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OUR MONTHLY LONDON CORRESPONDENCE.
for tl?s National *ra. THE AKUJTOCBACY OF KHOLAHD lO 3. The reign of the Tudor dynasty wu an epoch of despotism, but it led to roniarkutde changes in the position of the armUw^ ^ WEH tk. ?WM of m " during his twenty-seven yours of tvrunnv the guardians of the pubho purse 3",Tio "l".r u.,tivity tl.?? ??? oSonca True it is, that he held out the powerful luro of avarice to needy oourtiers, and the plunder ot the *> - rs^f^ this olunder was enormoua. In 153b, the leaser ?? A?. am,.uu.il,B tu 376, ed and their plate wa* appropriated to th Kinc In 1538, the great monasteries shared the Lie fate. On th, whole, 645 monaster.en w?re seised of which 28 had uiitrod abbots, who sat in Parliament, from whiobth?3|'**?* now expelled. Ninety colleges, d?Htributed in various oounties, wero closod, as well as 2,.M chantries and free chapels, and 110 hospitals The aacreitate revenue of theso establishments then amounted to ?161,000 sterling?a large moneyed rental in those tiroes?but ktg'vesno ad* qu&te idea of the enormous wealth which ultimately came into the handa ot the descend ants of the original spoliators. Mining indus try had then made little progress; but at a later date, the rioh treasures of minerals and rn?r?U, Stored .?p hen?ath the mrfaoo, yielded, and still Jiejd, princely revenues. Henry next suppressed the order ol the knights of St John or Jerusalem, (otherwise called the knights of Malta,) and confiscated , their property Other colleges and hospital* attracted the cupidity ot the courtiers, who endeavored to persuade the governors and presidents of those establishments to surrender their revenues to the King, they receiving a personal compensation, and eight accepted the bribe. There was a clause in all the charters of therie foundations, that no deed of alieua tion was valid, without the oonsent of all the fellows; and as it was not so easy to corrupt all of them us the governors and presidents. Parliament annulled all the charters, and the coot tiers divided the spoil. Thus the codes., ostical estates passed to the territorial propri etors, and increased their opulenoe. The proot still remains in the titles of many aristocratic domains as Woburn Abbey, and Tavistock Priory whioh fell to the lot of the Russell tam ily, and now belong to the Dukes of Bedford. Nor was it only in the confiscation of prop erty that a corrupt Legislature became the de graded instrument of a despotic monarch Their Bervility extended to matters ot religion The Bill of Six Articles, called by the Protest ants the Bloody BUI. was enacted, and the King's proclamation received the fame force as the statutes of Parliament; and that Assembly so framed the law as to make it appear-as sim ply declaratory and explanatory ot the nature and extent of the prerogative, which amount ed to a surrender of the rights of the Legisla ture. When the King, in 1540, sent a com plaint to Parliament of the heresies in the kingdom, the Vicar General, Cromwell, made a speech in favor of the royal views in the House of Peers and Henry was so well pleased that he deolari d Cromwell ought to be Vicar General of the universe ; and, cm the appoint ment of tf royal oommissioo to frame a reli gion, Parliament rrsoNed, before even a single eiep was taken iu the business, that whatever artioles or creed were drawn up, they should be received as the* law of the land. So com Cte was the despotism of Henry, that the islative assemblies had lieoome mere regis ter offices of his will and pleasure, and the people dared neither petition nor remonstrate This fastidious and sensual tyraut potsed a law condemning any woman to death who was not a virgin at the date of nuptials; but finally, to make sure that he was not duped, he married a widow. Catharine Parr I fader the short reign of his son and success or, lid ward VI, the Dake of Somerset, as Pro testor of the Realm, completed the religious revolution, and gave full liberty to the Protest ants; hut there were no guarantees for its con tinuance, based on constitutional principles The principal men in the country were ongaged in political intrigues to set asido the olaims of Mary and Rlissbetb, and settle the crown on the heir* of the Duchess of Suffolk, a sister of Henry VIII, who, in second nuptials, had mar ried the Earl of Suffolk Amidst these oahals, the mal interests of th# country were over looked. When Mary ascended the throne, the obse qaious Parliament repealed all the laws pasred iu favor of Protestants during the life of her brother Two hundred and tevepty seven per poos were humied as heretics, and many morn punished by fine, confiscation, and imprison meut? Tho powerless state of the legislature and of ths judicial tribunals is evident, from the com of Sir Nicolas Thiogmorton, who was tried on suspicion of having aided Hyatt's coo j Hpiraoy and acquitted, on whioh the Queen imprisoned the jury, and fined them?some ?1 000, and others ?2 000 Under such a sys tew there could U no security for property or personal fioedont. The reign of Elisabeth, glorious by the naval victory over the Armada, the circumnav igat ion of the globe by Drake, and the coloni ration of transmarine (possessions, wan as dee potio as that of her tyrannical father. Perlia meat was debated . its huso hie, nay, abject re momtrsnces were toorned : its voioe was mere ly consultative, and ths fear of offending the Queen paralysed sotion. Two facts suffice to point the spirit of the epoeh Wentworth wss ?Ant lo the Tower for having asked if the Par liament had the right of deliberating in pri vate, and if the Privy Counc I could change the law*. A Star Chamber was established ; it was a tribunal of ultimate appeal dependent on the Court H iring the whole period of the Tudor dy nasty, ths Government of England must be considered ss pree'.icolly an absolute Govern ment; for