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WASHINGTON, D. C.
THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW. Aa Aot to aiurud Bad ?u|?|>lriueatory to tka ait eall U#d "AaarireaittrUaf fu*LU.. fro.. jaatlre a..J perMtaa eacaplag fioiu the arvltf ?| thrtr maalrrk," approved February twelfth, aur Ibeaiaud ?>r? hundred a ad alaely-three. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the persons who have been or may hereafter be appointed commissioners in virtue of any act of Congress, by the circuit courts of the United States, and w ho, in coiisc qucnce of such appointment, are author ized to exercise the powers that any jus tice of the peace, or other magistrate of any of the United States, may exercise in respect to offenders for any crime or of fence against the United States, by arrest ing, imprisoning, or bailing, the same, under and by virtue of the thirty-third section of the act of the twenty-fourth of September, seventeen hundred and eighty nine, entitled "An act to establish the judicial courts of the United States," shall be, and are hereby, authorized and requir ed to exercise and discharge all the pow ers and duties conferred by this act. Sue. 2. And be it further enacted, That the superior court of each organized Ter ritory of the United States shall have the same power to appoint commissioners to take acknowledgments of bail and affi davits, and to take depositions of witnesses in civil causes, which is now possessed by the circuit court of the United States; and all commissioners who shall hereafter be appointed for such purposes by the supe r'or co,,rt any or?an'ze(l Territory of the United States, shall possess all the powers, and exercise all the duties, con ferred by law upon commissioners ''ap pointed by the United Slates for similar purposes, and shall moreover exercise and discharge all the powers and duties con ferred by this act. Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the circuit courts of the United States, and the superior courts of each organized Territory of the United States, shall from time to time enlarge the number of com missioners, with a view to afford reasona ble facilities to reclaim fugitives from labor, and to the prompt discharge of the duties imposed by this act. Ssc. 4. And be it further enacted, That the commissioners above named shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the judges of the circuit and district courts of the United States in their respective circuits and dis trict* within the several States, and the judges of the superior courts of the Terri tories, severally and collectively, in term time and vacation ; and shall grant certi ficates to auch claimants, upon satisfactory proof being made, with authority to take and remove such fugitives from service or labor, under the restrictions herein con ta'ne^> to lhe State or Territory from which such persons may have escaped or fled. ? J^rU* enacted, That it shall be the duty of all marshals and deputjr marshals to obey and execute all warrants and precepts issued under the provisions of this act, when to them di rected ; and should any marshal or deputy marshal refuse to receive such warrant or other process when tendered, or to use all proper means diligently to execute the same, he shall, on conviction thereof, be fined in the sum of one thousand dollars, to the use of such claimant, on the motion of such claimant, by the Circuit or district court for the district of such marshal; and after arrest of such fugitive by such mar shal or his deputy, or whilst at any time in his custody under the provisions under this act, should such fugitive escape, whether with or without the assent of such marshal or his deputy, Ruch marshal shall be liab'e on his official bond to be prose cuted for the benefit of such claimant for th* fa" v?lue of the service or labor of said fugitive, m the State, Territory, or District, whence he escaped; and the better to en able the said commissioners, when thus appointed, to execute their duties faith fully and efficiently, in conformity with the requirements of the Constitution of the United States and ?f this act, they are hereby authorized and empowered, within their counties, respectively, io appoint, in writing, under their hands, any one or more suitable persons, from time to time, to execute all such war rants and other process as may be issued u .*'l?rn 'n 'awful performance of their respective duties ; with authority to such commissioners, or the persons to be appointed by them, to execute process as aforesaid, to summon and call to their aid the bystanders, or postt comitatm of the proper county, when necessary to insure a faithful observance of the clause of the Constitution referred to, in conformity with the provisions of this act ; and all good citizens are hereby commanded to aid and assist in the prompt and efficient execution of this law, whenever their ser vices may be required, as aforesaid, for that purpose ; and said warrants shall run and be executed by said officers anywhere in the State within which they are issued. Sac. 6. And be it further enacted, That when a person held to service or labor in any State or Territory of the United States has heretofore or shall hereafter escap^ into another State or Territory of the United States, the person or persons ?o whom such service or labor may be due, or his, her, or their agent or attorney, duly authorized by power of attorney, in wri ,,nf? acknowledged and certified under the aeal of some legal officer or court of ibe State or Territory in which the