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OUK MONTHLY LONDON CORRESPONDENCE.
For tb? National Kra. ' THE AK1STOCRACY Of UOIAXB-HO. 3. [coNti.unan ) Tho student of English history who wishes U) liuvu.au accurate and comprehensive view of thin iiuportaut epoch, and of the causes of the civil war, mut* carefully weigh a variety of conflicting lacta, ho an to give to eaoh its due importance. It is a narrow appreciation oi the subject, to decide that this war terminated witli the ezeuutioD of Charles and the usurpation of Cromwell. Thoee events only marked a date in this protracted campaign, which much re sombled an armistice. The war, looking to it* cautes, only terminated in the revolution of 1688, wheu the Stuart dynasty wa< expelled, never to return. There was in thin eventful period no other aristooraoy than the aristocra cy of land; nor Ih this term to be limited to tho Peerage, for many Commoner* held larger e* tat<s and oould. boast of a more ancient pedi gree. There was then no mooeyocracy, no ' millocracy, no shonooracy. The influence of the Church had fallen; that of lawyers had in ore awed, especially in tho Legislature. There watt a coalition against the Crown. First stood the land owners, 'whoso desiro was to get rid of the feudal duet); then, thuee among them who held the confiscated lands of the Church, with wh< in the dread of Popery was a mere pretext, . their anxiety being to retain becuie possession of the abbeys, priories, monastio aores, and the im propriated tithes: these were joined by the really pious aud conscientious members of the Anglican ritual, aud the membeisof dissent ing denominations; the lawyers, tenacious of constitutional rules and precedents, thiew iheii weight into the scale. The groat body of cho people coubted as nothing in this controversy, which, in all its main features, was an urisio cratio protest against a badly-defined preroga live. It was the Tudors who had prepared the scaffold of Charles I, and expelled James II j from the kingdom. _ Sir Thomas Smith, who was one of the prin cipal Secretaries of State to King Edward VI I and Queen Elizabeth, thus describes the pres sure of the feudal obligation on the ownors of ' real propei ty: " When the-father is dead, who has the nat ural oare of his child ? Not the mother, no the uncle, nor the next of kin, who by all r< son would have most natural oare for t bringing up of tho infant and minor, hut tl.< lord of whom lieholdeth his land in the knight ear vice, be it the King or Queen, Duke, Mar qui ?, or any other, has the government of his body and marriage, or else who that bought him at the fln?t, second, or third hand. The Prince, as having to many, must needs give or sell his ward* away to others ; and so he does Othets do but seek whioh way they may make most advantage of him, as of an ox or other beast. These all (*ay they) have na natural oare of the infant, but of their own gain ; and c specially the buyer will not suffer his ward to take any great pains either in study or in any <*her hardness, lest bo should be sick and die, before he has manied his daughter, Bister, or cousin, for whouo sake he bought him, and then all his money which he paid for him should lie lost. So he who bad a father whioh kopt a good house, and had all things in good order to maintain it, shall oomo to bis own, after he is out of wardship, woods decayed, bouses fallen down, stock wasted and gone, lands letiorth. and ploughod to be barren, and, to make amends, shall pay yet one year's rent, for re- j lief, and sue ouster h maine, besides other charges, so that not of many years, and perad vonture never, he shall be able to recover, and come to his estate, whore his father left it." This was the great grievance of the landed proprietors, and is intimately connected with the civil war and tho Restoration; and the terms of the Restoration clearly prove this p<v sition, though it is taken into small aooount by general historians. The abolition of feudalism had been mooted under James I, when a plan for commuting the feudal conditions and inci dents into a ?' competent yearly rent, to be as sured to his Majesty, his heirs, aad successors," was agitated, and of which Lord Coke has pre served a detailed account in the fourth part if his Institutes Suffice it here to state that this schi me was formally submitted to Parliament in the 18th James 1, when the King's feudal rights were estimated at .?200,000 annually, which amounted to nearly one-half of the whole revenue, theti computed at ?450,863 It evidently formed the main design of the Par liament which framed the petition of right, as was in fact the principal, though not the only, cause of the rebellion, and the reason why that rebellion was supported by so many members cf the aristocracy. In the reign of Charles I, tho feudal rights of the Crown were strictly insisted on and levied, and great dimntisfaction was occasioned by an attempt to tevive the anciont laws of the forests A^ourt was held almost every year by the Earl of Holland, as chief justice 10 eyre ; and as no prescription oould be |>lead ed against the Kings title, the resumption of lands, whioh had formed part of the royal for ests. made groat ha von with private property. Oliver Cromwell levied the feudal dues with r'Kor. and thus provoked the secret hostility of the land-owners. During the nineteen years ol the Commonwealth, ?83,331,198 wero raised by taxes, or, one year with another, ?4,385,850, which was nearly five times the amount raised during the rei^n of Charles 1; and one halt of it was raisod by various contributions from the land. We arrive at the Restoration of Charles 11, aod the great event thatooourred is conclusive evidence that the feudal does lay at the root of the rebellion, and show that from the date of the Parmoa or Rit.ht down to tho Resto ration, one oontinued policy had been actod upon by the territorial aristocracy, or, at least, by its dominant members. Ft appears, from the journals of the House of Commons, that the original intention was to commute rather than abolish the feudal revenues, substituting for them a fixed annual assessment, in the na ture of a rent charge?thus getting rid of all that was vexatious, doubtful, or subsidiary; and an apportionment had actually been made on several counties. Hut the land-owners gained courage wheu they reflected that the exiled Kiog was at the>r mercy, and demanded the oomplate abolition of the taxes paid, as the ooodition on whioh their held their estates It was, accordingly, moved in the Convention Par "????