though the forms of freedom remain ed, the soltstauoe had disappeared. The nobili ty were bribed into submission, and they sub mitted to any indignity, lest resistance might deprive of the church land* so newly acquired; the people leered the return of Papal power more than the despotism of the tbrtme, and were grateful to ens tyrant fir having relieved them from another. But though Parliament wa> mute arid the law powerless during this degrading epoch, nevertheless, the seeds of politi oal revolution had been sown. The social state, both in the rsletions of property and in falbgence, bad undergone silent but remarks hie change* Serfdom had eeassd There hud been great improvements in agriculture, lbs toot eoysges had opened up new sources of trade and enterprise '(loiooi/atiou had struck deep rem The influence of (be clergy had de pressed Print.i.,' had instructed and invigom l?d intellect, and men Who determined to think for themselves re matters of religion were fill tp prepared to think for iheamltA in matters Then aro*e that new element ??? er-Oett, wht.-h we call puHn nj?nion ami whiuh esi-erienc* has proved to be the only sta bio Lam *f authority and institutions. J 4s the Staarts smwMeded to the despotism id M Tadors, it ftnfe* snrptWng that they bed notion i f the prerogative to have believed for Ihe King, and for Mm People Their errors to esrtlm ? precedent* ? ioitetd of tho actual wants ami temper of the age in whioh they lived. James 1 won not aware that a revolution iu society had been operating, which was hood to manifest I itself by overt acts He never realised in hiM wind the idea of progress?never took into) account the diffusion of intelligence, and the moral independent produced by tho accumu lation of property. So convinced wan this monarch that he Htood to hi* subject* in the relation of a master to hiu slaves, that, in 1H2I, he told Parliament " that he wished them to understand that their privileges were derived from the grace and permission of him and his ancestors;" and when the same Parliament protected, that "the libertine, franchises, privi leges, and jurisdictions of Parliament are tho ancient and undoubted birthright and inherit ance of the subjects of England," the King wan bo enraged that he sent for the journal*, and, in presence of his Council, tore out their Iirotest with his own hands, and commanded lis own private viewH to be recorded in the council-book. On all occasions he treated the Houee of Commons with thA most marked oon tempt, and oven wrote a letter to tho Speaker, : in which he severely reprimanded the iuom i bent for debating matters far beyond their ca i pacity; and when they ventured to remonstrate, : he sternly said that their proceedings more re j seiuhled a denunciation of war, than the con I duct of dutiful subjects Under the tuition of such a father, it is not wonderful that Charles I should have imbibed the most extravagant notions of kingly power, talieving it to rest on divino right. When he ascended tho throne, he found an exhausted exchequer, and had to solicit an adequate rev enue from u scrupulously parsimonious Parlia ment. The Commons were determined to bring tho contest with the prerogative to an issue, | and nuw plainly that their sudoess dopended on I a battle of finance. Tho King, crippled in his i resources, levied his feudal dues with excessive i rigor, and even attempted to revive the ancient | forest laws. As no prescription could be plead ed against the royal title, Charles resumed pos session of many of the ray al forests, and by that act roused the opposition of tho land-owners to his Government. At tho same time, religious zeal reared itself against the Crown, while merchants and traders, fearful of tho extent to which ship-money and tonnage and poundage might be pushed, joined in hostility against the prerogative. In the session of 1628, the King, highly in censed at the small sums of money granted him by Parliament, declared, " That if they did not do their duty in contributing to the necessities of the State, he must, in discharge of his oon soienoe, use those other means which God had put into his hands, in order to save that which the follies of some particular jnen might other wise put in danger." The Commons, nothing daunted, passed a law, called the Petition or Riuht, in which they enumerated all the arbitrary exactions of the prerogative, among which the principal grievanoes were forced loans, lienevolences, tax es without consent of Parliament, arbitrary irn ftrisonments. billeting of soldiers, and martial aw; and, disclaiming any intention of attack ing the just rights of the prerogative, insisted that those rights should be strictly defined. Against this bill the King struggled hard; but. after open resistance and covert evasion had been exhausted, he was compelled to yield his assent [to BK CONCLUDED to MORROW.| THE PHK88 OF OHIO OK THE NEBRASKA QUESTION Cincinnati, March 18, 1854. To the Editor of the National Era : The Free Democratio papers of the State, numbering twenty in all, arc of oourae decided ly and heartily opposed to the bill. The Whig papers are equally unanimous in opposing it. Of the Old Line Democratic press, the follow ing are opposed to the bill: Daily and weekly Ohio State Democrat, Toledo Republican, San dusky Mirror, Hillsboro' Gazette, Chillicothe Advertiser, (weekly.) Ironton Timet, Fremont Democrat. Seneca Advertiser, Norwolk Experi ment, Canfield Sentinel, American Union, Ohio Democrat, Stark Democrat, Holme* Free Press, Akron Standard, Wyandot Pioneer, People's Fountain, Defiance i)emocrat. Williams' Item, Lima Argu*, McArthur Democrat, Clerment Sun, Mansfield Sh?eld, Medina Mirror, Ohio Patriot, Cad t Sentinel, Democratic Companion, Democratic Transcript, Wayne County Demo crat, Ashland Union, Hancock Sentinel, Hock ing Srntmel, Henry Northwest, Ottakee Union, Paulding Democrat, Kenton Northwest, Xenia