same may he executed, may pursue and reclaim such fugitive person, either by procuring a war **** ?ome one of the courts, judges, or commissioners aforesaid, of the proper circuit, district, or county, for the appre hension of such fugitive from service or labor, or by seizing and arresting such fu gitive, where the same can be done with out process, and by taking, or causing such person to be taken, forthwith before such court, judge, or commissioner, whose dntj it shall be to hear and determine the caae of such claimant in a summary man na? ; and upon satisfactory proof being made, by deposition or affidavit, in wri ting, to be taken and certified by such court, judge, or commissioner, or by other satisfactory testimony, duly taken and cer lifted by some court, magistrate, justice of the peace, or other legal officer authorized to administer ail oath and take depositions under the laws of the State or Territory from which such person owing service or labor may have escaped, with a certificate of such magistrate or other authority, as aforesaid, with the seal of the proper court or officer thereto attached, which seal shall be sufficient to establish the compe tency of the pi oof, aud with proof, also by affidavit, of the identity of the person whose service or labor is claimed to be due, as aforesaid, that the person so ar rested does in fact owe service or labor to the person or persons claiming him or her, in the State or Territory from which such fugitive may have escaped as aforesaid, and that said person escaped, to make out aud deliver to such claimant, his or her agent or attorney, a certificate setting forth the substantial facts as to the service or labor due from such fugitive to the claimant, and of his or her escape from the State or Territory in which such service or labor was due, to the State or Territory in which he or she was arrested, with author ity to such claimant, or his or her agent or attorney, to use such reasonable force and restraint as may be necessary, under the circumstances of the case, to take and re move such fugitive person back to the Stale or Territory whence he or she may have escaped as aforesaid. In no trial or hearing, under this act, shall the testi mony of such alleged fugitive be admitted in evidence; and the certificates in this and the first section mentioned shall be conclusive of the right of the person or persons in whose favor granted, to remove such fugitive to the State or Territory from which he escaped, and shall prevent all molestation of such person or persons, by any process issued by any court, judge, inagistiate, or other person, whomsoever. Sec. 7. Jind be it further enacted, That any person who shall knowingly aud will ingly obstruct, hinder, or prevent such claimant, his agent or attorney, or any person or persons lawfully assisting him, her, or them, from arresting such a fugi tive from service or labor, either with or without process as aforesaid ; or shall res cue or attempt to rescue such fugitive from service or labor, from the custody of such claimant, his or her agent or attorney, or other person or persons lawfully assisting as aforesaid, when so arrested, pursuant to the authority herein given and declared ; or shall aid, abet, or assist such person so owing service or labor as aforesaid, directly or indirectly, to escape from such claim ant, his agent or attorney, or other person or persons legally authorized as aforesaid ; or shall harbor or conceal such fugitive, so as to prevent the discovery and arrest of such person, after notice or knowledge of the fact that such person was a fugitive from service or labor as aforesaid, shall, for either of said offences, be subject to a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, and imprisonment not exceeding six months, by indictment and conviction be fore the district court of the United States for the district in which such offence may have been committed, or before the prop er court of criminal jurisdiction, if com mitted within any one of the organized Territories of the United States; and shall moreover forfeit and pay, by way of civil damages to the party injured by such illegal conduct, the sum of one thousand dollars for each fugitive so lost as aforesaid, to be recovered by action of debt, in any of the district or territorial courts aforesaid, within, whose jurisdiction the said offence may have been committed. Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That the marshals, and their deputies, and the clerks of the said district and territorial courts, shall be paid for their services the like fees as may be allowed to them for similar services in other cases ; and where such services are rendered exclusively in the arrest, custody, and delivery of the fugitive to the claimant, his or her agent or attorney, or where such supposed fugi tive may be discharged out of custody for the want of sufficient proof as aforesaid, then such fees are to be paid in the whole by such claimant, his agent or attorney ; and in all cases .where the proceedings are before a commissioner, he shall be entitled to a fee of ten dollars in full for his services in each case, upon the delivery of the said certificate to the claimant, his or her agent or attorney ; or a fee of five dollars in cases where the proof shall not, in the opinion of such commissioner, warrant such certificate and delivery, in clusive of all services incident to such ar rest and examination, to be paid in either case by the claimant, his or her agent or attorney. The person or persons author ized to