Newspaper Page Text
For ths National Kra BBCO^LECTIOISOF MT (iKODFATHKH'S HOVE CHAP. VII?Concluded W heo the last dinner diub bad Ihjou plaoed upon its shelf, and the stone hearth twice swept, my step-grandmother and Hannah, who ware never idle, would sit down to their mend ing ; or the former would go to her loom, and the latter to her distaff All the household linen, all the daily apparel, was the work of my grandfather's own htfneehold. 1 here was a constant hnui of industry in the old farm house; and my ohild sh curiosity was daily dis traoted between the clatter of Hannah's loom in the chamber, and the whizzing of the little flax wheel beluw?that little flax wheel, the moat classic of bygone* to me. The German nursery tale of the Spiuners fired with true heroine* my ohimerical little braio ; and here were the distaff, the treadle, and the pliant thread. By dint of iquinting and perspective, my step grandmother came to look like a re epectable giantess; but never, in my most ec static imaginings, oould I metamorphose my cjmmonplaoe self into aught but little Molly. Any summer's afternoon might be heard the clapping of my step-grandmother's little wheel, and to many a pleasant gossip did it give its wel come. How many broad-frilled oaps, bow many square neckerchiefs, have not passed under my review ; how many painted snuff-boxes under gone my inspection, bow many low told tales crept over to me, in those whilom spinning dajb! Aye, and how many cups of tea, how many dainty oieam biscuits, have not owed their con sumption to ancient spinners' gossiping ten dencies ! In thooe dajs, people did not represent them selves iu a bit of pasteboard, but gave tangible and edible demonstration of presence; and every social dame expected to recover breath over a cup of strong tea. What a troupe of whilom Visiters now pass in review before me f There was Dome Simkins, with her keen eye, turoed-up nose, and nervous way, who always tried to look sanctimonious in a blaok bomba sine. She brought a yearly gift of a pair of cotton bore to my grandmother, with an espe cial intention upon the orimson and white bro oade, I was sure, f watched her with a jeal ous eye, and vowed extreme vengeance upon her red-haired daughter, whoee peculiar exoel leuces and personal wants were the theme of after-tea tete a tetes She wa? a distant con nection of my grandmother's, and got the bro cade. The light of her sharp, gray eye went out years ugo, and doubtless the lustre of the red head's brocade. Then, there was Dame Hyde, of nearer kin, a hustling, rosy-faced, good-naturtd housewife, whose not unfrcquent visitations greatly dimin ished the btores of household linon. She had six fftout damsels to '' fit out," poor soul! Sinister visitants we had enough of, who drank my step-grandmother's tea, piaised her bpinning, flattered her fo'bles, and robbed her stores. But besides the?e harpies, dubbed rel atives. there would not unfrequently ' drop in*" a genuine go*ip, of the race extinct, with oot ton umbrella, knitting needles protruding from capacious reticule, yawning calash?in short, all the inseparable paraphernalia of her class The Bight of suoh an appaiition made my fin gers tingle. What a feast of scandal and flow of soul 1 was sure of! There was a little, dried-up old maid, half a mile away, the very glimpse of whose blue umbrella, bobbing up and down, on the high way, would make my heart beat faster. Sbe was a full-blooded little gossip; everything about her, her dried-up sinewy lorm, snapping gray eyes, and nervous step, her huge leticule and broad pocket, were indicative of her call ing. Your true busybodiee are apt to be lean?the very nat^-e of their vocation is op pese^ to the accumulation of substonoe; even a m> dioum of flosh might greatly discommode the indomitable newsmonger, in her battles against time and speoe. To be sure, here and there a Iszy soul laughs and grows fat over her neighbor's losses and crosses; but such a gossip is comparatively harmless?her shafts fly from a nerveless arm. Tis your itinerant nswsmonger who gets the vantage ground, and makes good her aim. Of this latter olass there are many species from the ghouls ood vampires who prowl about tasking who they may devour, and for whom, lest my prnrhant for Hepsy may expose ato to unamiable imputation, I avow most un mitigated hatred, to those gentle tquinters those ready sympathizers in other people's al fairs, thorn pieces of extreme volubility, whoee narrow little souls can never get beyond the individual To this latter class belonged tat tling Hepsy, the kindest if mischief-makers, upon whom, and upon whose