News, Mount Vernon Hanner, Adams County Democrat, Kalida Venture, Noble County Pa triot?forty-one in all The German Press of the State, as far as we are aware, are also opposed to the bill. A large number of the neutral press speak out against it in strong terms Among those is the Daily Commercial, of this oity, the most widely ciren- ? lated pa|>er in the West; the Daily Columbian, the Daily Capital City Fact, of Columbus ; and a large number of weekly papers. The reli gions press have also Itorne a strong testimony against the measure Mr. Reemelin's great speech at oar late anti Nebraska meeting has Iteen published entire in the (gazette, and also translated into Ger man, and published in the VolkshloU, the lead ing German paper of this city. The Ohio Statenman claimed Mr. Pogh's election to the Senate as a Nebraska triumph. A large numlter of Democratic members in lioth Houses have ?trongly resented this an nouncement, and have given the Statesman to understand that they will allow no such con struction to lie put on that election Mr. Pugh. it is understood is not committed on that ques tion, and irtands ready to follow what shall seein to lie the voice of the People. Mr. Pugh was the leading spirit in the Legpilature that elected Mr. Chase, and repealed the Ohio black laws. If Judge Douglas regards Mr. Cheae7* election as a corrupt bargain, he will be com- , polled to have one-of these 44corrupt bargain era" as his associate, in the person of Mr. Pugh Anti-Nebraska resolutions are now under discussion in our Legislature Mr. Follett, Democratic Senator from Lick ing ooontf. has made an able speech against Douglas's hill. Mr Sherman. Free Democrat ic Senator from Ashtabula, has delivered a powerful speech on the qoention. It is repre sented by men of all parties as one of the ablest speeches that has tieen delivered in the Ohio Senate for years Mr Sherman is a man who is destined to make his mark in Ohio. Yonrs, kc? K. P. 8. A large meoting of the I democracy of this oity is tn he held at Greenwood Hall, next Friday evening, to protest against the Nebras ka bill. A call is in circulation, numermisly signed, and eminent Democratio speakers are invited. American Citizenship?'The Secretary of Stale, in answer to an interrogatory prd^ound ed to him on a pant of American eitixenship, gives hie opinion " that every person born in the United States must he considered a eitir.en of the United States, notwithstanding fM at U>tli nf his parents may have been alien at Mm j time of his birth. This is in na&irmity with the KngKsh common law, which law is gene , rally acknowledged in this ennntry. And a person horn of alien parents, it is presumed would he considered a natural-born citixen of the United State*, in the language of the Con 1 stitutoon, so as to make him eligible to the a lj ?f rrwpuwpf So, aooording to Mr. Mercy, native horn black* are oitasene, after all ?Ed Em, tE^""Ths Daily Era can bo bad every morning at the Periodical Stand of Mr. J. T. Batms, 101 change, Philadelphia; alao, the Weekly lira. 0&~ Mr. Jam its Ki.i.iott in authorized to receive and receipt tor ouhaeriptioui and advertiveuienta for the Daily and tt^e Weekly Naiimial Era, in Cincin nati and vicinity. WASHINGTON, D. C. THURSDAY, MARCH 23, 1854. HOW IT WILL WOBK?A GLAMCK AT THE FUTURE. Let uh suppose that, the anti alien clause of tho Nelmukti Kill having t?een stricken out, the measure haH patuted both Houses of Con gross, received the sanction of the President, and^teoome a law. Now, says the slaveholder, we shall have poaoe. i'hero will be no more Congressional intervention with Slavery. The vexed question is excluded from the halls of representation. There is an end of agitation. A word on that point, says the Northern man. Your cherished principle is Non-Inter vention by Congress with the subject of Sla very?to tho States and to tho Territories that question is committed. Wo shall hold you to this principle. To maintain it when its appli cation suits your convenience or interest, and deny it when it may work to our benefit, will not answer. There must be no discrimination. The principle, without qualification, you have asserted and established?wtyhall not permit you to qualify or limit its legitimate conse quences. First, then, we demand tho repeal of the act of Congress of 1801-2, by which the slave code of Maryland was re enacted in this District. Slavery here rest^upon that code'; that code rests upon a special act of Congress; that aot is intervention with the question of Slavery, and the principle of Non-intervention requires its repeal. This demand we shall continue to urgo, and you shall have no peace till it be complied with. Seoondly. The Fugitive Slave Law of I860 is a clear violation of the principle. To tic States and to the Territories you have referred the ontire question of Slavery; we now agree in this reference. To say the least, the que? tion whether Congress has the power to legis late for tho reclamation of fugitive slaves, is just as doubtful as the quostion whether it has the right to legislate for Territ)rios. You take the grouud of atriot construction in the latter case; we take the same ground in the former; and, as yon have established the principle that Congress ought not to intervene in any form in regard to Slavery, we insist upon its application in the repeal of the Fugi tive Slave Law, a most odious act of Congres sional intervention. Let the States and the Territories regulate the matter of escaping slaves for themselves. Are they not quite as eapable of acting wisely in the premises as Congress t How dare you array yourselves against Popular Sovereignty and State Rights? ^ ou are anxious to exolude agitation from the Halls of Congress; but this cannot be done, so long as Congress shall persist in violating the prineiple of Non-intervention, by usurping the powers belonging to the States and the Territories over the