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For th? National Era BELL SMITH ABROAD. No. XIV. LA MORUUE. Djcam Friend: One thing distinguishes Paris f.oui all oilieo in the world. You will not tiud thin in the beautiful exhibition*! uf art, or bin torical associations. Other place* havo their Oinlury-Htaincd cathedrals; other cities li.iv palaces equalling Versailles and Fontaine bleau; other countries have galleries wonder- j ful a? the Louvre or the Luxembourg. But to know in what Paris differs from all the world, one must seei a low, dark, ugly building, on the banks of the Seine, and almost under the shadow of Notre Dame. This in the Morgue?the dead house of Paris. Here, on marble tables, tiov- j erty, misery, insanity, and despair, take their j last look at the living?hold a last grand levee, j where couto uU, old and young, delieato and , brutal, to gaze, laugh, or ory, and then forget. I French fieople commit suicide. With them, it is the great remedy lor all life's evils. The paugs of despised love ore drowned or smother ed ; the debtor wipes out all scores: the vexed husband or wife finds here the only divoroe; the young, too full of hope, one would think, seek it eagerly; the aged veterans of a thousand ills, and near the house of death by the oourte of nature, impatiently hasten the end. The very children, dreading punishment or having lot-t a bun, take flying leaps from bridges. It is ^ ? *- < ? ? r?u lo ? French passion?a French belief. An Ameri can would consider it about the worst arrange ment he could make?about the absurdest compromise with his troubles. But the French, who have no clear ideas of life hereafter, grow 1 disgusted with this, and no process of reason ing can convince them that another may bo worse. A French writer has ingeniously put forth the doctrine, lately, that the schooling the nation has for ages received from wars and revolutions has,created a national peculiarity? a constitutional trait, born with more or less fopoe in each person. Well, it may be so; but it sounds to me like the reason given by Mrs Nicholby, who remarked, you rememlier, on seeing three different accounts of shoemakers in Paris committing suioide, " 1 declare, all the shoemakers committing suioide. YVell, it must be something in the leather." The truth is, the viotims of suicide are persons without homes and without religion?causes enough for insan ity, Heaven knows. Reading the daily papers in the oolumn de voted to such eveuts, one sometimes laughs and sometimes sighs. I could fill a docen letters with the strange, amusing, and horrible instances 1 have clipped from the journals. Strangers mounting to the top of the many columns or heights at Paris, such as Vendome Arch of Triumph, and Notre Dame, will be surprised to find themselves closely followed by a gen d'arme, who never for a moment removes his eye from the person so pursued. Such os pionage is disagreeable in the extreme; but. has its origin in the fact, that for a long time it was the favorite mode of suioide, to throw one's self from these monuments. This foratime seemed to supersede the insidious chafing-dish, or the waters of the Seine. Having climbed to the top,-tbey had an opportunity of taking a last lingering look at beloved Paris, before launching so abruptly into the other world, where Parle's are not. The guards on the mon uraent exhibit quite a knowledge of physiogno mv?pursuing some much more closely than others. A friend of mine, with lantern-jawed desponding countenance, one in fact that has auMide written upon it was terribly annoyed oj tneee watchful guardians ; and he has told mo privately that he is actually tempted to commit suicide, if only to escape from their eurvmllanoe There is quite a method in these suicides?they diminish after the opera opons ?nd ebarcoal takes the place of drowning, af ter the oold weather sets in. Quite a singular story appears among tho I journals to which I have alluded, of a man ^ **2? casting himself from the Arch of Triumph, was caught by the guard *?n duty, and lor a moment held suspended above the fearful abyss, when the guard re marked to the unfortunate, that he oould not bold him any longer. ? Then, let go," said tho nun, which the guard did, from neoemitv. Whereupon the unfortunate, shouting " gare'' (look out) to the passers below, was dashed to i pieces on the pavement. The poor fellow probably remembered an instanoe. published ! in the papers a few days previous, of a woman who threw bersell from the same place, but i <a mg upon the backs of two workmen, nearly i killed them, herself escaping. Hare is an item that will come under the head of amusing: A oonple of Parisians, un happy in thsir domestic relatioos, determined to break up housekeeping, have an auction, divide the proceeds, and separate. After the sole, up.? counting the money, they found it puiT" ^aD, 7 bad reason to anticipate. Filled with despair, their seoopd remedy was quite u, keeping with the lirst?tbey resolved to coMut suicide, by drowning. Arriving at the banks ol the Seme, the wife feeling timid the husband, after tenderly embracing her set * ?ow?g*?>?s example, by plunging boldly in. Quite accustomed to water, he dived to the boU tons, and remained some time for his wife to join hue. As sLo did not oome, however, be surface, and tbore saw his bsttwr hdf still on the bank, watching, with SSliS? t?? P1*? whftr* ^ had disafifMMUsd. Y\ hy do you not jump in''' Jtosried. ' Ah! Alphonse,' she responded, you swim so well, and I oannot swim at aiir* J Whereupon, the devoted husband came on T hi* both ^WMrerted by the police, and the above facts Soma uf these instances are pitiable in the extreme, as the following, the length of which jam aost excuse, from the fact that the death occurred in oar neighborhood, and I can vouch to simm extent for its tuith *jL?Thine 8 tb* of t*?o daugh. ton of a poos. (wintryman in the valley of A?*_The cabin of the good Piedmontais 1*. '1,1^ U?0!!? ^ nf the route which led from Switzerland to Italy, the two man, as soon as spring came, placed then . 