execute the process to be issued by such commissioners, for the arrest and detention of fugitives from service or labor as aforesaid, shall also be entitled to a fee of five dollars each for each person he or they may arrest and take before any such commissioner as aforesaid, at the instance and request of such claimant; with such other fees as may be deemed reasonable by such commissioner for such other ad ditional services as may be necessarily performed by him or them ; such as at tending at the examination, keeping the fugitive in custody, and providing him with food and lodging during his detention, aud until the final determination of such commissioner ; and in general for perform ing such other duties as may be required by sneh claimant, his or her attorney or agent, or commissioner in the premises, such fees to l>e made up in conformity with the fees usually charged by the offi cers of the courts of justice within the proper district or county, as near as may be practicable, and paid by such claimants, their agents or attorneys, whether such supposed fugitives from service or labor be ordered to be delivered to such claimants by the final determination of such com missioner or not. Sec. 9. Jind be it further enacted, That upon affidavit made by the claimant of such fugitive, his agent or attorney, after such certificate has been issued, that he has reason to apprehend that such fugitive will be rescued by force from his or their possession before he can be taken beyond the limits of the $tate jn which the anest is made, it shall be the duty of the officer making the arrest to retain such fugitive in his custody, and to remore him to the State whence he fled, and there to de liver him to said claimant, his agent or attorney. And to this end, the officer aforesaid is hereby authorized and requir ed to employ so many, persons as he may deem necessary to overcome such force, and to retain them in his service so long as circumstances may require. The said officer and his assistants, while so employ ed, to receive the same compensation, and to be allowed the same expenses, as are now allowed by law for transportation of criminals, to be certified by the judge of the district within which the arrest is made, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. Sec. 10. Jlnd be it further enacted, That when any person held to service or labor in any State or Territory, or in the District of Columbia, shall escape therefrom, the party to whom such service or labor shall be due, his, her, or their agent or attorney, may apply to any court of record therein, or judge thereof in vacation, and make satisfactory proof to such court, or judge in vacation, of the escape aforesaid, and that the person escaping owed service or labor to such party. Whereupon, the court shall cause a record to be made of the matters so proved, and also a general description of the person so escaping, with such convenient certainty as may be; and a transcript of such record, authenti cated by the attestation of the clerk and of the seal of the said court, being pro duced in any other State, Territory, or District, in which the person so escaping may be found, and being exhibited to any judge, commissioner, or other officer au thorized by the law of the United States to cause persons escaping from service or labor to be delivered up, shall be Held and taken to be full and conclusive evidence of the fact of escape, and that the service or labor of the person escaping is due to the party in such record mentioned. . And upon the production by the said party of other and further evidence, if necessary, either oral or by affidavit, in addition to what is contained in the said record, of the identity of the person escaping, he or she shall be delivered up to the claimant. And the said court, commissioner, judge, or other petson authorized by this act to grant certificates to claimants of fugitives, shall, upon the production of the record and other evidences aforesaid, graut to such claimant a certificate of his right to take any such person identified and proved to be owing service or labor as aforesaid, which certificate shall authorize such claimant to seize or arrest, and transport such person to the State or Territory from which he escaped; Provided, That noth ing herein contained shall be construed as requiring the production of a transcript of such record as evidence as aforesaid. But in its absence, the claim shall be heard and determined upon other satisfactory proofs, competent in law. Howell Cobb, Speaker of the House of Representatives. William R. King, President of the Senate pro tempore. Approved, Sept. 18, 1850. Millard Fillmore INDEPENDENT DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM. ADOPTED AT PITTSBURGH, AUGUST 12, 185J. Having assembled in National Conven tion as the delegates of the Free Democra cy of the United States, united by a com mon resolve to maintain right against wrongs, and freedom against slavery; con fiding in the intelligence, patriotism, and the discriminating justice of the American people ; putting our trust in God for the triumph of our cause, and invoking his guidance in our endeavors to advance it, we now submit to the candid judgment of all men the following declaration of prin ciples and measures: I. That Governments, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, are instituted among men to secure to all, those inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the purnuit of happiness, with which they were endowed by their Creator, and of which none can be deprived