propensities. malgrt my better judgment, my heart still looks hack with an amiable weakness! Hep?y was certainly a busybody, but for all that a clever sou). She didn't mean to make mischief, though conrcience knows there was always enough of it in her wake. Sbe liked the eclat attendant upon a news carrier, liked the oord.al welcomes her oommunioativenets gained h?r, (for our grandmothers were, after all, true daughters of Eve ;) best of all, she liked a cup ut strong t?a. Blfess me, how much of inspiratioa thsre used to be in those tiny blue cups of tea I How thsy would set a whole tabl>- of cronies jr<"sniping over their bygones ! On poor Hepsy there was no end of thsir pow- | er. Before the magic tsa, she would be diplo matically reserved, deal in monosyllables, half utfered sentences, sly winks and nods; but two or three oups, well creamed and sweetened, would unloose at onoe her tongue and retioule strings. Out came the snuff-box, with the painted cow on its oover, and, with it, out camc every sorap of domestic gossip, gathered io her week's perambulation* in the country, thr. e miles round Hepsy was really, if not nominally, the town clerk of the village, and Hepsy was pretty sure to bs right. 'Twas she who first published Jonathan to Molly, the Millet's daughter, and werer.'t th?y married in less than a twelve month ? F*>r an old maid, Hepsy was lenient to the young people, bnt somehow she had r terrible grudge against delinquents from her own class, and woe to the ancisnt maiden who deserted the ranks Twos an amiable weak Something of a prophetess was Hepsy, too. Didn't she rightly divme that the Squire's an tiquated daughter would fail in her matrimo nial intentions on the still more antiquated minister? She did fail?lucky for Hepsye reputation f??r foresight. Poor Hepsy* The day I left my Grandfather's Home for aye, her notion umbrella stood by the door. She is gone now, and pertihonoe. too, the snuff-box with the painted oover. S.i passed the week days at my grandfather's Saturday, the baking day, the finale, I pass over lis early morning preparations, its ole aginous atmosphere, my own manifold duties were less agreeable than the sight of the after laden shelves ot the dairy. > But Siturday evening, I would not pass that oyer?to me, Always, those pleasant hours of rolaxation, of retrospect, and foresight, but nttet disregard for the present?stish were they always at my grandfather's. The olntter of the loom stopped; the flax-wheel was hid in the closet, each one, without thought or le u)aiders of work gave themselves up to reef Tke dog eared Bible was taken from the shelf by aty grandmother, to whjse treasured tones my grandfather and Hannah listened with bowed head* Jonathan, at peace with him Self and Ike world, leaning baek in the ohim ney owner, would quietly smoke bis pipe, pre paratory to ? comfortable moors, while I, thoughtless child, would dream the hours away on the atone step of the poroh door. There wan a thorough abandon of oare in those evening hour* The new wreck had not yet begun. Here wan quiet, and freedom trom toil, even in the end of the bustling old week. Then came a sense of impending duties and re sponsibilities, with the early mm beams of Sab bath morning. WASHINGTON, D. C. FRIDAY, MARCH 31, 1854. CENTRALISM VS. POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY. The American People are so well satisfied with the personal freedom they ehjoy, that they do not often trouble themselves with questions concerning the great power they have intrust ed to the President and the Senate, and the manner in which these agents shield themselves from a proper responsibility. They boast of their devotion to the principle of Self Govern ment, and congratulate themselves for having embodied it in their institutions, when praoti oally they have deprived themselves of a large share of the governing power. Some of the most important acts of the Gov ernment, marking indeed epochs in our his tory, have been undertaken and oarried through without instruction or intimation from the People. Witness the purchase of Louisi ana and Florida, the annexation of Toxas, the war with Mexioo, and the acquisition of New Mexico and California?acts, not diotated or suggested by the People, or tho People's Rep reeentatives, but initiated and consummated by Executive Power, aoting for the most part seoretly and irresponsibly. It is because we are so accustomed to this policy, that we read without surprise the cor respondence in relation to Cuba, submitted to Congress at its last session, disclosing the fact that a President of the United States, on his own