1 U22- "'?I?*1- off6rinJC flowers and fruits eldest of the two girls was sstj beautiful, and aitraoted the attention and ^ , 'fetich lady, retnrniog to Paris. Who, Mining the ooosent of her father, carried MrbooM m chamber maid. The young Juaephine, from that event, bad of pleasing some rich trav mthr' *???* also, as her aster, taken into ^ing 41had * PSS2T Ming tot engaging. She was afflicted with the terrible malady, so common to monntainous 'T"? r th* '>"*>" by which grsisslly her intellect was being weakened. Ymm passsd away without the dream of mphba being realised, and Utters from her jjWWw arriving from time to time, and always aeeoapanied with presents, only mereswd the ,d~> the ? * of attempting the Wjngfr with its mks and psrilv, alone to, wwawtBI end of September last, she aban *nd "t&rUd ^ France, oaiVj'Bg^ her clothes, a very little money, bnt efto* h*Tlng tr***Hpd . Switisrland and France, sho ?rrhMl at Paris, worn down with fatigue, with ******* and without a sous. But she was b*r ^wres. Seareely f1'*! * *** ifcn barrier, she asked the ?walHiy or her "i^er the addrms of whi< l> ?? ViKPi *?k'?g tiase to reet, cov ered with dubt, ttbe arrived before one of the most beautiful hotels of the Faubourg St. Honor*. At the night of thin sumptuous dwell ing, the poor girl believed herself naved, and hastily demanded to apeak to her winter; but judge of her despair in learning that her meter wax in England with her mistress, and would not return before spring. Josephine, broken hearted, wandered at haxard. The night coming on, she seated herself at the foot of a tree on the Chumps Klynees, where she sat until day. The following morn ing, not knowing whero to go, and pressed by hunger, she offered herself as servant at sever al houses. But, as I have said before,, her appoaranoe did not speak in her favor, and for a long time her services were refused. Finally, a restaurateur had compassion, admitted her into his establishment as dishwasher. In ooo day, the honest traitonr perceived it would be difficult to keep the poor girl, as her awkward ness was oonstautly resulting in soma catastro phe. At the end of a month, he thanked her, paid her double wages, and gave her a certifi cate. Thanks to this benevolent friend, she soon found another plaee ; but, in a few days, they, too, dismissed her, and so with others, and until she found it impossible to retain a situation. In this sad extremity, she rented a little gar ret under the roof of a house behind the old -churoh of St. Sulpice. Having no furniture to guaranty the rent, she had to pay it in ad vance, which diminished her little savings to a j mere pittance. She installed herself in her | new abode with her clothes, whioh composed j all liei And from the time of lier on trainee they saw her no more. During the first : days, the concierge thought that his lodger had j occupations which prevented her from leaving her room; but one morning, while sweeping the stairs, he gratified his curiosity by a look through the key holo. Ho saw the little win dow-covered with an apron, and thought he could distinguish a body lying on the floor. Rushing to the commissary of police, he told his suspicions. In a few moments the police had buret the door open, and theoonoierge was found oorrect in his suspicions. It was not only a body, but a corpse, whioh lay upon the the naked, stone floor; for Bhe had not even a bundle of Btraw to lie upon. She was smoth ered by obarooal, and, not having a furnace, had lit the deadly combustible in a corner of her poor retreat | Privateering.?In our opinion, it makes no differenoe whether Russia has, or has not, made as yet any direot attempt to prooure privateers to be fitted out in our ports. If Bhe goes to war with England and France, she will do so, to a certainty, for the simple reason that it would be one of this most effective means she could find of inflicting injury upon their com merce. And so long as vowwls are built, fitted out, equipped, and provisioned, in American ports, as they are in New York, for the slave trade, we must be excused for believing that there is a very large class of persons here who would be tempted, by the promised profit of the adventure, to accept letters of marque from the Russian Government, and oruise against the oommerce of her foes. An act of Congress, passed in 1818, prohibits American citizens from accepting, within the jurisdiction of the United States, a commission, or for any person not transiently within the United States to consent to be retained or en listed to serve a foreign State in war against a Government in amity with us It likewise pro hibits American oitlxens from being concerned, without the limits of the United States, in fit ting out, or otherwise assisting, any private I vessel of war, to oruise against the subjeots of friendly Powers. Besides this, we have a treaty with Great Britain, as well as with all the other leading Powers of Europe, in whioh it ie ex pressly stipulated that no subject or citizen of either nation shall accept a commission or letter of mart/ue to amist an enemy in hostilities against the other, under pain of being treated [ as a pirate. Wo trust that the attention of the Govern ment will l?e directed to the subject New York Daily Times. fcOERESPONDRIICE OF THE N. Y. COM. ADVKRTISKS.) Rome, January 24, 1854. We were again saluted this morning with news of a military execution. At six o'clock, a troop of soldiers acoompanied through the city three unhappy men, who had boen impris oned since the revolution, on a charge of being oonoerned in the murder of a priest. They were conveyed to the plaoe of execution in carta, in each of whioh was a bo a drummer constantly at work to drown the voioes of the condemned. A friend of mine, who was aroused by the noise, paw the procession from his win dow. Two of the men were shouting Vive la ReptMique.' and deolaring that they died mar tyre to the oause of freedom On the merits of the