by valid legis lation, except for crime. II. That the true mission of American Democracy is to maintain the liberties of the people, the sovereignty of the States, and the perpetuity of the Union, by the impartial application to public affairs, with out sectional discriminations, of the fun damental principles of equal rights, strict justice, and economical administration. III. That the Federal Government is one of limited powers, derived solely from the Constitution ; and the grants of power therein ought to be strictly construed by all the departments and agents of the Gov ernment, and it is inexpedient and dan gerous to exercise doubtful constitutional powers. IV. That the Constitution of the United States, ordained to form a more perfect union, to establish justice, and secure the blessings of liberty, expressly denies to the General Government all power to de prive any person of life, liberty, or prop erty, without due process of law; and, therefore, the Government, having no more power to make a slave than to make a king, and no more power to establish sla very than to establish monarchy, should at once proceed to relieve itself from all re sponsibility for the existence of slavery wherever it possesses constitutional power to legislate for its extinction. V. That, to the persevering and impor tunate demands of the Slave Power for more slave States, new slave Territories, and the nationalization of Slavery, our dis tinct and final answer is?no more slave States, no slave Territory, no nationalized Slavery, and no national legislation for the extradition of slaves. VI. That Slavery is a sin against God and a crime against man, which no human enactment nor usage can make right; and that Christianity, humanity, and patriotism, alike demand its abolition. VII. That the fugitive Slave Act of 1850 is repugnant to the Constitution, to the principles of the common law, to the Apirit of Christianity, and to the senti ments of the civilized world. We there fore deny its binding force upon the American People, and demand its imme diate and total repeal. VIII. Thai the doctrine that any human law is a finality, and not subject to modi fication or repeal, is not in accordance with the creed of the fouuders of our Gov ernment, and dangerous to the liberties of the people. IX. That the acta of Congress known as the Compromise Measures of 1850, by making the admission of a sovereign State contingent upon the adoption of other measures demanded by the special inter est of Slavery ; by their omission to guar anty ireedom in free Territories; by their attempt to impose unconstitutional limit ations on the power of Congress and the people to admit new States ; by their pro visions for the assumption of five millions of the State debt of Texas, and for the payment of five millions more, and the cession of a large territory to the same State under menace, as an inducement to the relinquishment of a groundless claim, and by their invasion of the sovereignty of the States and the liberties of the peo ple, through the enactment of an unjust, oppressive, and unconstitutional Fugitive Slave Law, are proved to be inconsistent with all the principles and maxims of De mocracy, and wholly inadequate to the settlement of the questions of which they are claimed to be an adjustment. X. That no permauent settlement of the Slavery question can be looked for, except in the practical recognition of the truth that Slavery is sectional, and Free dom national; by the total separation of the General Government from Slavery, and the exercise of its legitimate and consti tutional influence on the side of Freedom; and by leaving to the States the whole subject of Slavery and the extradition of fugitives from service. ? XI. That all men have a natural right to a portion of the soil; and that, as the use of the soil is indispensable to life, the right of all men to the soil is as sacred as their right to life itself. XII. That the public lands of the Uni ted States belong to the people, and should not be sold to individuals nor granted to corporations, but should be held as a sa cred trust for the benefit of the people, and should be granted in limited quanti ties, free of cost, to landless settlers. ^ XIII. That a due regard for the Federal Constitution, and sound administrative policy, demand that the funds of the Gen eral Government be kept separate from banking institutions; that inland and ocean postage should be reduced to the lowest possible point; that no more reve nue should be raised than is required to defray the strictly necessary expenses of the public service, and to pay off the pub lic debt; and that the power and patron age of the Government should be dimin ished by the abolitiou of all unnecessary offices, salaries, and privileges, and by the election by the people of all civil officers in the service of the United States, so far as may be consistent with the prompt and efficient transaction of the public business. XIV. That river and harbor improve ments, when necessary to the safety and convenience of commerce with foreign nations or among the several States, are objects of national concern, and it is the duty of Congress, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to provide for the same. XV. That emigrants and exiles from the Old World should find a cordial wel come to homes of comfort and fields of enterprise in the New ; and every attempt to abridge their privilege of becoming citizens and owners of the soil among us ought to be resisted with inflexible deter mination. XV I. That every nation has