responsibility, without instruction or suggestion from the People or their Repre sentatives, without the slightest intimation of his purpose or motive, had offered to purchase that island from Spain, for a sum not less than one hundred millions of dollars?in other words, to pledge the money of the Pdbple and of the States for the purchase of a vast foreign terri tory, to be introduced into their Union on an equal footing with them, and all this without saying, by your leave, O Sovereign People! Nor did it strike any one as unusual, when it was announoed, last summer, that the ques tions of Reciprocal Trade with Canada, the Fisheries, West India Commeroe, and Central American relations, were subjects of negotia tion between Mr C'rampton and Secretary Maroy, who would probably agree upon some general scheme of settlement. True, it might be supposed that some of these questions be long properly to the Legislative Dej>artment of the Government, bqt our People seem to admit that there is no limit' to the Treaty-making Power. There is now under consideration in the Senate, a Treaty, by which certain claims of citizens of the United States on Mexioo are to be assumed by our Government, 4>y which the boundaries of the country are to be changed, and a large traot of foreign Territory added, by which certain facilities for con structiug a railway by a Southern route from the Atlantic to the Pacific, are to be seoured, and by which twenty or twenty-five millions of dollars are to be taken from the Treasury and handed to Santa Anna. By some means unknown, against the will of the Senate, the plan of the Treaty leaked out; but all the cor respondence in connection with it, and the proceedings of the Smate and President in re lation to it, are carefully oonoealed from the People. They are not to know what oauses led to its formation, what circumstances trans pired duriug the negotiation, what interests were chiefly intended to bj promoted by it. what are the reasons assigned for and against it. In foot, they are to be kept in the dark concerning its causes, nature, and oonseqnen oes. until the Treaty shall havo been ratified, and they be called upon to pay the twenty million*, which the President and Senate, act ing secretly, are about to bind them to pay. And yet, the People who are so indifferent to the exercise of these tremendous powers by an Executive and Senate, shielding themselves, meanwhile, from all resp mobility to them, are full of admiration at the teal of Representa tives, who, to save the Treasury and preserve the Constitution, sorutiniu every proposition to vote money, whether to eatisfya petty claim of S5,000, or the claim of the empire West for h*lf a million to improve its great rivers and harbors? We, the People, under our boasted system of Belf-government, through our appro priate representatives, pope laws in rslation to "mint and rue and anise," but "weightier matteri*," involving Questions of Peaoe and War, Questions of Boundary and Empire, Ques tions affecting the Perpetuity of our Union, we oonsign to the irresponsible action of the President and Senate, acting in secret oon olave! Not much is said about the Gadsden Treaty in the newspapers. The Northern press knows little about it, and seems to oare loss. The Southern papers, that notice it at all, are ear nestly in favor of iton avowed sectional grounds. In the Senate, we learn that it has given rise to protracted and warm debates, even some Ad ministration Senators feeling oonstrained to oppose it; and it is intimated that this opposi. tion has been provoked, not so much by the particular provisions of the Treaty, but by oer tain ulterior scheme* of nullification or die union, supposed to be favored, if not aimed at, by that part of it whioh secures facilities for a great railway across ths continent by tho Southern route, from Charleston on the At lantic, to San Diego on the Pooifie, with Mem phis M an intermediate point. According to a writer in the Washington Union, who appears to !