case, I can, of course, say nothing, except that there is something very strange in a three years' delay of sentence for a capital crime ; a delay whioh, however, is only illustrative of the course of justioe in the Papal States. The cooooume of strangers diminishes ju*t now for a little while; as many are leaving for Naples, to return before the Carnival, or to remain till Easter week. Among the Ameri cans now in town is the Hon. Martin Van Bu ren, who has been here, with his son, for two or three months. Mr. Folsom, our late charge d'affaires at the Hague, is also spending the winter at Rome. Mr. Kinney, late of Turin, is still in Florenoe, as well as Mr. Marsh, of Con Mtantinople ; both of whom are looked lor here. Among the subjeots of conversation just now, is the conversion of an American gentleman, a live Vankee, to the Romish faith. The step was a very sudden one, and so unexpected that I hardly know how to give or edit to the rumor, though well authenticated. Rome certainly is the last pi-ice where an American Protestant might be thought in danger of forsaking his own faith. I have interesting accounts of the progress of the Protestant movement in Piedmont A priest, who has just arrived theooe, told me to day that the religions views of the people wsre completely shaken, and that the Romish Churoh was in very bad odor. The Waldensss are act ive in their missionary labors. Their beauti ful church at Turin has been dedicated, and is well attended They have found a large oon gregation at Genoa also, and have purchased a churoh from the Roman Catholios, whioh they mean to repair and fit up for their religious servioes. ' The Pope ha* been pleased to express bis satisfaction at the boom** of an English com pany, in lighting this city with gas. It seems almos* incredible, that up to the beginning of the year 1854, gas-light was altogether un known in Rome. Three or four of the chief streets have now been illuminated, and further progress is oon tem plated. Permission, how ever, to introduce the improvement was oh 1 tained from the Government by this company only on the>e terms: That the streets referred | to were to be lighted at the expense of the eompany, whose reward is to be the privilege of contracting for the lighting of shops, tio. Negotiation is in progress far the lighting of St. Peter's. It is not a little oarasing to see the crowd that collect around every lamp-post, as it is lit in the evening, wondering at this new fashion of burning air, instead of oil. If only something oon Id Ixi attempted in the way of cleaning the streets and laying ride-walks, K<>me woeld quite oome up in the soole of civ iliefttion As it is, the filthiness of the streets is inconceivable, and there ie bat one street with side walks, for any distanos, in the eity. . Q7" The Daily Era can bo bad every morning at the Periodical Stand of Mr. J. T. Batik, Ex change. Philadelphia; alto, the Weekly Era. ay~ Mr. Jamkk Elliott ii authorised to receive aud rooeipt Tor aubacriptiuiu aud advertisement* for the Daily and the Weekly Nalioiia/ Era, in Cincin aatl 1)4 vjsiatty* ? ?./ WASHINGTON, D. C. FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 24^ 1854. COHQ&X88 In the Senate, to-day, Mr. Hunker made a speech in support of the Nebraska Bill, and we are inulined to the opiniou that it oontains more that it* worthy of commendation than ia oon tained in any other speech that has beeu made on that aide of the question. In style, in tem per, aud in subject matter, it id an excellent spcecli. There in, indeed, muoh good reason ing in it?or would be, if the primary proposi tions had been well based. As it is, however, the assumption that the Constitution of the United States carries Slavery wherever it goes? for this appears to be essential to the argu ment?will hardly reoeive the assent of any unbiased mind. Mr. Butler suooeeded Mr. Hunter, and was for a time lively and faoetious in his remarks. He, however, opened upon the nubjeot, by the advancement of opinions alto gether consistent with himself. He takes no medium oourse. He will no doubt resume the subject on Monday next. In the House, nothing definite was done, be yond tho adoption of a resolution declaring the Hon. Mr. Gallegos eutitled to his seat as the Delegate from New Mexioo, his title having been contested by General Lane. THE WHIG PARTY- THE PABTY OF FREEDOM Mr. Campbell, the independent member from Ohio, is set down in onr classification of Con gress as an Independent Demoorat. This is not strictly oorrect. He oares little about names, aots pretty muoh aooordiug to his own convictions, ''spits upon platforms-' when they I do not suit him, and takes his stand among the 1 opponents of Slavery; but he has usually aoted with the Whig Party, and some of his tender footed friends would not like to see him called by any other name than that of " Whig." After all, the title, " Independent Demoorat,'' is a very good one for every man who considers the Slavery Question as the great isBue before the People, and has made up his mind to be an uncompromising supporter of Freedom. The so-oalled Democratic Party is a Slavery Party. I It is a gross abuse of language to designate as Democratic a political organisation, ruled by ? Class Interest, and laboring under its dictation for the extension of a system which makes h? mau beings articles of merchandise, and subjects labor to the absolute oontrol of capital. Whtt fellowship can honest men, anxious for the wel fare of the masses, have with such an organi sation t As to the Whig Party, where is it? Why cherish a name whose meaning has beoome simply traditional ? The organisation once de fined by it exists no longer. Its great repre sentatives hare gone down to the grave; the issues that gave it vitality have been disposed of; there is no Whig Party, although there are hundreds of thousands of honest-minded voters who once rallied under its banners. The slave holders who used to act with it gave it a death blow at Baltimore, in 1852, and have at