*> that an ,4aot bo passed, taking the court of ward* and liveries, and ten urns in tapitt, and by knight service, and pnrveyam 0 aud lor settling a revenue upon his Maiestv in lie-i thereof.' 3 ^ substituted revenue was an excise on beer, ale, eider, aod honey, and is the origin oi indirect taxation as a general and permanrnt system But it was not carried without a rig- ! oroos opposition Mr. Annenley said that if tfco hill were carried, "every man who earned hie hraod io the sweat of hie brow must pay exoine, to exeme the oonrt of wards, which wool* ho a greater griev&noe npon all than tho court of wards was to a few." Mr B Pryae* protested against the excise, urging %? it was not fit to make all housekeepers luM m taptfe, aad to free the nobility, and in wifHH pasaionataly against the exoim. Mr. KaasAald was against a tax on lands in raptif. ( Sir Th?mas Cfarges was also against the ox tries, ?taung that the rebellion in Naples came from imposition* and excises. The debate was en dad by Stirjaaot Maynard and Mr Trevor, who both spoke jn favor of an excise, though the latter observed that he only accepted it he ?au4e it l?Mf*d the oourt of wards The Htose divided, when there appeared 15# against i4?; aod than, by a bare majority of , ten vote*, the old feudal monarchy was sub verted, and the territorial arutocraoy made the first great stride towards becoming an oligar chy. ! Ah a remarkable proof of the selfishness of the Legislature, it nhould be noted that the excise only applied to the articles enumerated, when sold: ho that what the li^d-owners browed in their own houses for their family consumption wan untaxed. It should alno be noted that this commutation did not discharge copyholds from thoir oppressive burdens; for it was resolved, in a case judicially decided after the revolution, that the Statute 12, Car. 2, c. 24, did not extend to copyholds the reason assigned being, that if it did, "it might be very prejudicial to lords of manors." This act, the price paid by Charles II for his restoration, was one of the must wholesale and nefarious robberies ever perpetrated with the sanction of a legislative assembly. Had it merely commuted' a fluctuating in a fixed-rent charge, still payable by the soil, and abolished all that was up just or vexatious in its mode of assesMncnt, the measure would have been wor thy of praise; but it did not procotd on any such equitable principle; quite the contrary, it frumed an equivalent, to be received by the Crown, for the immemorial rights it had sur rendered, out of the pockets of the peoplo, and compelled all who consumed excisable articles, the great body of the working classcB, who had no land, to discharge for all future time those payments which the land had always owed. We shall see this policy further developed, when we arrive at the Revolution of 1(>88. J. D. Thk Late Major Hobbik.?This gentleman | was born at Newburgh, New Vork, on the 10th of March. 1797, and died rt the ago of fifty seven. At an early day ho established himself at Delhi, 1 Delaware county, in tho practice of the law, where he married a daughter of the distinguished General Root, with whom he was connected in business. He was earl y com missioned District Attorney and Krigade Mujor and Inspector, iu both of which capacities he acquitted himself with distinguished ability aud success. Ho was elected to Congress in the fall of 1828, while yet a young man. He was appointed Assistant Postmaster General on tho accession of General Jackson to the Presidency, iu 1829. To his skill, judgment, nd perseverance, the 1'ost Office Department a much of its success during tho last twen ty five years. His sevore and unremitting la l>ors impaired his health, aud in 1850 he vol untarily retirod from office. Relaxation and quiet somewhat restored him. On President Pierce's coming'into office, he consented to ro sumo tho duties of First Assistant Postmaster General. His strength was unequal to the labors of the position, and he soon sank under them. In his intercourse he was easy,, frank, and oandid. These qualities, added to his ex tensive knowledge in matters of business, made him a most popular public officer. He was esteemed and beloved by all his friends. As a husband and a father he was devoted, kind, and atteotionato; as a Christian he was exem plary, sincere, and confiding. A Cai.amitous Year.?In lees than three months, uearly a thousand lives have been lost, in the United Statos or on its coasts, by disas ters of various kinds Beginning with the shipwreck of tho Nan Francisco and the ex plosion of the cartridge factory at Ravenswood. calamity hassuceoeded calamity, until tho sink ing of tho Avery and the catastrophe of tho Reintiear wind up the tragioal catalogue. For years past, these disasters have been steadily increasing, and increasing not only in number, but in fatality?this, too, Iu face of improve ments in mechanics, and of a more correct un derstanding of the value of human life. Every where we see the carelessness whieh is the real cause of theee disasters. Formerly it was oon fined to our Western