of life, and leaves va cant a seat in the oirole of his friends, whioh will be forever consecrated to his memory. LITERARY NOTICE. Tub Pekaciier AHD THE Kisu; or, Bounlaloue in th? Court of Louis XIV. Translated from the French of L Bungener. With an Introduction, by the Rev. George Pott*. D. D . pastor of the Univer sity Place Pres?>yt?rinn Church, N. York. 1 vol. Tiib Peiest and the IIvoiienut ; or, The Porsecu tion in the age of Louis XV. Bjr the aaine author and translator. 2 volt Boston : Gould A Lincoln. For sale by Gray A lJallaatyne and Taylor A Mau ry, Washington, D. C. These are worka of unusual merit and at tractiveness. The prcaoher in Hourd<ilout, and this work, bendm it* story of Court morula and intrigues, has for its end the discussion of pul pit eloqueuoo. Of oourse, the prinoipala of his first work are Hourdaloue, Fenelon, Kossuet, and Claude, and the pivot of the hook it the ?ermon the eloquent Bourdaloue is to ptoaoh before the great King. There are few readers who, while they are interested by the novelty of the scenes drawn by a master hand, will not be instructed into a better knowledge of all those great men and groat events which mark ed the age of Iahuh It Grand, and his automa ton predecessor, Louis XV. Here are drawn in living life the personages who made that age of France to be distinguished as its golden age?Fenelon, Hourdaloue, I~ouis XVI, Kossuet, Madame de Montespan, Claude of Charenton, Pere le Chaise, Cotin, and others of that roign ; and of the Jesuits and their victims; the Aoad emy and its philosophers?Voltaire, Diderot, D'Alembert; the nobles and the women ; the saints, and the strange soenes of those days at Court and amid tbe fastnesses of the Huguenots The sufferings of these poor people, and their extermination, are made the snbjeot of the ool loquies and descriptions of these two volumes. We can commend both these books as the work of a master, and which Protestants of our age may read with profit. The Society of Jenu is among u?: not a few scattered men, but a con federacy whose aim and end is the conquest of Christianity and the extirpation of what they call knety It is as oertain as effects following causes, that whenever the Jevuits and Roman clergy in this country shall predominate, our Protestantism and its future history will reoord new Saints days, made red with the slaughter of the children of onr prosent careless and reokless citivens, who, while they hate Protest antism, in some shape or other offensive to them, are promoting Papal schools and oolleges, liring ing upon the freo institutions of this free land, m far <m they can do no, the oal amities whioh are pottrayed in these volumes. F-et them read and ponder. " Rome never ohanges," has t>een and is the proud boast of the priesthood of the Papal Churoh; and the Inquisition is already annonnoed to the readers of M Tbe Shepherd of the Valley," published at St. Louis, and by other CatboKo journals in this.country, as only awaiting the time when Protestantism shall have been so far supplanted as to make the sharp experiment practicable with safety. W. # OC^- A thing in human shape was tarred and feathered, a few days since, in Clyde, Wayne county, N. Y., for whipping his wife. Elocution.?When the stage occupied a higher position in the public estimation than at present, and the theatre was a place of re sort for the wits and litterateurs of every city, there was more attention given to the subjeot of scholastic eloquence than at present. In those days, " the bar, the pulpit, the theatre, and the court," afforded the models of oorrect speaking. Now, in our country, there is no oourt to guide us, the pulpit is full of stiffness and mannerism, the bar is rough .and tumble, and the theatre contains but few educated or well studied actors. A Boston paper before us, (the Atlas,) in an apparently fair and friendly notioe of the drama in that oity, says of a lady of some popularity, that " she has a peculiar habit of giving an incorrect pronunciation to the final syllables of such words as even, broken, etc., which she pronounces as though written e-vun, bro-kun?placing the aooent on the last syllable." TbiH is horrible; but the Atlas con tinues : " The managers of our theatres do not pay that attention to pronunciation that the im portance of the subjeot seems to demand. The pronunciation at all our theatres is faulty, and we oannot rait one of them without hearing words pronounced either in an original or affected manner, that, at times, would disgraoe a schoolboy. The hearing of such words uh offence, occasion, and the like, pronounced with the o long, as though written o-fenee and o ca sion, is quite a common occurrence." Passengers for Europe.?