a clear right to alter or change its own Govern ment, and to administer its own concerns in such manner as may best secure the rights and promote the happiness of the people; and foreign interference with that right is a dangerous violation of the law of nations, against which all independ ent Governments should protest, and en deavor by all proper means to prevent; and especially is it the duty of the Ameri can Government, representing the chief Republic of the world, to protest against, and by all proper means to prevent, the intervention of Kings and Emperors against nations seeking to establish for themselves republican or constitutional Governments. XVII. That the independence of Hayti ought to be recognised by our Govern ment, and our commercial relations with it placed on the footing of the most favor ed nations. XVIII. That as, by the Constitution, 'I ihe citizens of each State shall be en titled to ail privileges and immunities of citizens of the several States," the prac tice of imprisoning colored seamen of other States, while the vessels to which they belong lie in port, and refusing to exercise the right to bring such cases be fore the Supreme Court of the United States, to test the legality of such pro ceedings, is a flagrant violation of the Constitution, and an invasion of the rights of the citizMs of otther States, utterly in consistent with the professions made by the slaveholders, that they wish the pro visions of the Constitution faithfully ob served by every State in the Union. XIX. That we recommend the intro- \ duction into all treaties, hereafter to be negotiated between the United States and foreign nations, of some provision for the amicable settlement of difficulties by a re sort to decisive arbitration. XX. That the Free Democratic party is not organized to aid either the Whig or Democratic wing of the great Slave Com promise party of the nation, but to defeat them both; and that repudiating and re nouncing both, as hopelessly corrupt, and utterly unworthy of confidence, the pur pose of the Free Democracy is to take possession of the Federal Government, and administer it for the better protection of the rights and interests of the whole people. XXI. That we inscribe on ourhanner, Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Mew, and under it will fight on and fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions. XXII. That upon this Platform the Con vention presents to the American People, as a candidate for the office of President of the United States, John P. Hale, of New Hampshire, and as a candidate for the office <of Vice President of the United States, George W. Julian, of Indiana, and earnestly commends them to the sup port of all freemen and parties. THE DEMOCRATIC PLATPOKM. ADOPTED AT BALTIMORE, JUNE 1, 1852 I. Resolved, That the American Democ racy place their trust in the irftelligence, the patriotism, and the discriminating jus tice of the American people. II. Resolved, That we regard tins as a distinctive feature of our political creed, which we are proud to maintian before the world as the great moral element in a form of government springing from and upheld by the popular will; and we con trast it with the creed aud practice of Federalism, under whatever name or form, which seeks to palsy the will of the con stituent, and which conceives no impos ture too monstrous for the public cre dulity. ? III. Resolved, therefore, That, entertain ing these views, the Democratic party of this Union, through their delegates assem bled in^a General Convention, coming together in a spirit of concord, of devotion to the doctrines and faith of a free repre sentative Government, and appealing to their fellow-citizens for the rectitude of their intentions, renew and reassert before the American people the declarations of principles avowed by them when, on former occasions, in General Convention, they have presented their candidates for the popular suffrages: 1. That the Federal Government is one of limited powers, derived solely from the Constitution, and the grants of power therein ought to be strictly construed l?y dl the departments and agents of the Gov ernment; and that it is inexpedient and dangerous to exercise doubtful constitu tional powers. 2. That the Constitution does not con fer upon the General Government the power to commence and carry on a gen eral system of internal improvements. 3. That the Constitution does not con fer authority upon the Federal Govern ment, directly or indirectly, to assume the debts of the several States, contracted for local and internal improvements, or other State purposes; nor would such assump tion he just or expedient. 4. That justice and sound policy forbid the Federal Government to foster one branch of industry to the detriment of any other, or to cherish the interests of one portion to the injury of another portion of our common country ; that every citizen, and every section of the country, has a right to demand and insist upon an equal ity of rights and privileges, and to com plete and ample protection of persons and property from domestic violence or foreign aggression. 