waters, and to worn-out steamboats; but now we have it East as well as West, and on railroads and in faotorios as well as on stpam boats. Jt is a catalogue? that thousand lives?to make one shudder. Philadelphia Evening Bulletin. Thk Law Murkf.tr?It is said that the sale of 200,000 inufcketri was made to certain revo lutionary capitalists in London, in preparation for the explosion of democracy on the Conti nent^ a<i noon an France and England shall have been actively engaged with Kuma. Over $1,000,000 have been paid for them ; and Geo. Sanders's commission will be $100,000, and George Law's profits probably $500,000. Dr. Willum Ki.dkr?According to tbe forenh ado wings of several of our exchangee, we are noon to have two volumos of this gentle man's miscellaneous writings This is good news. They cannot ocme too soon. A very respectable part of the reading public stand ready to welcome mich a collection of brilliant* an tbe forthcoming volume* may be expected to contain. Df. Elder may be properly called, what many other* have been very improperly railed, a Remus He in a genius, and ne in always u genius?catch him whero you will, by I he road-eide, in hie study, drawing-room, on the platform, or with hie pen, he is sure to snatch flaming thought* from tho dul! sur ronndings. which, but for him, like the fire in the flint, would have remained unobserved. The4)octor is emphatically a bright man, and, better'still, a just and l>enevolent man. His writings overflow with genuine goodness, as well as sparkle with genuine wit. We shall lo4k for his book, as for another auxiliary in aid of the causa of humanity and liberty. Frederick Douglas's Paper. From the New York Tribune. HUMORS OF THE DAT. VVe have hitherto been too anxious and ap prehensive as to the fate of tbe Nebraska bill, to enjoy or indulge in pleasantries concerning it; but the sudden lighting up of tho horizon, caused hy the decisive vote of the House which sends the abomination to the Committee of tho Whole, impels a livelier mood, wherein we gladly hail such sparkles as the following: "John Brown, ferryman/' writes to the edit or regularly favored with his correspondence as follows: ' IV S.?1 understood you to say the other day, in the Evening tost, that tho President was in favor of leaving the snb jnct of Slavery in Nebraska to the settlers. Will you please to inform me wluthrr the New Hampshire elec tion it one of the ' settlers' he refers to ? " And this from the New Hampshire Telegraph (Nashua) is some: '? After appearances began to indioate that the Democracy had got a pretty severe drub bing at the late election, one of the I'd terrified wss explaining the ranee to another, and at tributed it to the Nebraska hill. 'The Ne braska bill/ said the intelligent sovereign? ' there's money enough in the treasury ? why don't they pay the d~?d thing, and have it out of the way ''" A Flourishing Party ? Our State elected twenty two members of this Congress to sus tain the present Administration ; ont of whieh number the sum total of Mike Walsh mus tered in solid column yesterday to put through the Nebraska bill. Wasn't that Cutting1 The Wastern papers give gloomy aoconntsof the growing wheat crops In Southern Miehi Bn, the complaint i? general that the wheat >ks sere and faded. In many parts of Ohio the prospeA is represented as very unfavorable fur even an average crop. The amounts from Southern Ohio and Indiana are more favorable tt^The l>?iiy Era can bo hud every morning at the Periodical Stand of Mr. J. T. Bates, Kx chauge, Philadelphia; also, the Weekly Era. C?" Mr. Jam Kb Elliott i? authorised to receive aad receipt for sulitorijitious and advertiauuienU for the Daily and the Weekly National Era, in Cincin nati and vicinity. WASHINGTON, P. C. FRIDAY, MARCH *?, l?M. , r;r"*? i?r^t:r;.rr,rrf1 PARTIES AND INTERESTS?THE PAST AND THE FUTURE When it became evident thut the great body of slavcholding members of the Senate and House of Representatives intended to sup port the bill for the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, it watt hoped by A nti-Slavery men that there might be no exceptions. Aware that oo-operation between the North ern and Southern sections of the old parties had always been scoured by the subservience of the former, that their union, as national organizations so called, had been maintained by an express or tacit recognition of the as cendency of Slavery, and that for these rea sons they presented the most formidable obsta cle to an organization, in an tfficient form, of the sentiment ol the North in favor of Free Labor and Free Institutions, they were not sorry when they saw the bond of union in the Whig and Democratic parties seriously threat ened by this repeal movement. While, there fore, they honor tho two Southern Senators who nobly opposed this movement, and the eight Southern members of the House who have manifested their hostility to it, on the ground, as we understand it, that it is against honor and good faith, they would have l>een quite as well satisfied, looking alone to politi cal conscquences, had tho Southern delegation j in both Houses presented an unbroken front in support of the Nebraska Bill. The North has been dehtded too long with the illnsiou of Nationality. It has bocn taught to regard Parties founded upon geographical distinctions as dangerous to the Union. Its Whigs and Democrats have denounced section alism, sectional agitation, sectional questions, and labored to build up and maintain National Parties, on the basis of National Interests;?a policy ccrtainly desirable and patriotic, but which thus far has never been accomplished. They have succeeded in constructing Parties, national in form, but sectional in fact?enroll ing in their ranks Northern and Southom men, but with the leadership always in the hands of the latter?ostensibly