last abandoned it. The Nebraska movement has revealed their true character, and demonstra ted the impossibility of their co-operation with any Party at the North, true to the Principle of Freedom. The advent of Mr. Toombs in the Senate seems to have heralded a new era, and we find Messrs. Clayton, Badger, Bell, Pearoe, Jones, hitherto supposed to be rather National in their policy, now the allies of a so oalled Democratic Administration, in the work of Slavery Propagandist!). A few extraots from our exchanges will servo to confirm these views.. u Badger's and Jones's speeches, in the Sen ate, (says the New York Kiprru.) may be con sidered the dissolution of ths Whig Party of any further allianoe with the Northern Aboli tion wing of the Party. The Nebraska Bill, in point of fact, is finishing that breaking up of all parties, which began at Baltimore when the Whig and Democratic Conventions made their nominations.'' The Richmond (Va.) Whig thereupon re marks: u Very well?if the union of the party, or any other sort of union, can only be preserved by trampling on the equality of the States, lot itoease. We for one are unwilling to be parties to it on any other terms than those of perfect equality. We know the burdens the Union imposes upon the South?that it oondemns us to tn everlasting commercial inferiority, but that we were content to endure as best we might; but wben it is proposed to deny us equal pohtioal rights, further endurance oeases to be a virtue." The Albany Evening Journal says: " In the hope and belief that the solemn as suranoss of 1850, of repose from Slavery agi tation, would restore harmony to the National Whig Party, we a few days sinoe avowed our readiness to go oordially for any distinguished Whig, be be from the North or the South, in dicated by popular sentiment as the next Pres idential candidate. " We did not then foresee?who oould have foreseen??that the whole Slavery issue was so soon to be reopened by those who pro nounoed the 1 Compromise a finality.' It is but a year sine* Senator Atchison, the acting Vioe President, repudiated the attempt or even the thought of repealing or dieturbing the ' Mis souri Compromise.' We have been taught to rely at least upon the vaith and honox of the South. However exacting and aggressive, none has heretofore questioned the trutnor impugned the iNTaoaiTT of the South. " But she stands ready now to violate a sol emn compact?to fly from a bargain?end that, too, after she has enjoyed the advantages of that bargain for thirty years. " And Senator Jones, of Tennessee, becomes a voluntary advocate and party to this national perfidy. He stands oonspiouons among the champions of the bill, which ' repeals the Mis souri Compromise,' and roopens, most unneces sarily, the well-nigh smothered fires of Slavery agitation. This course, while it pains, vet re lieves many friends from any further solioitude about his future." The New York Tribune says: 14 Not only will there be no more Whig Na tienal Conventions, bat far the greater part of the Northern Democrats will equally forswear their old allegiance, and fling themselves into ths new party of Freedom. And for inflaming this great sectional controversy, the Southern Whig Senators most be held eminently reepoa sihle. It is true that Douglas and Pierce orig nated the wrong, but Badger and hit) asso oiates havedone even worse, fur of them integrity was expected. They it u who never the boo da of affaotioa and tear up and deetroy the roots of friendly oonfidenoe, which, through every vicissitude and every ntruggle, and in spite of individual and exceptional antagonisms, have united the bimh or Southern and Northern voters These Senators may not believe this now. They will bitterly believe it hereafter. As Ions ae they remained faithful, there wan still a South that the North oould trust, in whose promisee and pledgee it oould oontide. With their defection that South disappears, and between the two great divisions of the Union, and its two great systems of labor and of morals, there suddenly opens a profound and all-embraoing conflict. It is not provoked by the party of Freedom, but since the other side desire it, and urge it on, why, let it come!" " The partLof Freedom !" Cannot the Whigs and Democrat** forget their old contro versies and antipathies? The slaveholders seem anxious for a sectional struggle. Amen to that?let it come. The non-slaveholders of the oountry will never know their strength till they test it, on a direct issue with the slave holders. Let them unite for onoe, and give suoh a lesson to those gentlemen as shall ad monish them of their weakness, and strip them of their arrogant pretensions. They talk with great ooolness of a dissolution of the Union. Very well?there are a good many at the North who feel the ooolness they only affect; and if the sectional policy of these slaveholders be persisted i?, the number indisposed to main tain the Union by degrading concession* to suoh seotiooalism will beoome legion. The fact is, it naeds but one manly effort on the part of the millions of non-slaveholders to ex pose the real insignificance of these men who are sternally threatening a dissolution of the Union. The sooner the a9s is stripped of the lion'i skin, the better for the quiet of the coun try-/ ' PUBLIC OPINION. It now seems probable that time will be ae ourod for a full expression of publio opinion in refetion to the repeal the Missouri Compro mise. After the speeoh of Mr. Toombs jester Jay, Mr. Hunter obtained the floor, and on his motion the subject was postponed till Monday, f hen be will deliver his views.