subject of fugitives from Slavery. Thirdly. The law regulating the coastwise slave trade, prescribing the amount of tonnage in the vessels engaged in transporting slaves from one port to another of the United States, is a palpable violation of the Principle, and we shall give Congress no rest till it erase it from the Statute Book. Fourthly. The Laws abolishing the foreign Slave Trade, and making participation in that traffic by American citrons, piracy, are in clear violation of the Prinoiple. They inter fere wantonly with the domestio institutions of the Sooth, impliedly question tho humanity of the People of the Sooth, unjustly discriminate !?etween one kind of property and another, fasten a stigma upon, the klaveholding States,' are repugnant to Popular Sovereignty and State rights. The subject is one belonging exclusively to the States and Territories, and should be left with tbcm to deal with seed ing to their own judgment It is a fair pre sumption that they understand best what their own dignity and welfare demand Carry out your Principle of Non-intervention, and repeal these obnoxious Laws Lot the State or Ter ritory decide for itself whether it will import or exclude slaves This the Prineiple of Non intervention requires. Fifthly. As the subject of Slavory in the Territories of the Union is excluded from Con grew. we shall commence agitation among the People, whom your aet empowers to form and regulate their institutions, In their own way We are aware that by inserting the proviso "*?hject to the Cnnntitntion of the United Staleyou covertly intended to prevent them from excluding Slavery. But there are two sides to that question. The Northern men who joined yon in pairing the Hill, held that the Proviso imposed no disability upon the inhabit ants of a Territory, in relation to Slavery, for a law eicluding it would not lie repugnant to the Constitution of the United States. That is just what we think. We, Northern Psople, numbering some fourteen millions of freemon, while yon, Slaveholders, oount not more than three hundred thousand heads, hold that the Federal Constitution doe* not oarry Slavery with it, or that you have the right, in virtne of it, to take your slaves into United State* Terri tory, or that the Territorial legislatures will violate that instrument by excluding your alaves You told us that the Principle of Non Intervention was established?that the Peoplo of a Territory wore to have tho right to form ?nd regulate their own institutions Very well?we take you at your word, and shall pro ceed according to the only fair construction of the aot, to laltor for the exclusion of Slavery from every foot of United States 'Territory. W ith a large and enterprising free population, receiving an accession yearly of some three or four hundred thousand Slavery-hating people lr.?m abroad, we intend, to take possession of the Territories, plant Frea Lalw>r in them, and agitate till we succeed in establishing laws for the perpetual prohibition of Slavery. We shall not limit our e nterprise to the northern por tioos of such I erritoricH, but go below as well as al*?ve the line of M dag 30 ?,jn. Before the passage of this act, we Mt somewhat restrain ed by an implied uuderetanding that the I er ritory Mow 36 deg. 30 min. wan to be surren dered to t?l*ve lubor j but thin act reloaaoH uu from any such restraint, by recognising the right of the People everywhere to determine and regulate their own institutions. 1 lie ooun try west of Arkansas, a large portion ol 1 exas, and the tract of land your Gadsden Treaty proposes to buy at an enormous prioe, for dis union purposes, will all wen a wide field for Anti-Slavery agitation atul free labor institu tutions. Your policy is, by this Principle of Non-1 n terveutiorf, to extinguish agitation against Sla very, hem in and paralyse free labor institu tions, and extend the area and augment the power of Slavery. We will show you that Non-intervention has two sides to it. You trample upon all compromises?no restraint imposed by the wisdom of our I1 atbers on the ex tension of Slavery, will you regard overy compact, by which, in consideration ot certain concessions to Slavery, certain advantages were to be secured to Freedom, you have swept away. Wo we thus releasod from all hono rary obligations j you force upon us a naked struggle, band to hand, between Proe Labor and $lave Labor, betweon Freedom and Sla very, between Northern Power and tho Slave Power, and the scene of that struggle is to be tho Ternary of the United States. We take up the gauntlet?look to yourselves?God defend the rightJ We shrink not, Bay the Slaveholders. We control the Administration, and the Adminis tration appoints the Governor, who can veto the will of any majority of the Territorial Legislature, less than two-thirds j also the judges, who will havo the right to decide on tke constitutionality of its acts. Agitate as nuch as you please, you will first havo to ovor jome the veto preragotive of our Governor ; and, should you succeed in this, baffle the vigil ance apd acumen of our Judges. And depond upon it, we shall always take care to have Governors and Courts that will carry out our views of the Constitution. That is tho game, is it? replies our Northern friend. You bring baok the agitation, then, from the Territories to the States, and conoen trato it at Washington. What you moan, then, by yoar Prinoiple. is, Non-Intervention by the Federfcl Legislature, not Non-intervention by ! the Federal Executive. You intend to thrust ' this Slavery Question into National politics, as a basis of Party, as a bond of union between you aid your allies, as a test of fitness for the ; Presidency. As you will?here, too, we will 1 meet you. Since you intend to fill the Presi dency with a man pledged to baffle the will of the People of the Territories, to appoint for th?m Governors and Judges who will prevent them from