aiming to pro mote the general welfare, but really tributary to the aggrandizement of tho Class Interest oj' Slavery. Before the attempt to organize in a political form the A nti Slavery Sentiment of the coun try, this rent pursued it? object, steadily but quietly, Its power was felt, not so much ?in its exercisu as in its results. It was seen that it furnished our Pre Hi dents, obtained the asoendency on the Supreme Benoh, monopo lised the most important foreign appointments, controlled the organization of the House of Representatives and the Senate, bore sway in our National Political Conventions, diotated the creed of Parties, and shaped the policy of the Government, so as generally to enhance its Ofrn power; but why this was so, in what way the*o results were accomplished, few took the trouble to inquire, and still fewer understood. Political Anti-Slavery men exhibited the facta in their true light, and furnished the explanation. It toa* through the old Parties, boasting of their Nationality, rtpudiating Sec tionalism and Sectional issuss, that this grasp ing, subtle Interest had obtained such oontrol over' the Federal Government, and was seek ing to establish perpetual ascendency. Pre tending to be Natiorial, and the great body of their adherents at the North sincerely believ ing that they were National, they were con trolled and managed by a Sectional Interest for Sectional purposes. Political Anti-Slavery men, assailing this Sectional Interest, endeavoring to unmask its polioy, and to elpose the unifornf Hulinervi enoe to it of the Whig and Democratic Parties, wero denounced as Sectional, foes to National ity, enemies of tho Sooth, seeking to array one portion of the oountry against another. This , was to be expected. They were confined to | the Northern States, formed a very small ma- < jority, and the supporters of the Slave Interest, j understanding the attachment of the American People to the idea of Nationality, saw their advantage if they could succeed in fastening upon their opponents tho stigma of Sectional bigotry. Nothing oould be more false and unjust VVs warred, not against Nationality, but Sea sonality, hiding itself under its broad folds j We warred, not against oar oountry, but a Class Interest, determined to rule its destiniea We warred, not against the Union, but against an Aristocracy of Slaveholders, who by their uni ty and crafty counsel*, had perverted the Union from its original purposes. Our object was to reeoue the Goverument from tho hands of a Sectional Jntere*t, to dhroroe it from its degrading alliance with Slavery, and make it, as it was intended to be, the representative, the exponent, the bulwark, the instrument of Na tiooal Interests. Our motto was and is, " Lib erty and Union," not " Slavery and Union''? and if this be not true Nationality, what is7 We saw that the supporters of the ( lass In terest of Slavory acted with paramount refer ence to that Interest. I.et them oall them selves Whigs or Democrats, the ordinary issues between the old partien were minor considera tions to them. Their first demand from what ever Party they acted with, was, fidelity to Southern interests?a mere circumlocution, for fidelity to the interests of Slavory. And the demand was complied with, for what distinct Political Power existed, to make fidelity to the great National. Interest of Freedom, a condi tion to its adhesion ? This odious Class Inter est had everything its own way. Should either Party refuse its demand, thero was no antag?v nistic Power elsewhere to fall baok upon, and Slavery would give victory to the Party that had not hesitated in its oath of allegiance. Or, should any Publio man rel>el against this oath,.what counter-Interest was there to save him from political degradation ? T^ie sceptre was held by Southern slaveholders, and North ern Politicians must bow to their power, or forfeit all hope of political preferment. We determined to establish a oounter-lnter est?to organise ft Party of Freedom against the Party of Slavery. Fourteen years ha- this work been going on, amidst obloquy and mift reprefentation. Its nucleus wan formed in 1840, when J amen U Birney, (not long betore a oitixen of Alabama,) selected as the repre sentative of Freedom, reoeived nine thousand votes. Twelve years after, in 1852, it bad grown to one hundred and fifty thousand, and to-day the ideas and feelings which gave birth to it are stronger and more prevalent than at any former period. Its growth has been watched with anxiety by the 1 arty o *" very, whieh has become more exacting in its demands. Our action has tended to reveal its tactics, and its action, now that it must confront a defiant opposition, is boldor and more tur >u lent. Not oontent as formerly with selecting ts Northern instruments, without an open profu sion of loyalty on their part, it requires sub mission to odious tests as the condition preoe dent to its favor. What with the Truths incul cated upon the Public Mind by the Party of Freedom, and tbe striking illustrations of those Truths furnished by tho Party of Slavery, the People have been gradually awaking to the real relations of Slavery to the old Par ties, to the use it has made of them, and to its irreoonoilable onmity to true Nationality. Circumstances or Providence has favored the development, until this last and most Hagrant attempt of the Party of Slavery to use the power of Northern political organizations for tho repeal of the Missouri Compromise, there by opening the whole of tbe Torritory of tbe Union to Slave Labor, and investing the Slave Interest with toie attribute of Nationality. Tbe demand now is, not only acquiescence in this movement, but aotive Hupport to it, on p^in of being denounced and disfranchised, as un Abolitionist. Northern Whigs Refuse com pliant, aud are already branded; Northern