-Among the pas sengers who departed from New York in the steamer Paoific, on the 7th instant, for Liver pool, were Col. Webb, of the Courier and En quirer ; Edward C. Kemble, editor of the Alia California Lieut. Morris, bearer of despatches to London; C. A. Holdship, bearer of despatch es to Paris; Col. McGreeder, bearer of des patches to Constantinople ; Count Becnaud, of Prussia; and Mr. Gavatzi. It had boen given out that the latter was going to < mbark direct for Italy; but ho is one of the proscribed. Slandering the Peculiar.?The New Or leans Crescent, of the 27th of Deoember, relates the following, under its police head: A Savage Master.?A runaway nogro man, calling himself Lewis, was brought before Re corder Winter yesterday. He was a most wretched-looking darkey, and his miserable appearance attested the truth of his story of hard treatment and barbarous severity; he had but one hand, his hoad was tied up, as if in oonsequenoe of somo recent hurt, and his facc was emaciated, and would, if possible, have been pale. He stated-that he belonged to a man named Lynch, who had a plantation across the river, and that he had run away in consequenco of his master frequently beating him without cause, and with the utmost severi ty ; he deolared that Lynch had Bhot at him twioe, and had repoatedly threatened to kill him; and that, being apprehensivo he might carry his threats into execution, he had run away, and oomc to the oity to olaim the protec tion of the authorities. He had been bought, it appears, in Kentuokv, by his present master, and his former owner had lately endeavored to re-purohase him; and because Lynch had abso lutely refused to sell him at any prioe, some have been .uncharitable enough to infer that he retained him as an objeot upon whioh to exercise his cruelty. Mrs. Stowe's "extravagant and impossible" incidents in the life of Uncle Tom, no doubt, begin to look like veritable deeds, even to Southern eyes. Now that the attention of men is directed to the search for such things, they loom up in most horribly convincing pjentiful neas. How to bk Independent.?Pennsylvania papers inform aa that? "A meeting of person* desirous of emigra ting to the Wont wan held in Jefferson, Greene oounty, Pennsylvania, on the 26th December, the ohjeot being to form a company of some fifty or more familice, consisting ot farmers and meehanio* of different kinds, to emigrate to some healthy and suitable place in the West, and thore locate at least one motion of land, lay it off into town lots, and divide them equal ly among the members of the oompany?eaoh memtier paying 8150, or whatever sum may be determined on by a majority, for the purpose of defraying the expenses of locating the laAd, purchasing the necessary stock fur the com pany and expenses of emigration; the company to remain organised, working as one family at their different occupations, until there be erected one dwelling-house for each member, on one of his own lots, and all other buildings neoesnary, for a length of time agreed on; then to dinolve, dividing the produoe, personal property, &c, equally." It is in the power of any fifty industrious and frugal families in the country, each having as much as $150 in hand, to !>eoome rich in five years. It is amasing that this plan is not constantly acted upon by the poor, shift'ees, and thriftless families, who totter on from year to year in poverty, in all our towns and cities. It is population that gives value to land. Rot ter land may be bought in the West for a dol lar or two an acre, than some in New Vork that sell* for a million or two per acre. The settlement of fifty families in any eligible po sition in the West, where 'the land is unim proved, and the inducements they present to other* to loeate among or near them, are sure within a few years to multiply greatly the value of the land, while increase is m sure to follow thrift in every possible form. The shallow and frivolous allurements of city life should not, in the estimation of a ra tional people, weigh as ^feather in the balance against such opportunities of attaining to hap piness and independence. The (SiloedThreshold.-? But that we know we may safely rely upon the representations of the Philadelphia Daily Register, we would re ject the following, not as an overdrawn, but as a totally fictitious sketch. It relates to the oity of Philadelphia: " Vender, upon a fashionable avenue, after nighCTall, a light streams from the daxxling plate-glass window of a fashionable oonfection arv. An almost continuous train of person* roll into its snaoious entrance. Within, the massive ohandeliers fling a subdued radiance over a scene of more than oriental luxury. As yon enter the gorgeous saloon, the foot sinks deep into the pile of the costly Wilton upon the floor*. Rich hangings of damask and lace darken the casements. The frescoed oeiling* glow with the warm creations of the artist's pencil. Sofas and easy chairs, in overy inviting Bore, lure you to their embrace. The gay _;h and incessant prattle of beautiful women, mingled with the otink of glaeses and the pop of champagne corks, heighten the intoxicating delights of the occasion Livnried servants hurry to and fro, boaring to each gueet the de sired refreshments. Without, the light lullaby of falling water comes to the ear, and in the tint,nine a hand of music, hid by the foliage of a garden, discourses eloquent musio, till the jeweled hands of maidens keep time to the waits upon the marble-topped tables before them, their owners all the while longing to bound off into a polka or redowa. Sherry oob blers, olaret punehen, Tom and Jerrys, disap pear behind rows of pearly teeth with as much nonchalance as though they were only sipping Bohea or Young Hyson. Gay, dashing young fellows, some with a faint intimation of a mous tache, and others invisible in whiskers accom pany these female Bacchanals, and with inane platitudes affect to admire the easy grace with whioh they toss off a bumper. These are the institutions whioh are sup ported by (heayen save the mark!) 1 our best Hooiety.'" An Orphan Asylum at San Francisco.? A handsome stone edifice is in course of con struction at San Franoisoo, to be used as an asylum for the fatherless. We notioe that " Elizabeth A. Waller, Treasurer," on behalf of the managers, " acknowledges with great pleasure the reocipt of