5. That it is the duty of every branch of the Government to enforce and practice the most rigid economy in conducting our public affairs, and that no moire revenue ought to be raised than is required to de fray the necessary expenses of the Gov ernment, and for the gradual but certain extinction of the public debt. 6. That Congress has no power to charter a National Bank ; that we believe such an institution one of deadly hostility to the bests interests of the country, dan gerous to our republican institutions and the liberties of the people, and calculated to place the business of the country within the control of a concentrated money power, aud above the laws and the will of the people; and that, the results of Dem ocratic legislation, in this and all other financial measures upon which issues have been made between the two political par ties of the country, have demonstrated, to candid and practical men, of all parties, their soundness, safety, and utility, in all business pursuits. 7. That the separation of the moneys of the Government from banking institu tions is indispensable for the safety of the funds of the Government and the rights of the people. 8. That the liberal principles embodied by Jefferson in the Declaration of Inde pendence, and sanctioned in the Consti tution, which makes ours the land of lib erty and the asylum of the oppressed of every nation, have ever been cardinal prin ciples in the Democratic faith ; and every attempt to abridge the privilege of be coming citizens and the owners of soil among us, ought to be resisted with the same spirit which swept the alien and se dition laws from our statute books. 9. That Congress has no power under the Constitution to interfere with or con trol the domestic institutions of the sev eral States, and that such States are the sole and proper judges of everything ap pertaining to their own affairs, not prohib ited by the Constitution; that all efforts of the Abolitionists or others, made to in duce Congress to interfere with questions of slavery, or to take incipient steps in re lation thereto, are calculated to lead to the most alarming and dangerous conse quences ; and that all such efforts have an inevitable tendency to diminish tlie happi ness of the people and endanger the sta bility and permanency of the Union, and ought not to be countenanced by any friend of our political institutions. IV. Resolved, That the foregoing prop osition covers and was intended to em brace the whole subject of slavery agitation in Congress; and therefore the Demo cratic party of the Union, standing on this national platform, will abide by and adhere to a faithful execution of the acts known as the Compromise measures settled by the last Congress, " the act for reclaiming fu gitives from service or labor," included ; which act, being designed to carry out an express provision of the Constitution, can not with fidelity thereto be repealed or so changed as to destroy or impair its effi ciency. V. Resolved, That the Democratic party will resist all attempts at renewing, in Congress or out of it, the agitation of the Slavery question, under whatever shape or color the attempt may be made. VI. Resolved, That the proceeds of the public lands ought to be sacredly applied to the national objects specified in the Constitution; and that we are opposed to any law for the distribution of such pro ceeds among the States, as alike inexpe dient in policy and repugnant to the Con stitution. VII. Resolved, That we are decidedly opposed to taking from the President the qualified veto power, by which he i' ?na bled, under restrictions and responsibilities amply sufficient to guard the public iifter est, to suspend the passage of a bill whose merits canuot secure the approval of two thirds of the Senate and House of Repre sentatives until the judgment of the people can be obtained thereon, and which has saved the American people from the cor rupt and tyrannical domination of the Bank of the United States, and from a corrupting system of general internal im provements. VIII. Resolved, That the Democratic party will faithfully abide by and uphold the principles laid down in the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions of 1798, and in the report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia Legislature in 1799; that it adopts those principles as constituting one of the muin foundations of its political creed, and is resolved to carry them out in their obvious meaning and import. IX. Resolved, That the war with Mex ico, upon all the principles of patriotism and the laws of nations, was a just and necessary war on our part, in which every American citizen should have shown him self on the side of his couutry, and neither morally nor physically, by word or deed, have given "aid and comfort to the enemy." X. Resolved, That we rejoice at the res toration of friendly relatiou^ with our sister Republic of Mexico, and earnestly desire for her all the blessings and prosperity which we enjoy under republican institutions; and we congratulate the American people upon the results of that war, which have so manifestly justified the policy and con duct of the Democratic party, and insured to the United States " indemnity for the past and security for the future." XI. Resolved, That, in view of the con dition of popular institutions in the Old World, a high and sacred duty is devolved, with increased responsibility, upon the Democratic party of this country, as the party of the people, to uphold and maintain the rights of every State, and thereby the Union of the States, and to sustain and advance among us constitutional liberty, by continuing to resist all monopolies and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the few at the expense of the many, and by a vigilant and constant adherence to those principles and compromises of the Con stitution which are broad enough and strong enough to embrace and uphold the Union as it was, the Union as it is, and the Union as it shall be, in the