*. How many ?ore speeches are proposed, we do not know, hut the powerful opposition to the measure has alarmed its friends, and compelled tbem to put forth their strongest efforts to carry it. They find that they can no longer rely upon the power of a silent vote. Meantime, the People are indeed moving. The Administration is beginning to be appre hensive even about New Hampshire. The People there are deeply excited, and the Ne braska Question will enter into the approach ing election. On that election will depend the composition of the Legislature, on ^ioh will devolve the choice of a United States Senator. There is a large portion of the Democracy of New Hampshire that can hardly be roconoilod by any sophistry to tbo repeal of the Missouri i Compromise, or to the oonductof the Admini*. | tration in making this pro-slavery policy its I leading measure. Pennsylvania is not so " reliable" Aa this crisis for Slavery as was expected. The Ger man population of that State is hard to be moved, bat it is beginning to grow restive un der this new dispensation of Slavery. Pitts-i burgh and the adjacent region are pretty thor oughly aroused. Indignation meetings, oalled to condemn Douglas's Nebraska bill, are an nounced in various sections of the State. We should not be surprised to see resolutions againet the measure pass through the House of Representatives. A telegraphic despatch from Hartford pro claims that the Democratic State Convention, which met there on the 22d, and nominated a full State ticket, passed resolutions, by nearly a unanimous vote, sustaining the Ordinance of 1787 and the Compromises of 1820 and 18.50, and opposing the repeal of the Missouri Com promise. At a Publio Dinner given at the seat of Gov ernment of Kentucky, to the Hon. John J. Crit tenden, by the Whig members of the Legisla ture, some of the Democratic members, by per sonal friend*, and many private citizens, the toast-master announocd that he had a letter from a distinguished Whig of Mason county, the venerable Adam Reatty, in which he urged the country to stand by the Missouri Compro mise. The report says that the announcement was reoeived with great applause. From what we can learn, there are Demo cratic Senators from the North who would he ftlad to reoeive instructions from their State Legislatures to vote against the Bill. Let tbem be gratified as soon as possible. It is often said hers, and we doubt not with truth, that General Cass would have rejoiced had no such measure been brought forward, but that the position be took in his Nicholson Letter imposes upon him now the obligation of supporting it The General lacks courage It seems to us that even he conld oppose the Bill, for very satisfeotory reasons Suppose he should say?" It is true that, as an original proposition, I should have opposed the Missouri (Compromise act, on the ground of a want of power in Congress to peas such an act; but the oiroumstanees under which it been me a law were peouliar and exceptional, investing it with the oharaoter of a oompact between the North and the South, and this oompact has ac quired a oertain force and obligation from the universal aoqoieeoenoe in it of the People of the United Stales for a whole generation. So far as it secured advantages to one sec tion, it is an aooootpliahed fact; to repeal it now, when the other section is to receive its equivalent, would be to violate at least an honorary obligation. With these views, I am unwilling to give my ?ote for any bill whieb shall unssttle a settle ment so long considered by the People of all motions as conclusive and final." We submit that the defence would be a good one?and that the oonsoieooe of the General would safer as little as his ocesistency. But moral courage and individualism are not characteristics gen ?"?Uy of American statesmen. The majority of them at the North are in bondage to Party, at the South, to the esprit dt corps of the slave holding olass; everywhere and always, subject to the Slave Power. * sines leaned that Mr. Huntsr deliver ed his apeseh to-day. MB COAMK AMD TUX PBOPLS OF OHIO. Ohio has had no more faithful servant in Coogrees than Mr. Chase. Devoted M he is to the oaune of Freedom, and the great inter ests involved in it, he uegleota none of the sub ordinate duties of a Legislator. The following brief statement of hie action on a measure of speoial interest to the People of his State, will be as satisfactory to them, as it in oredi table to himeelf: At the session of 1851-'2, he introduced a bill oeding to the State of Ohio all the Publio Lands within her limits, exoept thoee embraced in the Virginia military district, whioh were held in trust by the United States to satisfy Virginia military warrants. He oolleotod from the General Land Offioe a mass of facts illus trating the Bubjeot, which he laid before the Committee on Public Lands, and obtained a favorable report, lu April, he made a speech in its favor, and after some disoussion, the bill passed, upon yeas and nays. The vote stood, 28 to 13. The bill, from eome oause, failed in the House. In the oouree of the same session, he embraced an opportunity of getting rid of . tbe Virginia olaim to the lands in the military distriot by prupoeing an amendment to Mr. Hunter's bill for issuing of scrip to Virginia claimants, requiring Virginia to relinquish to the United States all her right and title to these lands. This amendment was adopted, and Virginia accordingly relinquished. At the next (the short) session, Mr. Chase brought in another bill, embracing all the un sold lands in Ohio. Some difficulties in tho committee delayed the report; which, however, when made, was favorable, but no actiui^pf the Senate was obtained. At the present session, Mr. Chaae again in troduced his bill, whioh was again referred, and favorably acted on; aud on his motion, was, on Wednesday last, taken up and passed. The People of Ohio will expeot a different fate for it in the House than that of the former bill, especially as one of her own Representa tives is at the head of the Committee on Publio Lands. THE GADSDEN THE AT Y. This Treaty is before the Senate, with cer tain amendments reoommended by the Preai dent of the United States. Of the substance of it* provisions our readers have been advised It strikes a new boundary, securing to us enough additional territory on our Southwest ern border for two or three States, whioh, we are informed by the Richmond (Va.) Enquirer, are to be elaveholding. The eighth article stipulates for the faithful co-operation of the two Governments in endeav ors to prevent unlawfiil invasions of the terri tory of one by the citizens of the other; and impose! on each Government the duty of pur suing, seising, and punishing, persons guilty of suoh invasion, it being understood that in all cases of successful pursuit and capture the do linquento so captured shall be judged and pun ished by the Government of that nation to whioh the vessel oapturing them may belong, conformably to the laws of eaoh nation. The President recommends the striking out of the clause imposing this duty, so as to leave no other obligation on either Government than that of preventing unlawful invasion. That is to say, he is willing that the Government of this oountry should be bound by treaty to pre vent if possible, filibustering expedition* from being fitted out in the United States, but he is not willing, should they elude the vigilance of the Government, a. did Captain Walker's buc caneering movement, to make %>ir pursuit, capture, and punishment, a matter of treaty regulation. One of the amendments recommended de serves special attention, inwmuoh as it is an insidious attempt to involve Mexico in an en gagement to surrender fugitive slaves. Article seoond provide* ** follows: " With the like desire to maintain the most perfect peace and friendly relations between both countries, it has been agreed that, to re move all oooasion of dispute on aooount of rec lamations to the present date, founded on al lied Indian incursions, and to avoid all eon te?t upon the true spirit and intention of the obligations stipulated in the eleventh article of the treaty of Guadalupe, the same is hereby abolished and annulled. The Government of the United States agrees, notwithstanding this abrogation and annulment, to provide such ad ditional regulations as the subiect may in good States, or the Territories thereof, to purchase or receive horses, mules, cattle, or property of any kind, knowing the same to have been Irn Within the limits of Mexican territory, hj Ike Indian*, or by any other person. "d fvnr thermore agrees to return on demand to their legitimate owners what may have been thus stolen so soon as the same shall have been re covered by the authorities of the United Stales Aud in the event of any perwn or persons cap tured upon Mexican ground betng carried with STS. Oulant, oftk, V?** &?<?. ">? '*"? eminent of the latter engages to nee every fair and honorable means that the nature and c?r oumstanoe of the case will admit, to secure and return sooh captives to their own country, or deliver them to the agent or representative of the Mexican Government, requiring amply the repayment to the officer or agent of the United States who may so deliver or return them the expenses incurred in the maintenance and transmission of the rescued ?" nally, the Government of the United States promises that, on any oooasion she may have to remove the Indians from any point of her territory and settle thereupon her own oitiisns especial care shall be taken not to i.laoo said Indians under the neoeesity of seeking now homes in the Mexioan territory " In order, says the President, to make the do ties and obligations stipulated in the seoond article reciprocal, it is proposed to add to it the following: " And the Government of Mexioo agrees that the stipulations contained in this article to be performed by the United States shall be recipro cal, and Mrxita shall be under like obligation* to the United State* and the citizens thereof, as those ht rein above imposed upon the latter in fa vor of the Republic of Mexico and Mexican citi tens.'' Look at the portions of the article and of the proposed amendment which we have plaoed in italios, and it will be seen that they will be oonstrued by our Government to cover the oaee of slavee who may eeoape or be oarried into Mexican territory. It is but fair to stipu late for reciprocity, but the amendment goes beyond this Mexioo dose not reoognise hu man beings as property, and oontains no slaves Should the amendment beoome a part of the Treaty, and the Treaty be ratified, the Mexi can Government, in any demand made upon it in relation to slaves, might urge that the term " property," used in the article, wan intended to define that only whioh is regarded property by the laws of nations; hut it is easy to fore nee what would be the response and course ol procedure of a Slav^bolding Administration on such reasoning. Or, it is quite possible that, were slaves conveyed into Mexioan territory, they might be demanded us persons carried off in violation of the Treaty. We have no doubt that the amendment sug gested was carefully considered by the Admin istration, and that one of its principal object* is, to secure a claim upon the Mexioan Govern ment for the surrender of slaves from this coun try found within her borders. KXTBACTS FHOM LKTTKR8 WRITTEN IK WASHINGTON. What is desired by the friends of partioular measures in Congress can in general he more correctly ascertained from the letters they oauBe to be written abroad, than from any other souroe of information; and henoe we shall often quote the opinions and predictions of oer tain well-recognised correspondents. [CORRESPONDENCE OF THK BALTIMORE SUN.J Washington, Feb. 23, 1854. The speech of Mr. Toombs in favor of the Nebraska bill was very forcible. It is now pretty well understood that the opponents of the bill have done speaking, and an effort will be made by the friends of the bill to bring it to a vote on Wednesday next. The bill will pass the Senate by a three-fourths vote. The usoortained majority in the House is from thir ty to thirty-tive, and it is confidently expected that the vote will bo had in that body Wore the second Tuesday in March, the day on whioh the eleotions are held in the State of New Hampshire. In addition to the Territory of Nebraska, there are the Indian Territories, Chel-o-kee, (Cherokee,) Muscogee, (Creek,) and