the very opportune and munificent donation of one thousand dollars, from Col. Hiram Pearsons." A double bless ing on his gift?for both the giver and the re cipients. Lower California. ? In alluding to the probably disastrous termination of the adven tures of " William Walker, President of Lower California," "X" (Mr. Grund) says that "fast men will soon be at a reasonable discount." We like " fast men," however, who are " sure they are right." Among the " decrees " of Pres ident Walker was one, dated November 7tb, whioh proclaimed that "from and after this date the oivil code and code of practice of the State of Louisiana shall lie tho rule of dCoiuion and the law of tho land in alt the courts of the Republic to be hereafter organized!" Hon. Edward Curtis, of Nkw York.?The affliction this gentleman has suffered, for more than a year, is now considered inourable. The brain has softened, and his mind is gone. He was removod to an insane asylum on Saturday last. Mr. Curtis has occupied a prominent position in the Whig party, and was a few years ago Collector of the port of New York. Mexico.?Tho reported treaty with Mexico; the particulars of which have been published, appear to have been proposed to our Govern ment by Mr. Gadsden, bnt not to have been approved; and new propositions have been communicated to our Minister by the Govern ment of the United States. Governor of Maryland.?The inaugura tion of Thomas W atkins Ligon, as Governor of Maryland, was to take place to-day. It is said to be tho purpose of Ex-Governor Lowe to visit the Sooth for the benefit of his health, and by invitation he will become the guest of the Gov ernor of Georgia KF- A bridge over tho Ohio at Cincinnati is earnestly talked of. It will oost $600,000, and take 2*4 jean in its construction, aooording to the calculation of the Engineer Ellott. Methodist Church Question.?When the reoent difficulty between the Northern and Southern divisions of the M. E. Church was set tled in this oity, it was stated that there were two other arrangements to be effected, viz: that with the Book Agency at Cincinnati, and that of the " Chartered Fund " in Philadelphia. It affords us pleasure to announoe that the lat ter has been amicably arranged with the Rev. Dr. Green, one of the Southern commissioners. This point of litigation settled, there only re mains the Book Conoern at Cincinnati. The principles of settlement, and the legal form of the agreement, between the South and the trustees of the Chartered Fund are to be inoor Jorated, by Judge McLean, into the decree of udge Nelson on the New York property case. The amount to be paid to the South by the trustees of the Chartered Fund is $20,000.? AT. Y. Eve. Post, Tiustlay. The Maink I.aw at Albany.?The mem bers of the Legislature in favor of the Maine Law, with a number of the leading advocate of the law who are not member*, have held several consultations in regard to the form of a bill, and in relation to tbe moet practicable mode of rendering the enactment effective. Differences of opinion have been entertained and expressed as to the propriety of submitting the question to the people, and in regard to the time and manner. Litterly, says the Al bany Arffu*, the submission seems to prevail, and we infer that the question will assume that shn|ie. Hut whether the question be sub* mitted at a special or a general election, is not so clear. That point has yet to be dismissed. We are credibly informed that the head streams of tbe Illinois river, in the neighbor hood of Chicago, are lower than the surface of Lake Michigan. The country between thetn is very near a dead level, with hut slight ele vation above the lake. Now, what is to pre vent one or more channel* from being cnt, so as to pour enough of the lake waters into thft Il linois to keep it, and perhaps the Mississippi itself below the mouth of that tributary, in good navigable order at all seasons ' The largo and permanent increase in the volnnte of the Illinois would, we think, be of advantage to the health of the country along it. An im mense water power might also he created, by thus wedding the Lakes to tbe Mississippi. St. Louis InteUtgenctr. A Captured Slaver ?The sohooner N. H. Gambrill, Lieut. De Camp, commanding, ar rived at New York on the 5th inst, in 58 days from Lnando, South Africa, after having expe rienced a succession of violent gales, which stove in her bulwarks, and did other damage. She hails from Baltimore, is a slaver, and prize to the United States frigate Constitution. Com modore Isaac Mayo, and was captured on the 3d November, off Congo river, and placed in charge of Lieut. De Camp, who brought her home. It is supposed she would have received from 300 to 350 slaves, in the narrow space between the deck and the planking over the wnter casks?a space in which a man could not stand preot. Her crew consisted of eleven men, all told. Permission was given to the captain and crew either to return in the vessel or to go on shore and shift for themselves. They all pre ferred the latter alternative, excepting the oook and one of tho crew, who returned in heT. QjP"" Pennsylvania Railroad Company are ?reoting a new line of telegraph along their road, to be under tho exolusivo control of the oompany. The Seven Slaves who recently escaped from Norfolk, it has been ascertained, did not get off in tho steamer Star of the We-it, but. in some coasting craft Isuind to the North. The Mayor of Norfolk has given instructions to the police officers ta March all vessels leaving for Northern ports.