* familiar with the country proposed to be ceded, and its records, it comprises an area of some forty millions of aorss, enough to form two States, and abounds in mineral wealth, besides being suitable io most parts for oultivation. The Kiohmond (Va.) Enq nr$r claims that these States will be slave holding; the York Daily Txmtu. an advocate of the Treaty, admits this, and the Charleston (8. C.) Courier is speoially de lighted, because H sen braces the Southern route for a railroad to the Pacific It embraces, it says, " the Gar ay route of the 1'aoiiio railway, through the valley of Gila, (the very route des ignated by General Gadsden himself at the Memphis Convention, of wh'ch he was a mem ber,) of whioh Charleston is the Atlantio and San Diego the Pacifiu terminus, with Memphis ao the intermediate station. * * * The new domain acquired, it is bug eated to form into a new Territory, (and hereafter into one or more States.) by the name of Arreeonia; the tirat Governor of whioh ought to be a South Caro linian, aa a tribute to South Carolina diplo macy." But, whatever of truth may be in theae bpec ulations, whatever credit should be given to the intimationa thrown out of Diaunion purposes in connection with the Treaty, the People are in the dark. Boundaries are to be altered, foreign territory iB to be acquired, railroad connection with tho Pacific is to be provided for, and twenty milliona of their money are to be expended, and they are to know nothing of the merits or demerits of the whole transaction, until it be done, and done so that it cannot be undone* The Slaveholding Oligarchy, which thuB far has generally controlled and used as its instru ment tho so-called Democratic Party of the <x>untry, baa inscribed uj>on the banner of this Party, the reserved Rights of the People and the States, Strict Construction, and Opposition to Centralism / and >ef, driven on by its inherent lust of aggrandizement, it has done more than all other influence*) combined, to centralize vast and dangerous powers in the hands of the Pres ident and Senate of the United States, and to shield them from responsibility in exeroising them. BOLD AVOWALS. Not long wince, we quoted several extracts from Southern pajters in the Slave Interest, in sisting that now, when Prance and England are likely to find full employment for their arms and arts in the East, is the time for putting in operation vigorous measures for tho acquisi tion of Cuba. About the same time, Mr. But ler, of South Carolina, in the course of a speech in tie Senate, said : " If Russia shall be crushed as a Power in Europe, by the combination of Franoe and England, the termination of that war will plaoe Franoe and Eraland in a position to induoe them to interfeTC with American affairs. They will ooine out of that war, if they shall crush Russia, with triumphant armies, aooustomed to war and victory, without bread, without clothes, and it will be an easy decision for them to ' Cry Havoc, and 1st slip the dogi of war' upon our Southern islands, for I call them ours. Perhaps the blood around those islands,-in the sea-fights which will take plaoe, will be the language in yvhicli to write its history." '' Our Southern islands!" The Richmond (Va) Er.quirer urges the ac quisition of Cuba, not from any oovetoub mo tive," or from sympathy with " filibusteriam " '?Our view of the polioy of this measure,'' it says, " as of every other, is determined by the paramount and controlling consideration of Southern interests. It is because we regard tho acquisition of Cuba as essential to the sta Jbility of the system qf Slavery, and to the just Tttoemtrncy of the South, that we consent to forego our habitual repugnance to politioal change, and to advocate a measure of such vast, and, in some respects, unoertain conse quences." Again: * "The only possible way in whioh the South can indemnify iteelf for its concessions to the Anti-Slavery fanaticism, ia by the acquisition of additional slave territory. * * * We must re enforce the powers of Slattery as an element of j political control, and this can only be done by the annexation of Cuba. In no other direction is there a ohanoe for the aggrandizement of Slavery." 1 Again: " The intrigues of Great Britain for the abo lition of Slavery in that island are pursued with a zeal and au energy which cannot fail of suc cess, unless the United States interfere to pre vent the consummation. The only effectual mode by whioh this may be done, is by the transfer of the island to the dominion of the States." Again "If we oontemplate the possible alternative of the disruption of the Union, by the mad spirit of Abolition, the necessity for the acqumtion of Cuba as a support to the Smith, becomes ivtn more manifest and urgent. With Cuba in the possession of an hostile interest, Southern Sla very would be exposed to an assault which it oould neither resist nor endure. With Cuba as a member of a great Southern Confederacy, Sla very might bid defiance to its enemies." These are bold avowals. The Enquirer throws off all disguise, does not stoop to eva sion, disdains ambiguous, clap-trap appeals about the Africanization, of Cuba It goes for Cuba, to prevent the abolition of Slavery . in that island, to strengthen the