excluding Slavery, and forming their ovn domestic institutions to Buit themselves, we wil intend just the contrary. We will go for Non-intervention out and out. We will make it the issue of every election for the Presidency On our banners we will inscribe, Non Interven tion by Congress or tke Federal Executive with Slavery in ike Territories?election of Temto. rial Governors and Judges by tke People : or, if this should not suit you, we will seek to fill the Presidential Chair with a man pledged so to constitute the Executive and Judioial depart ments of the Territories, as to allow full and free oourw to the will of the Peoplo. What say you, gentlemen ? How do you like this exhibition of the workings of your fa vorite Principle of Non Intervention ? What a miserable dslmrion?that it will relieve you I from agitation! Turn this agitation out of Congress, and you have only aroused it in the Territories; sod your efforts to arrest it there, only bring it back to Washington, to shake the Federal Executive, and involve National Politics. The truth is, Slavery and Democracy are eternal antagonisms, and the attompt to har monixe them in one system, to equable them, must forever prove an al>ortion. What one gains, the other loses laws operating to the benefit of one must damage the other. H is imposmble in one system of Govern ment to pursue a policy which shall equally promote the mterests of free labor and the in terests of slave labor which shall carry for ward, fori passu, the power and influence of the men who work for themselves, and the men who iqake others work for them. The incorporation of*two elements so fundament ally opposite in nature, generating habits so different, wants so variant, and demanding policies so directly hostile to each other, must engender perpetual strife, dissension, and agi tation. Each will be forever striving for the mastery, and the struggle can bo decided only by easting out one or the other. So long M the slaveholders insist upon making the General Government responsible for Slavery and subservient to it, in its fundamental law? the Constitution?in its statute laws, in its jo dicial decisions, in its diplomaoy, there will be and there ought to be, political Anti Sla very agitation. They can havo rest from Mich agitation, only by consenting that the idea of Liberty shall be supreme in the Fede Val Government, in all its Departments, in all its action, and Slavery b? limited to the States in which it exists, completely divorced from the Federal Power, asking nothing from it, and never seeking to use it for its sectional purposes _ THE GADtDK* T*KATY There are rumors that this treaty, now under discussion in the Senate, has given ri?-e to a very heated discussion. Some of the stanch supporters of the Administration havo rebelled against it General Shields, it is said, com menoed, yesterday, a strong speech in opposi tion. From what we can gather, we inter that the Treaty is associated with, schemes for a dissolution of the Union, and that, such revela tions have been made in ooonc etion with it, oh to startle and offend even the most subservient of Northern men. We have long believed that under oolor of this Treaty the United States Treasury was to be plundered to promote some dark scheme of Southern nnlliflers, involving, with other matters, a Southern roote to the Pacific for a great railway. Time will deter mine * ? Mr. Win Mathiot died in a fit of apoplexy, in Lancaster, last Saturday evening. The legislature of I<o?Msana hare appropri ated ten thousand dollars for the onconrage 1 ment of s^ip building in that State THK VOTE OH THB REFERENCE OF THE HE BRABlfA BIT. The advocates of the Bill do not appear to be disheartened. They do not regard the vote referring it to the Committee of the Whole on the wtate of the Union, an decisive. Nor do we, and for reasous explained yesterday. There iti great danger of over-oonfidenoe among the opponents of the Bill. Some, we observe, thinking everything is secure, have gone home for a season to their constituents or families. We hope no mischief may happen?but they should romembor that the patfe-age of the Bill is a matter of life or death with its projectors? that the whole reputation and politioal future of its authors are staked upon it?that the Administration is using all its power in its be half?that the Southern members, with a few exceptions, arc desperately bent upon it. The House Bill on the same subject is the twentieth on the Calendar. A majority may lay aside one after another of the intervening bills, and reach that, before peoplo are aware of it. Nothing will be easier then than to move the Senate Bill as an amendment, or sub stitute?and, if our friends arc at home, at tending to their business or oomforts, the same majority may resolve to terminate debate on tho Bill in Committee, and take it out. Ab sence at such a orisis, unless necessary, ought not to be thought of?and it seems to us that no opponent of the Bill, under any circumstan ces, should absent himself, without taking the precaution to pair off with a supporter of it. C0H0RE8S. The Senate is not now the focus of attrac tion. It went into Executive session at an early hour to-day, and thg results of its labors in such cases may often be known by the peo ple, when they discover ? that Executive en croachments but tend to lighten the labors of their legitimate legislators. When vast re gions of territory may be obtained by pur chase, the negotiations are conducted in secret, and the people's money is so used, with or without their assent. When they oannot be so obtained, "American blood is soon spilled upon American soil," or a steamer with a defective manifest is sent abroad, and then the sovereign people, under the rule of austere military com manders, are kindly permitted to, fight for a peace, and an incidental and unavoidable an nexation of territory. In tho House of Representatives