full expan sion of the energies and capacity of this great and progressive people. THE WHWPLATFORM. ADOPTED AT BALTIMORE. JUNE 8, 1851 The Whigs of the United States, in Convention assembled, firmly adhering to the great conservative republican princi ples by which they are controlled and gov erned, and now, as ever, relying upon the intelligence of the American people, with an abiding confidence in their capacity for self-government and their continued devo tion to the Constitution and the Union, do proclaim the following as the political sentiments and determinations, for the establishment and maintenance of which their national organization as a party is effected : I. The Government of the United States is of limited character, and it is confined to the exercise of powers expressly granted by the Constitution, and such as may be necessary and proper for carrying the granted powers into full execution, and that all powers not thus granted or neces sarily implied are expressly reserved to the States respectively and to the people. II. The State Governments should be held secure in their reserved rights, and the General Government sustained in its constitutional poweis, and the Union should be revered and watched over as " the palladium of our liberties." III. That while struggling freedom, everywhere, enlists the warmest sympathy of the Whig party, we still adhere to the doctrines of the Father of his Country, as aunounced in his Farewell Address, of keeping ourselves free from all entangling alliances with foreign countries, and of never quitting our own to stand upon for eign ground. That our mission as a Re public is net to propagate our opinions, or impose on other countries our form of government, by artifice or force, but to teach by example, and show by our suc cess, moderation, and justice, the bless ings of self-government and the advan tages of free institutions. IV. That where the people make and control the Government, they should obey its constitution, laws, and treaties, as they would retain their self-respect, and the re spect which they claim and will enforce from foreign powers. V. Government should be conducted upon principles of the strictest economy, and revenue sufficient for the expenses thereof, in time of peace, ought to be mainly derived from a duty on imports, and not from direct taxes; and, in levying such duties, sound policy requires a just discrimination and protection from fraud by specific duties, when practicable, whereby suitable encouragement may be assured to American industry, equally to all classes and to all portions of the coun try. VI. The Constitution vests in Congress the power to open and repair harbors, and remove obstructions from navigable rivers; and it is expedient that Congress shall ex ercise that power whenever ruch improve ment? are necrsnary fur the common defence or for the protection and facility of com merce with foreign nations or among the States ; such improvements being, in every iustance, national and general in their character. VII. The Federal and State Govern ments are parts of one system, alike ne cessary for the common prosperity, peace, and security, and ought to be regarded alike with a cordial, habitual, and immova ble attachment. Respect for the authority of each, and acquiescence in the constitu tional measures of each, are duties re quired by the plainest considerations of National, of State, and individual welfare. VIII. The scries of acts of the 31st Congress, commonly known as the Com promise or Adjustment, (the act for the recovery of fugitives from labor included,) are received and acquiesced in by the Whigs of the United States as a final set tlement, in principle and substance, of the subjects to which they relate; and so far i as rtiese acts are concerned, we will main* ; tain them, and inniHt oil their strict en i ibrcement, until time and experience shall ! demonstrate the necessity of further legis lation to guard against the evasion of the laws on the one haud, and the abuse of their powers on the other, not impairing their present efficiency to carry out the requirements of the Constitution ; and we deprecate all further agitation of the ques tions thus settled, as dangerous to our peace, and will discountenance all efforts to coutinue or renew such agitation, when ever, wherever, or however made; and we will maintain this settlement as essential to the nationality of the Whig party and the integrity of the Union. John G. Chapman, of Md., President of the Whig National Convention. The following is a list of the Free Dem ocratic and Anti-Slavory papers published in the United States: FREE DEMOCRATIC PRESS. Inquirer, Portland, Me.; A. Willey; $2 per annum. Ind. Democrat, Concord, N. H.; (J. 0. Fogg; $2. News, Keene, N. H,; S. Woodward; $1,257 Democrat, Manchester, N. H.; J. H. Goodale; $1.60. Messenger, Portsmouth, N. H.; T. J. Whittam ; $1. Freeman, Montpelier, Vt; D. P. Thompson; $2. Observer, Morrisville, Vt.; J. A. Somerby; $1.26. Telegraph, Springfield, Vt.; L.T.Guernsey; $1.75. Demoorat, Brattleborough, Vt.; W. Nichols; $1.50. Brandon Post, Brandon, Vt.; P. Welch; $1. Courier, Burlington, Vt.; O. C. Samson, $1.50. Commonwealth, Boston, Ms.; J. D. Baldwin; daily $5, weekly $2. Sentinel, North Adams, Ms.; A. D. Brook; $1.50. American, Lowell, Ms.; W. S. Robinson; tri-week.; $3. Newt, Fitohburg, Muss.; R. F. Rollins ; $1.50. Essex County Freeman, Salem, Ms.; J. Emmett; seiui-weekly, $3.50. Republican, Greenfield, Ms. Spy, Woroester, Ms.; J. M. Earle; $2. Standard, New Bedford, Ms. Courier, Northampton, Ms. - ? Gazette, Dedham, Ms.; Ilenry 