Democrats, who hesitate, are threatened with the same doom. Southern Whigs in the Sen ate, with a single exception, are energetic sup porters of the movement, and the leading Southern Whig papers speak as if there were no longer a Whig party at the North. South ern Democrats in the Senate, with a single exception, have taxed all their energies to force it through Congress, and Southern Dem ocratic presses agree up casting out from party fellowship every Northern Democrat who dis sents from it. Hercy and now, we hold, it is the duty ol the North to meet the issue thrust upon it by the Party of Slavery. Old parties are in fact dissolved?old party questions have disappear ed?there is no Whig Party, there is no Dem ocratic party. There jk an organised Party of Slavery, grasping, defiant, desperate, des potic, controlling tbe South, clutching at the throat of tbe North. There is an organised Party of Freedom ftt tho North, the direct an tagonist of this, embodying the faith of ^ ree- ^ dom in its creed, the policy of Freedom in its oourse of action, but as yet commanding too little of Northern strength to prove a match for tho power of Slavery. VVhy should not Northern voters, now that the issue between Slavery and Freedom is forced upon them, rally with this Party, with the Independent Democracy, and onco for all give these Slaveholders a lewwn at the ballot box, of what the Non-Slavcholding millions ol tbe oountry can do, when compelled to the trial of their strength ? It was because we thought this result im portant that we almost regretted that Messrs. Bell and Houston in the Senate, and eight Southern mon in the House, have felt it their duty to oppose the repeal movement, much as we honor their heroism. Their position is cal culated to break the force of this odious pro slavery demonstration, in sundering old party relations, and uniting Northern men in solid phalanx as a Party of Ffeedom. It may lead some Northern Whigs and Democrats to olmg to the long-cherished idea of equal union in N a tional Parties with Slaveholders. This Aris tocracy-is blind, or it would seo this, and reoog nise in these exoeptional members of its oaste, tbe only men who can save its pretensions from utter overthrow. Meantime, our business in with Northern men, Western men, aye, and . Southern men, who are sick of suliservienoe to a Claw Interest, sick of tho yoko of Slavery. The few Slaveholders who protest against this vio lation of the Missouri Compromise, are mere exceptions. The Class, as a whole, is despe rately befit on repeal, and on subjugating to its perpetual rule the Federal Government. It is with yon to say whether they shall sucoeed We showed, the other day, that the Democratic Party, which had triumphed at the North, on legitimate issues, in 1844, lost every Northern State but two in 1848, by committing itself to a candidate whose sentiments on the Slavery issue were unacceptable to Northern men; that from being m a majority in 1844, in the North ern States, of 25,000, it fell under | majority of 500,000 in 1848?a result demonstrating tho tremendous strength of tho Anti-Slavery Senti ment. We now oall attention to a few more oon- j siderations. The whole number of votes in the Klectoral College is 2Pfi?149 a majority, being enough to determine tho Presidential question The free States are entitled to 178 electoral votes, or twenty seven more than is necessary to elect a President. Asa matter of fact, (Jen Taylor and General Pierce were elected to the Presidential Chair by Northern votes; that is. had every slaveholding State votod against them, they would still have been olooted. The next Presidential contest, the North and West can dispense with the vote of Pennsylvania, or New Hampshire, Iowa, and New Jersey, or II- ; linois and Indiana, and yet make the President) if it will. This it (Night to do, and it ought to do it on the Slavery li#no. Slavery in the States wbare it exists, we do not sock to disturb by Federal action. | Slaveholders know this; their talk about the assaults of Abolitionism on their domestic institutions, is all fur offset. The issuo they foroo upon the free States is one of political power. They have used the Union and the Federal Government to advance tho intcrosta and power of Slavery; the free States m>olt at this prostitution of a Union formed to ex tend tho blessings of Liberty, this perversion : of a Government, in *rhicb they have an equal right and interest. Their duty is, to redeem the Government from the control of the slave I holder*, and the Union from such prostitution. Should this repeal movement succeed, the free States are agaiu huuibled, the alaveholden are again triumphant; the political power of the former is weakened, that of the latter increas ed; and a Prinoiple in established, whioh will give impunity and encouragement to slave holding schemes of aggrandisement. Hero and now, then, the Non-Slaveholders should take their stand; on this distinct issue, therepeuj of the Missouri Compromise, confront the slaveholders and their adherents?the Par ty of Slavery?and determine, as they have the power, to plaoe in the Presidential chair, iu 1856, a man fully representing the doctrine, of a total divorce 0/ Ike Federal Government from Slavery. This they oan do, and ought to do; and they must do it, sooner or later, if they would relieve themselves from the yoko of an over bearing Aristocracy, humble its pretensions, make Liberty supreme in the National Coun cils. and suve the Union from destruction. LITEBAKY NOTICES. Tub Westminster Review. January, 1854. New York : Leonard Scott <fc Co. For ?ale by Taylor it Maury, Washington, D. C. Edinburgh Review. January, 1854. Published and for sale an above. The pressure of politics has prevented an earlier notice o( these invaluable Reviews. Among the articles of Bpeciul and