to-day, Mr. Millson made an ingenious speech, chiefly in opposition to the Badger Proviso. He was followed by Mr. Hunt, the able and dignified Representative from Louisiana, who took posi tion in favor of preserving the Missouri Com promise and the Faith of the Nation. DEATH OF MAJOR H0BB1E Major Selab R. Hobbie died this morning at his residence in this City. From the period of General Jackson's aoqpsion to the Presi dency to the monfent of Bis death, Major Hob. bie was almost uninterruptedly in the service of the Post Office Department, as an Assistant Postmaster General, or in some other position of high responsibility. Hia services to the country while thus engaged always merited the commendation of his countrymen. As a citi zen and a gentleman, and in all the relations of life, be has ever been respected, and his memory will long be cherished in kindnetv by the people of this community, in the mid*t of whioh so many years of his life were passed. Capitol, March 23, 1854. Hkar Sir : I would be pleased if you would oorrect a statement in your paper, that I was amongst the absentees or dodgers on the refer ence of the Nebraska bill, as I think yon will find my name recorded on every vote, or at least it should be. Respectfully, yours, Jno. McCulloch. Dr. (*. Hailey. We are happy to oorrect our errors. The name of Mr. McCulloch is recorded in favor of the reference of the Bill to the Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union. Ed. Era |COMMUmrATKD.| MRS ERNESTINE L. ROSE We have been informed that, owing to tho unfavorable state of the weather last evening, Mrs. Rose postponed her lecture on the politi cal and legal rights of woman until Friday evening, the 24th inntant A correspondent of the Boston Liberator, in alluding to the Woman's Kights Convention recently held at Albany, makes the following remark relative to one of her speeches: " Mrs. Ernestine I, Ro?c made the closing address?a most noble and powerful effort. I never saw an audience more absorbed in their attention, more hearty in their applause, more subdued at times in their feelings, more oarried onward and upward by the exalted sentiments of the speakor." We hope our eititens will give this lady a good hearing. We understand that she has extended an invitation to the members of Coo- j gress. Ciibck or theNkrraska Bii.l.?Every true republican will be rejoiced to learn that the nefarious plot for extending Slavery to the Northern frontier of this Republic has sustain ed a serions check. The object of its friends was to pr<?cure its reference to the C?immittee on Territories, a majority of which has been gained to its support. Mr. Riohardson, of Illi nois, introduced it yosterday afternoon, and moved its reference to that committee An amendment ww offered by Mr. Cutting. (Hard Shell,) of New York, that it be referred to the Committee of the Whole on the stato of the Union. This amendment prevailed, by a ma jority of sixteen ! V* c may now regard the bill as safely laid up, for at least a couple of months It has many and determined enemies ; and to throw it int?S Committee of the Whole, where all amendments are in order, is like referring a doubtful reputation to a bevy of tea drinking old ladies, or tosting a hare in the midst of a psck of hounds. If the bill emerges as it went in, it will be ono of the world's wonders. Philculelphm Register. The steamer Blaek Warrior is owned most ly in Mobil*, bnt partly in New York, and is j worth some SI 25,000. Spain has eleven hundred guns in the im mediate vicinity of Havana, and eighteen thou- I sand men. | The yachl America, which woo such tri- j uraphs in sailing, is advortised to be sold in I.ondon in April, at anotion. Susan Nipper says the Russians have an awful responsibility resting on them for killing the Turks?for every Turk who is killed leavw a doren widows. SANTA ANNA AND HIS KM PIRN Santa Anna, it U .aif ha. ?n? anorder* M??? Am?s tho great ?-?? of Springfield, Massachusetts, for two hundred guns, of from ten to fifteen Ld that the paymentof the order^thwh, of course, include- the supply of a vast.am onnt of ammunition, musketry, revobew. &c ie to be made oontipgent on the parage of the tads den treaty ?Exchange. So that Santa Anna's ability to maintain a Government of foroed authority and tyranny, depends upon our supplying him with the means. It is thus we extend tho area of free dom! On this subject, the North American re marks : ? Every arrival from the land of Montezuma and Pizarro brings fresh rumors of the mpe- , rial preparations of Santa Anna. H j intelligence be true, the event is a contingency resting not upon the dangers of opposition of I a domestic nature?for none snob ?*e appre hended or firobable?but upon the raUtioation ; of the Gadsden treaty by the United * tate.^ It seems that 'His serene highness has the whole affair out and dried beforehand, but he has reached the bottom of the national troas urv?at all times an exceedingly shallow one? and he is at his wit's end for the means of carrying out his plans, without endangering , the stability of his power. Even the taxation which is rendered absolutely nccessary ^ the suDDort of any Government is paid grudgmg ly, and occasions a cloud of dwsatwfactaon among 'His serene highness'*' Bubjects But if he can get from the Treasury of the United States the money which the Gadsden treaty calls for, he will be enabled to fulfil his inten tion of self-aggrandizement, and convert the Mexican republic into an empire. ? This gives rise to tbe question. Ought we to be the agents of his designs ? The Gadsden treaty is at best of doubtful value, and gives an enormous sum of money for a comparative ly limited extent of territory, which is at pres ent not only utterly valueless to Mexico, but very costly to her, on account of the warlike character of its Indian tribes and their con tinual depredations upon the white settlemente. It would be more proper for the Mexican Gov ernment to pay us for ridding that nation of the burden of defending Buoh a region, than for us to pay for its acquisition. 