0. Hlldreth; $2. Democrat, Dedham, Ms.; E. G. Robinson; $2. Sentinel, Lawrence, Ms.; John Ryan A Co.; $2. Rhode Island Freeman, Providence, R. I.; Crawford A Harris; $1. Republican, Hartford, Ct.; Bartlett A Hawley; $2. Herald, Ellington, N. Y.; A. S. Brown. Evening Chronicle, Syracuse, N. Y.; H. R. Raymond daily $3, weekly $1.50. Spirit of the Age, Norwich, N. Y.; J. D. Lawyer; $1. Wyoming Co. Mirror, Warn&w, N. Y.; A. Holley ; $2 Telegraph, Oneida, N. Y., D. H. Frost; $1.25. Banner of the Times, De Ruyter, N. Y. Free Press. Wellsville, N. Y.; A. N. Cole; $1.50. Frederick Douglass' Paper, Rochester, N. Y.; Fred erick Douglass; $2. Free Press, Gouverneur, New York; Mitchell A Hul bert; $1. Herald, Jamestown, N. Y. Carson League, Syracuse, N. Y.; J. Thomas; $1.60. American Banner, Cherry Valley, Pa.; Jonh B. King Courier, Coneantville, Pa.; G. W. Brown. Olive Branoh, Norristown, Pa.; Joseph Moyer, $1. Saturday Visiter, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Jane G. A William Swisshelm; $1.50. Freeman, Mercer, Pa.; W. T. Clark; $1.50. Weekly Crescent, Erie, Pa., Caughey A MoCreary; The People's Journal, Coudersport, Potter county, Pa.; Dougal 1, Mann A Haskell; $1.50. Dispatch, Pittsburg, Pa.; Foster A Fleeson; daily $3, weekly $1. Clarion of Freedom, Indiana, Pa.; Moorhead A Mo Claran; $1. Die Frie Press, Philadelphia, Pa.; F. W: Thomas; dal ly, $3. , Homestead Journal, Salem, O.; A. Hinksmon; $1.60. Christian Press, Cincinnati, 0.; $2. True Demoorat, Cleveland, 0.; Thomas Brown; dal ly $6, weekly $2. Ashtabula Sentinel, Jefferson and Ashtabula, 0.: W. C. Howell; $2. Mahoning Free Democrat, Youngstown, 0.; M. Cullo tan; $1.50. Commercial, Cleveland, O.; H. M. Addison; $1.60. Journal, Wellington, 0.; usorge Brewster; $1.50. Western Reserve Chronicle, Warren, 0.; E. O. How ard; $2. Telegraph, Painsville, O.; Gray A DoollUle, $2. Ohio Times, Mount Vernon, O.; Chapman A Thrall; $1.60. Independent Democrat, Elyria, O.; Philemon Bliss; $> Columbian, Columbus, 0.; L. L. Rice. Free Democrat, Chardon, O.; J. S. Wright; $1. Star, Ravenna, O.; Lyman W. Hall; $1.50. Herald of Freedom, Wilmington, 0.; J. W. Chaffin ; $1.50. True Republican, Greenfield, O. Williams Demoorat, West Unity, O.; Wm. A Hunter. Free Democrat, Detroit. Mich.; S. II. Baker; dally $5, weekly $1. Free Democrat, Indianapolis, Ind.; R. Valle; $1.60. Western Citisen, Chicago, III.; Z.C Eastman; daily and weekly. Journal, Sparta, III.; I. S. Coulter; $1 25. Western Freeman, Galetburg, III.; W. J. Lane; $2. Standard, Freeport, III. Free Democrat, Waukesha, Wis ; 8. M. Booth; dai ly $4, weekly $2. Telegraph, Kenosha, Wis.; Sholes A Frank ; $2 Free Press, Janeerllie, Wis.; Joseph Baker; $1.50. Free Press, Sheboygan Falls, Wis.; J. A. Smith, $2. Advocate, Racine, Wis.; C.Clements; $2. Kentucky News, Newport, Ky.; W. 8. Bailey; $1. True Democrat, Mount Pleasant, Iowa; J. W Hows; $1.50. Der Demokrat, Davenport, Iowa; Th. Galieh, $2. Pacific Statesman, San Francisco, Cal ; J. H. Purdy Der National Demokrat, Washington, D. C.; Fred Schmidt, editor; Buell A Blanchard, publishers; $2. ANTI-SLAVERY PRESS. Liberator,Boston, Ms.; Wm. Lloyd Garrison; $2 50. Pennsylvania Freeman, Philadelphia, Pa.; C. M. Bur leigh; $2. National Anti-Slavery Standard, New York, N. Y.; 8. H. Gay A K Quincy ; $2 Anti-Slavery Bugle, Salem, O.; M R Robinson , $1.60. Voice of the Fugitive. BU1LL A BLANGliARD. WASHINGTON, D 0. Un now ready (or delivery MANUEL PKRKIKI; Oft, TBI fOVSBIieX SULK OF BOOTH CAKOLHM. WIT* Fiiui 0/ Soulkem Laws, Lift, and Hotfnlalilt Written Ib Charleston. 8. 0., by t. 0. Adams. THK above work forms a beautiful Umo vol quia of over 300 pages, small pica. Price - in paper, M until muslin, 74 oonU. The osua I discount to tho Tr?<l?. Ordori solicited. Copies (lent by mail, pro paid, u? distance under .1,000 mile*, for 6! cents The abovo work la a delineation of tba scenes and incident* connected with the imprisonment, in 1W1, of Mannel Pereira, steward of the British brig Jaa aon, ia the jail of Cbarieaton, 8. 0. The following notice of thin work is copied from the National Bra of Februaiy IT: "The above ia the title of a work now in preaa, , founded upon that lnfhmoaa statute of South Carolina, by which her citiiena claim a right to imprison roiarcd iMMM, of all nations, and even those cart upon their shorea in diatrcaa. We have perused the book la ad ?ance of its publication, and And that it gives a life like picture or Pereira, the vessel in which he sailed, the storms she encountered, and her wrecked condition when brought into the port of Charleston, 8. C.; to gether with the imprisonment of Pereira, several sea men belonging to the New England States, and two Frenoh seamen, the prison regimen, character of the Charleaton police, and the mendacity of certain offi cials, who make the law a medium of pecalation. The work ia replete with Incidents of Southern life and character, pointing Southerners to the things that call for correction at their own hands, with a force that cannot be mistaken. The work is written by one who has taken a prominent part ia the affairs of the Booth, and cannot fell to interest alike the general reader, commercial man, and philanthropist." The above work can bo obtained, at wholesale prices, from Jon* P. Jrwktt A Co., Boston, Mass., Sanritrs J. Bat*s, 48 Beekman at., Now York, Willis P. Ha*Aar>, Philadelphia, And from the publishers, BUKI.L A BLANCHARD. Washington. D C PRINTING. PAMPHLET PRINTTNfl neatly eiocnted by BUILL A BLANCHARD, Sixth atraot aonth of Pennsylvania avenna.