significant interest in the Westminster, we would point to one on " English Religion," another on Eng land's Koreign Policy, and a third on " Strikes'' and " Lookouts." The Edinburgh contains a very interesting review of Thackeray's works, and an instructive paper on the Machinery of Parliamentary legislation, beside other articles that may be road with profit. CuKMisTitv of Common Life. By James F. W. Johnston, M. A., F. It. S., Ac. New York : D. Ap pleton A Co., For sale by R? Farnhaui, Pa. avenue, Washington, D. C. This is number one of a series from an Eng lish edition, intended for the million. The topics of this number are, " The air we breathe, the water wo drink, the soil we cultivate, and the plants we rear." It comprises two Eng lish numbers, and the price is 25 conts. The Works of John C. Cai.iioun, Vol. IV. Pub lished and for sale as above. We have heretofore noticed this work at some length. The present volume contains the speeches of Mr. Calhoun on important political questions, from the year 1841 to the year 1850. Considering the authority of hi* name and the force of his influence in the South, this eollec ' tion is very valuable. Another Round op Stories by thk Christmas Fike. By Charles Diekens. Boston : Fettridge i Co. For sale by Franck Taylor, Penn. avenue, Washington, D. C. There aro good stories hore, in Dickens's style, which of course pleases everybody?and all for 12)? cents. Thk American Journai. of Medical Sciences. Edited by Isaac H&js, M. D Philadelphia : Blan chard A Lea. For talo as above. This quarterly Journal of Medicine contains in each number 282 pages, and tho prico per annum is five dollars. It hi edited with ability and care, and presents a very full view of our rent medical literature and science. A Novxl.?We have received from Mr. T. B. Peterson, publisher, Philadelphia, a copy of hid thirty-eight-cent edition of " The Fortune Hunterby Mrs. Anna Cora Mowatt, a fair modern novel, abounding in exciting and well described incidents, with little olegance or va riety of style, but tending to the inculoation of a wholesome moral. ttJ^Littoirs Living age oomcs to us weekly. We onoe thought and said it was a publication of the highest merit. We now add the ex pression of our belief that it keeps cvon pace with the progress of the times in improvement. Catholic Clkrcymen.?The Worcester Spy contradicts tho statement which was originated by a communication of a " Catholic '' to a men signed the Clergymen's memorial. It says that both of tho Catholic clergymen of Wor cester have signed remonstranoes against the Nebraska bill. One of these signed the Cler gymen's memorial, and the other signed the remonstrance of the oitixens. ALsonco of one of them from 4lie city only prevented both of their names being signed to the Clergymen's memorial.?Boston Commonwealth. Human Freedom is tho cause that has called forth the aid of the Christian ministers of New England. In it contended that Roman Catho lic clergymen in tho United States are all in imical to this oause 1 Their enemies have ever so declared ; Are their friends anxious to verify the truth of tho allegation ? We know that tyranny prevails in Roman Catholic oountrios. but is tyranny an ally of tho religion of that Church so essential as to accompauy it to a land of Freedom, and here to guide tho conduct of its ministers? Do the professors of that reli gion, and its friends and ohampione, so oon tend ? We will not believe it. Senator Bright, of Indiana, is gradually recovering from his wwore rheumatic attack. Mrs. Ernestine L. Rose will deliver her second lecture at Carosi's. this evening. She is a Wautifnl and powerful declaimer. The trial of Capt. Schaumhurg, for a murderous assault on Mr. Fuller, commenced today. nsr- Poaches and apricots are said to havo sutfnred during the late cold spell. Miss Elizabeth Wkstcott, of Florida, an amiable and accom^'shed daughter of the Hon. J. P. Wostoott, ex-Senator from Florida, having l>oen on a visit to this city for a few weeks past, died at the National Hotel yester day morning, of pneumonia, after an illness of two weoks. Much anxiety is felt in Philadelphia for tho safety of the steamship City of Glasgow, which has now been out since the 1st of the present month, on her passago from Liverpool. The Pennsylvania Prohibitory Liquor Bill requires the vote of the fieople in Ootobnr next, not to give it the foroe of law, but merely to say whether they want suoh a bill. LOCAL. has BVEKY MA* HIB PMCK1 The New York National Democrat, whuh sneaks for the ? Hard- " in that State, : ? Southern politicians, who eo lately joine? in the Administration's hue and crj^sgwn* men who had courage to resist the unlawfel encroachments of power, now come, caps in hand, to solicit assisUnce irom the very men whom but yesterday they were in arrne against." Southern politicians Bhould Burely know, by this time) the degree of oonfideuoe it is safe to plaoa in Northern Doughfaoee! But what Bays the Democrat of the probable success of the suit of Southern politicians who oome cap in band? "The Democracy will do 'justice, although the heavens fall.' They will, exercise what power is in them, to advance the principles ol the party and the constitutional rights ot the States. Fortunately, their ability to aooom plish good has not been destroyed, notwith standing the attempts made to weaken it. Some of our people are discouraged and dispir ited by their treatment in the post. Thoy deem that their generosity is to be again exerouted, to be again unt hanked. They have a right so to feel; but their position at this moment is the proudest ono tbey could possibly oteoupy?en circling with their broad arms the rights of the States, and protecting from menaced destruc tion the principles of the party. Who will now refuse to accord justice to the New York Democ racy f " The word " justiocf" is a polite and dignified word. Is justice really what is meant? Or what is a Hard's idea of justice ? Injustice was done to the Hards, it was said, when thoy were deprived of the offices and their emoluments at New York. Justice may mean their restora tion to these offices and emoluments. Their position is therefore proud indeed! Thoy arc needed by the Administration, and can name their own prioc. For "encircling with their broad arms the rights of the States, and pro-. tecting from menaced destruction tho princi plea 0f thk i'arty! they are not to be again unthanked!" Justice is to be accorded to them! Adroit patriots! Fortunate, indeed, that their ability to accomplish good has not been destroyed! But ex-Senator Clemens, the bosom friend of President Tierce, justifies bis own opposition to the Nebraska measure by assuring his constit uefcjp that it is designed and adapted to pro mote the cause of Freedom only; and he in forms them that the President so believes! Thus we are called upon to believe that the President has all along been playing the part of a Harvey Biroh in the Southern camp, and that he has stood like a hero before the bat teries of his native North, all for the purt ose of betraying the South ! Will tho men of the South never loam wis dom ? The honest North would admonish thAi of Northern perfidy, as Brabantio ad monished tho sable Othello of his own daugh ter's supposed ficklenoss: "Look to her, Moor; have a quick eye to see: She hath deceivod her father, and may thee." The Louisville Journal says, on this subject: "Several Southern papers, which at first went warmly for the Nebraska bill, arc now denouncing it as unfit to pass. Tbey think that the amendment providing that the repeal of the Missouri Compromise shall not be con strued as authorising a revival of the old French law of Slavery in Nebraska and Kan sas, and the amendment establishing squatter 'sovereignty by permitting the Territorial Legis latures to prohibit Slavery without even sub mitting the prohibitory law to Congress for that body's approval, render the bill an empty and miserable mockery to the South. The bill involves principles that the South has-' ever condemned and denounced, with ?soareely a dissenting voice. And shall the South be so recreant as to turn its back upon its own cherished doctrines, at the bidding of two such Northerners as Franklin Pierce and Stephen A. Douglas? Will thk Southern members 01- CoNGRKSS ENLIST IN THK SUPPORT OK THK RIM., FOR THK PRIVILEGE Ol HEARING ITS AU THOR ANO THE REST OF ITS NoRTHKRN CHAM PIONS CONGRATULATE THE COUNTRY, ArTER ITS PASSAGE, UPON THE TRIUMPH OF THK SQUAT TKR SOVKRKIONTT ? ' " The friends of tho Nebraska bill pretend to give it their support mainly upon the ground of the principle of the striot non-intervention of Congress in the question of Slavery in the Ter ritories. But the bill, in the shape in which it passed the Senate and is now j<endmg in the House, does not embody the principle of Con gressional non-intervention?1/ em bodies thi prir.ciple of unequivocal Congressional inter ference." m THK NEBRASKA BILL Il? PENHSYLVANIA. The anti-Nebraska resolutions introduced into the Senato of Pennsylvania some time ago were passed by that body on Wednesday. One of the Senators, at whose instanco their con sideration was postponed, that ho might be en abled to go home and ascertain the wishes ol his constituent-, stated in his speech on Satur day that he was satisfied tho proposition to re peal the Missouri Compromise could not ob tain a thousand votes in his entire district. He therefore c^uld not be roeoncilod to the ' measure. Other oarnent speeches woro made on both sidos of tho question, and the resolu tions finally passed by a vote of 18 to 15. They road as follows: Whereas MTorts are now being made to effect the passage of an aot of Congress to organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas with provisions allowing the introduction of invol untary servitude north of 3t> deg. 30 utin.; and whereas, in the judgment of the General A.* Hcmbly of Pennsylvania, the passage of such an aot would be inexpedient, and a inanilont violation of the Missouri Compromise, approved Maroh fi. 1820 ; therefore. Resolved, That the General Assembly of Pennsylvania earnestly and solemnly protect against the repeal or modification of that sec tion of the act of Congress for the adinimion of Missouri into the Union as u S ate which pro hibits involuntary servitude north of 3rt deg 30 min. ? Resvlbed, That our Senators in Congro?s be in structed, and our Representatives be requested, to carry oat the foregoing expression ol theseti. timent of this Commonwealth. Resolved, That the Governor 1)? requested to tr^ismit a copy of tho foregoing resolutions to OHch of our Senators and Representatives in Congdhs. He was a wise Senator for whom the Senate waited. There aro Senators in Congross, ai.d Representatives, too, who will before long with they had imitated his example. The instate tions of the People are more profitable than their rebuke. Tho steamboat Jaooh D. Karly was recently sunk in the Mississippi, by which forty lives wero lost'. This is the fourth within a few days. The bust of Welister, for f?ord Ashburton, by Mr. King, the artist, is finished, and on exhibition at Boston. BY THK MORNINV'&MAIU From Santa Fe? CaliforniaM <n route for Sonora, 6>c. Louisvim.k, March 12.?Tho mail ai rived at Independence last night. fM roads were good, and there bad been no dis* turbanoe from the Indiana. Business wub doll in New Mexico. and more Indian depredations were reported. Charles L Spenoer had been appointed the treasurer of New Moxioo. A Mexican reports meeting fourteen com panies of Californians en route for Sonora. The poor inhabitants of that oountry were in favor of the invasion. Lieut