1he sum of money, too, is sufficient 10 pay tor much more territory, if that be the great consideration. It is equal to the cost of the vast Louisiana pur chase?a fact which speaks for itself againBt the treaty, without needing any comment. Another item of recent news deserves to be borne in mind. It is to the effeot that Santa Anna purposes compensating Mexioo for the loss of her northern possessions by the seizure of the States of Central America. Divided and distracted as are those feeble Republics, it is altogether improbable that they could offer any formidable resistance to such an army as Santa Anna would have it in his power to send against them: for, with the money to bepaid by the United States under the Gadsden treaty, he oould pay his troops in such a way as would secure him any required number of men. Moreover, the intelligence comes from Central America itself, where it is said that the plan ! of annexation finds many adherents. Among others who are alleged to be in the plot, we find the name of Genoial Carrera, the Dictator of Guatemals, and tho ablest commander yet produced by Central America. It seems ex traordinary that such a man, who is believed to be absolute within his own Slate, should join in a scheme which would render him a subject and inferior of Santa Anna; but such strange combinations occur in these Spanish Amerinan countries, that it is difficult to tell what to believe and what to disbelieve.^ His power may be failing in his own State, or Santa Anna may have held out strong inducements to him. ? ... ? One thing is certain?that this scheme, it eucoessful, will prove seriously detrimental to the interest of the United States. One of the routes for shortening tbe travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans passes, in its whole extent, through Central America^ With Mexioo in possession of this and the Tehuante- , pec route, we should have no other approach toour own Paoific possessions at the present time, except across Panama, or around Capo Horn, or tUugh the perils of the great West em wilderness It does not seem at all improb able that Santa Anna will attempt the exeou tion of this conquest; for if the Gadsden treaty be ratified, he must havo something to oHaet the loss of territory he thus permits and to preserve his popularity among the Mexican people. Without the aid with which that treaty will furnish him, his power will proba bly not last longer than six months as the in surrections in various quarters of the country plainly indicate. But with it, be will be able to import foreign mercenaries, and to all such outbreaks A former Dam??cratie Ad ministration admitted him into Mexioo in the hope of using him against his country, and sadly did he disappoint their expectations An other Democratic Administration seems now to be trying its hand with him again, and with a similar prospect of success. His fertility in expedients of every description does not appear to l*e sufficiently understood or appreciated by our present rulers - . j WHOSE OFFSPRING IS IT? The Richmond Enqmkr denies the Demo cratic paternity of the Homestead bill, whioh gives no home to a colored man. It says We observe a disposition on the part of the Whig press of the State to represent the Home stead bill as a Democratic measure. How lit tie foundation there is for this assumption. , will appear from an analysis of tho vote both on the proposition to lay the bill on the table and on its passage: Vole to Lay on the Table.?Yeas?hemoorat* 46, Whigs 15, Independent 1? total 62. Na\s?D^nocrats 77, Whigs 43, Free Soil 4?total 12C Vote on the PaMtg* of the Hill.?} oa?? Dem ocrats 70, Whigs 37?total 107. Nays? Democrats 52, Whigs 18, Free Soil 4, Independent 1?total 72. It is thus shown that the proportion of Whig rotes for the bill is groater than the proportion of Democratic votes. We have but little hope of the defeat ot the bill. The conservatism of the Senate will hard ly reject so plausible an appeal to popular pas sion King Caucus js no longer monarch; the more soft, subtle, and persuasive ' "?ee ot Demagoguism now reigns supreme in tho prov ince of politics. . * 4t is barely possible that the measure may lie arrested by Executive veto. - The treaty mnde with the Indians has been sent in* the Senate for ratification It *? un- [ derstood that in this treaty the Indians have stipulated that, should any one of their nnm bet be guilty of using l.uuorsto j exoess his annuity should be withheld from him until he had reformed. If this provision can be carried oot, it will have a decided ten dency to prevent drunkenness among them. ' Daily Globe. Tha above is a practical application of the Maine law . and tf the provision is faithfully carried oot, it no doubt ' will have a decided tendency to prevent drunkenness ' ^ ? poor Indian*" The fact that the stipulation origiruiftd with the Indian* j New York Commercial Advertmr. From the Philadelphia Daily Kegimer. DAVID PAUL BBOWN OK THE MI8SOUHI QUEtriOH. I hirty-throe yearn ago, the most generous hearts of our nation were heating high with desire to prevent the dishonor of our country l?y the extension of Staiary. The same argu ments were urged then that aro urged now, and with eloquent earnestness. Philadelphia!