system in this oonntry, to secure to the South politioal con trol and its just asoendency, and to prepare it for a Dissolution of the Union. No other mo tives are assigned not the slightest allusion is made to the effects of the measure upon the general interests of the country. They are not worthy a moment's consideration. Cuba is to be annexed, solely to give stability to Sla very, and supremaoy to the Slave Interest When it is oonsidered that but a small mi nority in the South ia interested in this sys tem of Slavery, that there are fifteen mil lions of freemen in the North and West, who are unfriendly to it, that the proepority and power of the Union, and the high position the oountry holds in the great Family of Na tions, depend mainly upon its freemen and its freo labor institutions, these audacious avowals of an intention to aoquire Cuba, for the single purpose of giving asoendeney to the Slave Interest, must either be regarded as tho ravings of madmen, or as indications of tho utter oontempt habitually entertained for the masses of the People, by the slaveholders. For, by whose money and arms is Cuba to be j aoquired ? By the money and arms of the Amerioan People. and for what purpose ? To subjeot them to the domineering aristocracy of slaveholders! The Enquirer must believe them fools, or it is itself mad. , Thic Gadsden Treaty.?A correspondent of the New York Herald, writing from Wash-1 ington, March '25th, says: " A call for the instructions and correspond ence connected with this treaty, it appears, has resulted in the spreading before the Senate a list of letters so extraordinarily rich and pe culiar, that it was deemed judicious to keep them from the public printer, for fear that a stray copy or two might get to the New York Herald, through some mysterious spiritual maoifautfetion*. Thin liwt of letters, il is Haiti, proven what the Herald has charged, that the 1 Uadttdeo treaty in only a precious hit of diplo macy for a Southern route for the Pacifio rail road, an<f that Jefferson Davi*, certain Texan* and Mexican*. and the New Orleans and Ope lousas Railroad Company, are at the bottom of the whole plot; and that Maroy bad no more to do with it than with the treaty of Nioholas P. Trist, of 1648. whioh wan made after the said Maroy had given orders to send poor Triut home as a prisoner, if he would not leave Mexioo on any other terms. So this treaty of General Gadsden was a bit of South Carolina diplomacy outbids the instructions of the De partment. It was more than that. It was a great financial speculation." THE ALIEN AMENDMENT. The Washington correspondent of the St. Louis Republican writes very knowingly of the origin of the Alien Amendment proposed by Mr. Clayton: "The amendment presented by Mr.Clayton, striking from the bill the olauBe giving unnat uralized settlers in Nebraska, who have merely declared their intention of beooming citi zens, the privilege of voting for members of the Territorial Legislature, was prepared by Mr. Atchison, and placed in the hands of Mr. Clavton. Ifr was carried by two majority, Mr. Atoniaon snaking a warm speech in ith favor. Atohisoo'fe object was this: Benton will be compelled to vote for the bill, as 4n alternative to politfoftl mnr'JJdom Benton's ohief strength is with the German Democrats of St.1 Louis and vijinity. Mr. Atobison not only does not like these Red Republicans, but oordially bates them, and the sentiment is on their part heart ily reoiprooated. He is willing, therefore, to give them a proof of his affection under the fifth rib; but would not go out of hiB way to do it, but that he thinks he oan, through their ribs, reaoh the vitals of Old Bullion. Now, by the amendment adopted, tho newly arrived brethren of these Germans will be kept out of Nebraska, or they will be excluded from inter fering with the native citizens on the Slavery Question. Benton must take or reject the bill with this feature. If he adopt it, the Germans out him ; if bo vote against the bill, Missouri repudiates him. Upon the whole, it would seem th&t Atchison has got him. In so Berene a hug betwoen the bear and the devil, I really know not which side to take, and for fear of offending one side or the other, shall abstain from further oomment." It is quite probable that the origin of the anti-Alien Amendment is given correotly by this correspondent; but he understands little of the " l-take-the-reeponmbility " courage of Ben ton, in supposing that he oan be embarrassed by it. The Colonel, we take it, will not only resist the attempt to disfranchise the alien set tlers, but resist the Bill to violate good faith between North