Chap-ta (Chootaw,) lying west of Arkansas, south of Kansas, north of Texas, and east of New Mex ico, to be organised for the purpose of extend ing the benefits of civilisation and republican self-government to those gallant but unfortu nate sons of the soil, who, without such an ef fort mi the part of their natural protectors, must necessarily soon oome in oonfliot with tho white race, and perish. One of the tribea is now here, urging the measure whioh has been embodied in a bill introduced by Mr. Johnson, of Arkansas, in the Senate. The bill, if parsed, will constitute an era in the history of the red man, and prove better than all abstract philosophy or romance, his oapaoity for a higher stage of humanity than has yet been occupied by him. If these Terri tories are organized, with the Indians' oonsent, and republican!zed, white men will intermarry with the "red republicans/' and regenerate them in the only way in whioh old nations have ever been regenerated since the Hood by an infusion of uew and better blood into their veins. How much Roman blood is then* now in Home? How much Greek blood iu Athens? X. Mr. Sumner's Speech on the Nebraska Bill.?The New York Tribune says of thin admirable production: "Mr. Sumner's speech contains the mont comprehensive, complete, and convincing re view of the early policy of the Republic toward Slavery that has ever been presented to Con grats, within our recolleotion. The truth that, for nearly half a century of the nation's ex istence, the Government steadily made the ex tension of Freedom and the limitation of bond age the ohjeot and the rule of its action, is demonstrated in this speech, by a maap of his torical evidenco which precludes oontradiction. The fathers of our Independence are shown to have boen unanimous in their hostility to the pernioious institution; and while marking the gradual departure from that primitive oourse, Mr. Sumner dearly shows that the Missouri Compromise was not only the invention of Southern statesmen, but that, when the ardu ous struggle of that time had resulted in it* adoption, they regarded it as a great advantage gained for the South, and as a compact irrev- I ooable in its nature. ? The argument of thin 1 speech is everywhere marked by eminent logi- I cal power, and passages of it, particularly that I contrasting the qniversal abolition and rostric i tion of Slavery and serfdom in other ooimtriw, ; with its attempted aggrandwmcnt and perpet uation in democratic ^.mcrioa, and that de scribing the Northern raau with Southern principles are touched with sincere and ad mirable eloquence. It will be widely read, and will add its full quota to that determined feci- < ing of resistanco to the Nebraska fraud, which is now gathering and swelling in the bosoma of the Northern People. A men Children ok American Parents.? The editor of the American Law llegtsirr, an excellent legal journal puhli*h<d in Philadel phia, says: "It does not, proltahly, oocur to the Ameri can families who are visiting F.urope in great numbers, and remaining there, frequently, for a yoar or more, that all their childron born in a foreign country are alien*, and when they re tarn home, will return under all the disability s of aliens. Vet this is indisputably the case; for it is not worth while to coosider the only ex ception to this rule that exists under tho lawn of the United States, vis: the osse of a ohild s.. born, Whow parents were citixens of the Uui 1 ted States on or before the Nth April, 1802.'' The first movement in the New York Legists ture in favor of extending the elective franchise to women, was made in both Houses on Mon day, by the presentation of a petition in both bodies, signed ia the aggregate .bJ 10,000 per sons of both sexes. In both Houses a select oommittee was raided to consider the subjeot. The Comard Stsamkrh?The Baltic has brought intelligence that several of Cnnard'* steamers had been taken up by the English Government to transport troops to Constantino [>le. The New York Journal of Comtneru earns that, aside Irom this statement, no iofiw ' raation respecting the matter has been received at the agency in that city, though it is presnm ed that some of Canard's screw steamers in the Mediterranean may have been taken. The Nebraska Resoi.utiossThe Boston Commonwealth says: " The resolutions against Douglas's Nebraska bill reoeived their final passage in the State Senate on Saturday. They were passed by the unanimout vote of th< Senate of Massachusetts. Every Democratic Senator present (one only being absent) vutrd for the resolutions Yet the Pod would have it that none but ' Free-Soil Abolitionist* and Whigs' are opposed to the Nebraska bill." A writer in the Linden Times expresses a fear that Russia intends the oapture of Aus tralian gold-freighted vessels, there being a report that Russian vessels of war had been 1 seen in Australian waters. The clergy of Worcester county, of all de nominations have signe t a protest against the Nebraska bill, which is t?? be forwarded to Congren. Tarkvtown, Pa., Feb. 18,1854. To the Editor uj the National Era : I have jutit bad a word with Judge Wilinot in relation to the Nebraska oonK|iir<icy. The Judge ia alive upon the subject, and ih doing much to arouse the neople to a renae of thoir duty to Freedom and to God in this evil day whiob in upon us, in the proposed legislation of Congress. I am happy to find Mr. Wiiuiot au Independent Democrat, and be says, if the Ne braska bill paused with the olaiuc repealing the Missouri Compromise, " the old Democratic party will l>e sponged out." Yours, &o. Geo. L. Hokton. P. S. Congress will hear from thiB District. Mr. Wilmot's speech on Tuesday evening was a most noble tribute to Freedom. St. Louis Co, Mo,, Feb. 18, 1854. To the Editor of the National Era : Though both a native and a citizen of a slaveholding State, I most solemnly protest agaiiibt theItill of Messrs. Douglas & Co. ? 1.1 protest against it as a deliberate attempt to violate solemn compacts made and entered into as adjustments of diflioultios in days past. 2. I protest against it as a deliberate attempt to bring on a more violent and dangerous ex citement than the nation has ever yet known. 3. 1 protest against it, just at Hub orisis in the world's history, as a deliberate siding with the despots of thq Old World, in thoir orusade against human rights, as treason to humanity the world over. 4. I most solemnly protect against the Sena tor from Illinois making Imseouri a groat slave breeding and slave-keeping pen for the great country west of us. One or Many. Baltimore, February 22, 1854. To the Editor of Ike National Era: Sih : Can you send us some printed forms of petition against the Nebraska Bill ? A num ber of persons in this city are anxious lo sign suoh a paper. Perhaps, if you were to publish a form in the Era, it would answer our purpose, and might induce others to go and do likewise. Perhaps the following form will answer the purpose: To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United Stales: We, the undersigned, oitizens of Baltimore, devoted to the Union of these States, anxious for the prevalence of fraternal feelings between different sootions of the Union, and apprecia ting the obligations of good faith imposed by what is commonly called the Missouri Com promise, would respectfully and earnestly re monstrate against the passage of auy bill for the organization of Nebraska, providing, di reotly or indirectly, for the repeal of said Com promise, or any part thereof. Princeton, III., Feb. 15, 1854. To the Editor of the Natiimal Era : Having circulated a remonstrance in this community against the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, to which some three hundred sig natures were obtained, I met with but two in dividuals who were unwilling to sign, and I met with' no ono who was disposed to justify the measure. Mr. Douglas is politically dead in Northern Illinois; and any party sustaining his measuros will die with bun. We take the libetty of copying a paragraph from a letter of Judge Wilmot, just received by ua.?Ed. Era. " Be assured, that Bradford county and this Congressional district is fully prepared for the coming oonfliot with the Slave Power and its profligate allies. The patuage of the bill of Douglas, should tbo conspiracy so far succeed, will be but the commencement of the struggle; the end of which, in my judgmont, will be the final and signal overthrow of the Slave Power. Some outrage like this could alone arouse the People of the free States to a full realisation of the overwhelming power of Slavery in this Government, and to (be enormity of its de mands." A Change of Sentiment.?'Tbo New York Tnbttme says: "Senator Pettit, of Indiana, in 1848-0, de clared, (I am devoted to Free Soil and Free Labor, and no voje of mine shall, knowingly, ever be given to pollute the one or oppress the other with Slavery. That Congress has the power to prohibit the introduction of Slavery into the Territories, where it does not exist, must be clear to every one who has investiga ted the suVjeot and ia oapable of reasoning.' " Pat Senator Pettit was not then Senator? he only vaultd to be. Now be is, with a long leaso of oQoe ahead, and a knowledge that lor any farther advancement he must look to Vir ginia more than to Indiana?so be declares in favor of Douglas's bill, and against the right of Congress which was so ' clear1 to his view a few years ago. Suoh is the consistency of dem agogues?such the integrity of self seeking pol iticians. The Diplomatic Dress.?Mr. John M. Daniel, the American Charge at Turin, does not oonform to the prescribed court dress. The Tribune has an extract from a letter written by Mr. Daniel, dated January 27, .which thus defines bis position in that country : " I have put myself to a great deal of trouble about this very thing, because I wished to es tablish the 1 freedom of the dress' here for all future Charges, and after a delay of sevoral months, I was the other day presented to the King of thia oountry in a suit of plain bla^k, whioh I have often worn in Richmond. 1 at tended the first court ball of this Nonson in the same dress, and these are the only time* I have appeared at oourt at all. Since then I have received an intimation, that it would be esteem ed the civil thing if I would hereafter adopt a unifoim ; and ae I do not wish either to do so or to appear uncivil, the probability is that 1 shall keep away from the palace hereafter as much as etiquette will allow me." The Destiny or China.?Dr.' Bowring, tbe eminent Eastern traveller, in a lecture lately delivered in Loudon, on tbe eve of his departure for the Fast, took occasion to say that, in his opinion, tbe empire of China was destined to fulfil a great mission, by the emigration that was now going on from thenoe through all the Ksstern nations. Such was the population of China, that there was not a loot of it scarcely but what was cultivated. Suoh was the over population, in fact, that, notwithstanding the most violent interdicts against emigration, its surplus streams war* overflowing tbe oountrics of the Fast. In the Island of Java he found 25 000; in the Islands of the Indian Archipela go, there were nut lexe than 70.000 Cbinew, whilst in San Franoinoo, there bad been settled 25,000 more; and great numbers were emi grating to Australia, and the Islands of Poly nesia, or wherever there was a field of labor open to them It appeared to be a law of Providence, that the superior raoes of mankind should supplant tbe inferior. and we aaw in the progress of time, the inhabitant* of tbe West India Islands swept away?that tbe Anglo-Saxon population was invading and re moving (he would not say destroying) the red Indian tribes of Amerioa. So the Chinese race was setting aside the Malay, hi the name way that they (the Malays) had set aside the Dyak*. It is stated that the daily reoeipts on the Great W? tern (Canada) Railroad are aver $5,000. Mora freight is offered than the oom pany ia able to transport.