* wwre then an now, brave in defence of our re publican honor. In an old volume of the National Magazine, we find a speech made in 1820 bv David Paul Brown, Esq., of our oity Most of it is appropriate to our own times, and the whole sounds like a Senatorial speech of our own day on the Nebraska bill. The fol lowing extraot shows that the orator had a prophetic soul: " Bat," Bay the advooates of Slavery, " the poison is not strengthened by being diluted ; it matters not whether the slaves are in Virginia, Georgia, or in Missouri; or over what extent of country they may be spread?the number is still the same." It matters much, I apprehend. It inflicts another and a cureless wound upon our national oharacter; it invites invidious for eign Powers to deeoant largely upon our re publican theory and practical despotism; hot indejKjndent of all this, the opposite argument is utterly illusory, fallacious, and unfounded. I be importation of slaves will increa-e in pro portion to onr demands for them, like that of all other merchantable commodities. Their souls and sinews will be worth more, as the neocfcsitios for their services are enlarged; and their enhanoed value, though it may not " buy ?.u' ?ke law," will induce muny to venture it's violation, and at 4east enable some with impu nity to escape. If, with the present temptations to this ne farious traffic, the General Government ac knowledges its inability to suppress it, would it not be madness to hope to extenuate or sub duo the enormity by offering it a legal pass port a wider shelter, and a richer reward ? But it is not morely the increase of slaves that is to bo dreaded?it is the influence of Slavery. Territories and new States aro gonorally peo pled with emigrants and adventurors from all parts of the world, and particularly from the old States ; who, in the course of time, swayed by example and interest, those two great in centives to human aotion, and losing sight of their conscientious Bcruples, if any they ever possessed, become tinotured with local preju dices, and, consequently, exert every faculty and nerve in support of this growing and groaning curse. Hence, the suggestion that the distribution of the slaves now in the Uni ted States oould produoe no greater moral or politioal injury than their continuance in their present situation, is erroneous. The British Flkkts.?The war prepara tions in Great Britain are on the most exten sive soale. On the 4th of March there were anchored at Portsmouth fifteen ships, carrying 800 guns, and more were collecting. Thirteen ships were also expected to rendezvous imme diately at Spithead. All have thoir foil com plement of men, and at the last dates wcrp busily engaged in artillery practice. The "Duke of Wellington," a threo-decker of 130 guns, is to be Admiral Napier's flag-ship. The victualling of the fleet was going on rapidly, and all leaves of absence had been prohibited. The letter-writerB speak in warm terms of the gunnery. In one ease?that of the Dragon? they hit the bull'e-eye twice with their eighty four pounders, and struck the target several times, and fiL ally shot it away, at a distance *of 800 yards. The reader may infer from all this, what may be expected in the event of a conflict.. BV THE MORNING'S MAIL. New Hampshire Election. Concoro, March 22.?The New Hampshire Patriot claims the election of 160 Democrats to 145 opposition members. It concedes, how ever, that several members, claimed as Demo crats, were elected in opposition to the regu lar Democratic nominations. The positive po sition of parties will not be accurately aiiccr tained until the meeting of the Legislature. Fudge! The Concord Democrat hoc exposed this game.?Ed. Erv. y Prohibitory Liquor Law. Albany, March 22?The Maine Law, or Prohibitory Liquor Bill, goes into effect on the l?t ?f May. The members from New York city stated that it might possibly t>e enforced ir\Jht* rural districts, but that it would not be re garded and oould not be enforced in the city of New York. We shall see ! Fatal Railroad Occident. Albany, March 22?The down trsin from Buffalo, when at Syracuse, ran at full spei d upon a side track, pitching into an empty of cars. The engineer, and ??ne | aven ger, an Indian, were instantly killed The tire man was badly injured, and the cart- demol ished. The accident was owing to the enre lesaness of the switch tendor. Massachusetts Whig Convention. Boston, March 22.?The Whig Conw-ution met at Sandwich to day, and nominated I'hos. D. Elliott, of Now Bedford, to Congress, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Zaao Seodder. The Convention pasted strong Anti-Nebraska resolutions. Judiciary Nomination. Boston, March 22?David T. Granger,.of Kastport, has been nominated far Justice of the Supreme Court of Maine, in pluue of Judife Weller, resigned Liquor Hill Passed. Harrisburu, March 22?The Prohibitory Liquor bill (mssed the House t t-day, by a tote of SO to 44, The improsMon is that it will pass the Senate. Clerical Interference.?In looking over some portion of our Bevolutionary history, we see that the Massachusetts* Provincial Cim; refS in 1774, composed of such men as Warren, and Adams, and Hancock, sent an addrrvs to all the clergymen in the t'rovince, calling op<.n them, as the friends of eivil and religion* liber ty, to do all in their power to sustain the cant* of freedom, and so secure to the people their rights. And the ^rgy, from a nwe of duty to their fellow meff and to their (intt, did exert their influence in favor of freedom anil againnt oppression ? Hanton Atia*. ? Cream upon milk is altout the only article which has not risen of late. There are upwards of five thousand more females than males in the city of Boston. Kggs are Si a do*en in Honolulu, squashes M) cents a-pieee, and I fish potatoes #3 50 a bushel. The small pox is raging with great violence amongxt the Chippewa Indians along tho south shore of Lako Superior, and on the head waters of the Chippewa river. YOUNff MM Or KNTICR I'M IRK, IjV>R onlv $1, yen can Recsij.?* for making the following anperinr Ink*, vl* Blaek, Bin*, Red, ami Indelible. Also, with th? al?ore, I wncl grnlit, to any one who wi?b??, a fall and complete list of Wanton * Ml, Bow man ? Xt, HuH'f, Bi*hop\ and Bhipman's, Receipt*, and Ways to Make Money Addr***, pent paid, M J COOK, ? Crawfordftvillc. Indiana N B. Agent*, with a capital of f .10 or SAO, waatml to travel. Feb 1