and South, and promote the Cause of Nullification and Disunion, by embit tering both sections against each other. Mr. Pettit, in 1848, according to the In' dianapolis Free Democrat, wrote a letter, con taining the following profession of faith in Frea Soil: " I am devoted to free soil and free labor, and no vote of mine shall, knowingly, ever be given to pollute the one or oppress the other with Slavery. That Congress has the power to prohibit the introduction of Slavery into the Territories where it does not exiet, must be dear to every one who has investigated the subject, and is capable or reasoning." *n>e Senator believes that Slavery is pol luting aad oppressive. Why, then, find fault ' with Mre. Stowe ? American Charc.e to Turin.?The Paris correspondent of the New York Express states that Mr. Daniel, United States Charge d'Af faires to Sardinia, has resigned ; and we can not but approve the wisdom of the act. One who has wantonly offended the community around him, should not longer ocoupy a diplo matic position. It may be that Mr. Daniel did not oontemplate the publication of his offensive letter ; but his locum tenens gave it to the world with all its garlicky odor, and Mr. Daniel oan neither deny its authorship nor the foroe of the familiar maxim, Qui facit per alium, fa cit per tt. It has in past times proved oonveni. ent to an Administration to send its trouble some friends abroad, of whioh policy the send ing John Randolph to Russia was a remarka ble instance; but in these latter days it appears that their opportunities of giving trouble are only increased. When the Kxeoutive may by treaty annex nations to our Republio, it is a fearful thing for it to have impetuous and am bitious agents abroad. Mr. Daniel's "Bun combe " letters are small affairs, to be sure; but Mr. Saunders's negotiations with Kossuth, Maziini, or the Emperor Nicholas, and Mr. Spenoe's overture* or pledges to the Sultan, are rather too muoh. They had better all oome home. Mr. Sooi.*.?The Paris correspondent of the New York Commercial Advertiser says: "Pour gentlemen residing at Madrid, in the oapaoity of Ministers from various Powers, near Queen Isabella, are at present in Paris, on leave of abeeooe. They ail say they do not knou> Mr. Souli, and oonfirm what has been s^d of the isolation in whioh he live*. They state that his challenge to M. Turcot is oon> Hidered barbarous, and that his rehabilitation is out of the question.'' They may Drink it prudent at the French Court no* to know him ; and yet their not knowing Mr. Soule argues them unites un known. Duelling is barbarous, and, as they sanetion duelling, they are barbarians! But of this kind of barbarians, Mr. Sonle is a very favorable specimen, and oertainly will well 00mpare with the beet of them. The truth ia, that Mr. Soule left Franco an exile and fugitive-*-* repodiator of the aristo cratic prinoiple to whioh any knowledge by the world of these gentlemen is no donbt en tirely owing; and be returns to it the able and aooomplisbed Minister of a proud Republio? their peer, at least, in everything. Their en mity and their pride are thus excited, and they would orush him If they could. But they oan only do so through hi* own Government; and we trust that its aid will be withheld, at least until he proves unworthy of its confidence and protection. We do not syrapathixe with the politieal views of Mr. Soute; but the same principles that separate us from him in this particular, would lead us to use whatever influence we possess in protecting him from an oppressive proscription. The Komvth Litter.?The editor of the Philadelphia Bulletin "cannot believe that Kossuth offended intentionally," but thinks he simply "does not comprehend the sensitiveness of our people?" FBEE NEOROE8 15 VIXODTIA Therg is in Virginia a population of 1,421,000 spuls Of these, possibly forty or fifty thou sand are slave owners. We will take the highest number. For the benefit of this num ber of slave owners, all the legislation of that State appears to be conducted- The right of property in these slaves is declared, and guar antied, and proteoted, by peculiar laws, even to the prohibition of teaching them to read the Word of God. The law of matrimony is not permitted to apply to them. Their ohildren, in violation of the laws of nature and of reve lation, are not held to be theirs, but are taken from them at will. And not only this, but free negroes, lest they may induoe dissatisfaction among the slaves, or lest their labor may oome into competition with that of the slaves, are put under great disabilities, and even required to leave the State under such