Bell, with a company of dragoonw, had left Fort Union on a soouting expedition, and partly to explore the oountry on the Red river The chief who cut off the mails and a party of whites, a few years ago, was thought to be on his way to Red river. Lieut. Bell will meet him. Mi-Nebraska Convention. Cincinnati, March 22?The Anti Nebras ka Convention for the State of Ohio met to day at Columbus. J. R. Swan, of Franklin oounty, was appointed President. The attend ance was large, embracing all parties. Speech es were made by.D. K. Cartter, J. Brinkerhoft, S. P. Chase, and others. Resolutions were adopted, denouncing the Nebraska bill, as a breach of the Missouri Compromise, a oarefully coniooted plan to extend slavery, a disgrace to any American statesman that supports it, directly or indirectly. Tho resolutions also en dorse the action of their Senators in Congresn. The Convention also held an evening sossion. The Temperance Bill. Albany, N. V., March 23.?The Senate will probably recede from its amendment, and allow the law to go iuto operation on the 1st pf May. The Lebanon Valley RuilroaJ. Rjeading, March 22? (.round was broken to-day at this place, on the line ol the Leba non Valley Railroad. The work has been oommenced by P. O'Reilly, and will be pushed on with vigor. Murder Trial. Boston, March 23.?A preliminary exami nation of Samuel Hillard, proprietor of the Long Pond Hotel, in Naticic, for killing James Warren, took place yesterday, and resulted in his being held to answer for murder in the first degree. LATK8T EUROPEAN MEWS. The steamer Pacific arrived at New York laHt night, with Liverpool dates to the 8th in stant. Our telegraphic correspondent has for warded the subjoined summary of the latest European news: The position of affairs in regard to the east ern war is unohangtd. No battles had lately # taken place on the Danube, except between two columns ol Russians, which, through mis take, attacked each other in the dark, and killed some hundreds before tho error woe dis covered. Ojcaaion-.il skirmisher oontinued between ths Turks and Russians. There was a rumor in London that tho Rmsiaus had captured Kala fat, but it was not credited. There is nothing new from Asia, or from the fleets. Tho Greok insurrection has been almost en tirely suppressed. The British Chancellor of the Eiohequer has proposed to double the income tax, and the French Minister proposes to borrow the sum of 250,000,000 francs to meet the expenses of the approaching war. A loan of 25,000,000 was unanimously authorized on the 7th. The first division of the fleet for tho Baltic was to sail in a day or two. It ooosisted of Admiral Corry's squadron. * The French Government has advertised Tor one hundred ships to embark troops and stores . for the East. The Karl Londonderry is dead. More difficulties had occurred at PresUm with the operatives. Messrs. Dickinson & Co., of Glasgow, have failed. Their liabilities are jE200,000. The Spanish insurrection has l>cen sup pressed Portugal is quiet. Russia has prohibited the export of grain from Odessa and the Black Sea, which has Htrengthened the English grain markets. At Liverpool, on tho 8th 'mutant, breadstufls bad recoverod from the reocnt decline, and the : former rates were re established. Cotton was dull, with prices favoring tho buyers Consols j91&to9IK. ,* TIM Austrian Government publishes an otn eial document, expressing its vwws on the dif ferences between Russia and lurkoy. It re gards the proposition sent by the VV. stern Powers to l)C of suoh a nature as to 1*hv.> hard ly a hope for a favorable reply, but n.lmils that thrir demands wore just, aud in i.ccurd ance with the interests of Europe. Avnina is prepared, however, to meet tho dangers arising from a great war in an adjoining country, and from the subversive tendencies which may manifest themselves on the frontier ot ihu Em pire during the oontinuawee of war. The Prussian Government rejects the sug gestion of Ruspia, to forbid the entrance of the fleets of the Western Powors into Pruasian potto- ?... > Tho Vionna correspondent of the London CkronicU telegraphs that new proposals have | been reoeivod from the Emperor Nicholas; that 1 Russia offers to evaounte the Principalities the moment her draft of preliminaries lor peace is signed ; and that the term* are not more favor ablo than the last overtures which the ooofer enoe rejected. A British oourier, hearing a summons for tho evacuation of the Provinces, is alread\ on his way to St Petersburg. Kkmahkabi.f. F.owurviTV.?France*, a free womnn of color, died yesterday at the city ? ?>.+ piUl, of debility, having attained the remark aide age of 14#. We have known ??f m*v? ral naeoH of oreoloe living to a great age. hut do not romemher an instance anywhere, of any oohnr, attaining to such an ago on tho above ; and we nhould he inelined to discredit tliis, hut that the foot in officially reported to us from the city hospital.?Mnlnlc Adv. A friend at our el how nay* that in Detroit, where he redden, there is a oolored man, who is now 111 yean old, and in now getting his living hy picking oakum. Thin doe* not U>k much like dying out. Fred. I>,ihtrim's Paper. Tho Worcester Spy contains a call for B meeting in that oity on the 18th of April, <J "evangelical Christians, and peieoo* ?lPr",*p to the extension of slavery," for tbe p,irP',",,j'' forming a colony of enterprising *n 1 and farmers in tho New ? hf the prooeed to some judicious loea Wo?t. < ?J" . ?naa ( nfl1!* Thamkfhi. FO*1SMVhl hoard of the election net organ ha* at, lonfc shouts for victory, in New Harophi , ? wij| flnj?h Mr. A few more I lhrald. Heroe' The lion. Ker Boyoe died in Columbia ^ r J! Nundaf la?t, aged ?R years He hold V poets of honor in the State, and, being a Hflll ?."'?? ?w*n' b* ^ nnt",nK industry and sagacity accumulated a very large fortune.