circumstances as would constitute no objection to the continued residence of the white man. The slave owner is thus proteoted?the slave is thus oppressed-r-the free negroes and mu lattoes, 53,829 in number, are thus proeoribed and ostracised! The white man who has need of hirod labor, is thus made to suffer inconve nience and loss. And this is all for the pro tection of the interests of, let us say, 50,000 ?lave owners, who constitute but about one thirtieth of the whole people, or one-twentieth of the white population, or one-fourth of the heads of the white families in the State. But, it may be replied by ex Governor Smith, the great persecutor of ihe free negro popula tion of Virginia, or some one else, that the de graded character of the free negro requires his removal from the State. Is the free negro so degraded in Virginia ? Who made*him so * We quote the following from a warm advo cate of the institution of Slavery, the Richmond Southern Era. That journal says: " Since our paper of last week was issued from the press, we have received a letter from an intelligent gentleman in Eastern Virginia, from whioh we give an extraot : " 'It is undoubtedly true that the free blacks are comparatively harmless, inoffensive, and industrious, when they are not habituated to the ut-e of whiskey and other liquors. In my neighborhood there are many of this class, and my observation fully accords with your state ment of last week. My attention has been specially directed to this matter, beoause of. the movements in the Legislature looking'to the forcible removal of the free blaoks. I doubted the polioy, and determined to examine for myself. There are near me thirty families, twenty of whom are sober, honest, and indus trious. They do me no harm, but, on the con trary, are very useful at certain seasons. They supply additional labor in the harvest, in hay ing, and whenever from aoy cause there is a deficiency of force upon my farm. The other ten families use whiskey, and are frequent vis iters to the adjacent grog shops. These are nuisanoes. They will not in general work, even if employment )& offered them, and they earn their scanty support by driving an illicit trade with the Blaves on the neighboring es tates. The slaves steal from their masters whatever they can get without deteotion, and in return for their booty receive supplies of the meanest whiskey, whioh both makes them dis orderly and shortens their lives. These free negroes in torn oarry on a trade with the whiskey shops, or, when these facilities fail, they resort to thefts to get enough to support nature. Thus it comes to pass that the free negroes have gained a bad name. Those among them that are whiskey consumers are oorrupt and corrupting; but, as you say, let us rather remove from tnem the incitements to wrong doing, and keep them where they are. I have never been in a temperance society, but am oertainly in favor of suppressing the whiskey shops that abound in this and overy county in Virginia They are pest houses wherever they exist, and the law ought to declare them such. Not only do they make the free negroes vi cious, but they are highly injurious to the slaves; and, in my estimation, more than all other causes are retarding the progressive movements of our Commonwealth.' " We are glad to find ourselves supported by ?suoh an intelligent farmer in our views of the deleterious tendencies of whiskey shops. The oltservation whioh we had been able to make in this city and in Petersburg, led to the re mark* of last week; and now we have a voioe trom the oountry that enforoes our views with power. But we want more testimony on this question. It is ooe of vital importance to the poople of Virginia and the entire Sontb. For one. we would preserve our population as it is, as far as possible devoid of that element whioh makes society in the Northern States *o liable to popular oonvulsioos and mobs. To do this, we shall 1m obliged to retain oar black popula tion : and it is an interesting inquiry, whether the free blacks can be kept in our midst, with out these evils whioh now attend their pres. enee. Or, should it be politic to remove the free blacks ultimately, many years must elapse before it oan be done; and, in the mean time,if the liquor shops do exert the influence which we charge upon them, they ought to be extir pated. With the view of settling this question satisfactorily, we invite further communica tions from gentlemen throughout the State." It will here be perceived that two-thirds of the free colored people in a certain neighbor hood in Eastern Virginia, and most probably throughout the State, are sober, useful, and moral people. It will also be observed that those who are otherwise are led astray by whiskey shops, whioh no ooloted person can possibly keep! It will also be noted that even the best of these people, though highly worthy and useful, are so far proscribed that they are desired only in thoee seasons in whioh extra and temporary help is needed. And even the humane temperance editor we quote has no higher motive for desiring to retain them, than is furnished by the wish to keep white labor out of the State?" that element whioh makes soeiety in the Northern States so liable to pop ular oonvulsions and mobs!" Was over wrong so eruel, or tyranny so high handed and oppressive 1 . A people whose only orime consists in the fact that their anoestors were stolen from their homes and brought in captivity to our shores, are held in perpetual bondage; and no better argument oan be found for their oontinued enslavement than ex ists in the faot that they are of gentle nature, of forgiving spirit, and devoid of all dangerous propensities! It will perhaps be said by some, whose hu manity is of a strictly * constitutionalff char acter, that we ought not thus to interfere with the " peculiar institution " within a slave State > hut this objection will not probably be strenu ously urged at a moment when one of the most rsputahle of the Richmond newspaperris busily engsged in making quotations from the ad vertising columns of a New York Pro-Slavtry paper, to prove the immorality of the free States! ' COHG&EUB. The Deficiency bill to-day occupied the at tention of the Senate. In the House, Mr. Preston made a modest and qniet announcement of the fact that the difficulty between Messrs. Cutting and Breckin ridge had been satisfactorily settled; adding, with great propriety, an apology from these gentlemen to the House, for the violation of its rules, and of the courtesy that should ever be observed among its members. LOCAL. [jjp- Mr. Golden, who keeps a tavern near the Navy Yard, in this oity, was yesterday shot in the breast, by a man who had just been drinking at his bar; but the wound is not serious. The offender, whose name is Monroe, and was formerly an enlisted marine at the yard, was taken into oustody. The jury in the case of Schauta burg, tried on the charge of shooting, with intent to kill, Edward Fuller, retired to determine a verdiot yesterday afternoon, and have not yet roturned. A failure to agree, and still another trial, are anticipated. FREE WOHSHIP AND CHRISTIAN BURIAL. "What the Church of Rome demands for adherents in this oountry," says the New York Commercial Advertiser, "we may surely ask for American Protestants abroad ?the free worship of God by every man according to his oreed, and decent sepulture for the dead." We fully and heartily assent to this proposi tion, and we trust that the Government of the United States will be earnest and constant in its demands for a reciprocation of these privi leges. We would make it a sine qua non in our intercourse with every nation, making no treaties or agreements with those who would withhold it. The advantages of trade and commerce with every nation we by no means despise;, and yet we would scorn to receive them at the sacrifice of justice and self-respeot. Mod with unassuming wives never fail. It is the husbands of such women as Mrs. Dash and Lady Brilliant who find themselves faoe to lace with the sheriff, and certain mysterious documents adorned with red tape and wafers big enough for target exercise.?Exch. paper. Bah! There are very few wives whose whole expenses amount to as muoh as their husbands expend upon the tobacoo they expectorate or burn to ashes, and the liquors with which they illuminate their noses. Where there is one Mrs. Dash or Lady Brilliant, there are a thou sand " good fellows,? whose wives do not even suspect the vulgar extravagance of which they are guilty, and which but too often entail dis tress upon their wives and children. Appreciation of Litxrarv Men.?The De bating Society problem, respecting the compar ative appreciation of literature in monarchies and republics, may be practically resolved be fore the present Administration shall have come to an end. The Vermont Watchman, for in stance, sajs that suoh of the editors of that State aa favor or close their eyes to the Ne braska scheme are well remembered, and their editors patronised aa follows: Burlington Sentinel? Office in the customs. Swanton Herald? Advertisements from* the Postmaster General. . Vermont Patriot?Montpelier post office. Woodstock Age?Woodstock poet office. Bellows Falls Argus ? Bellows Falls poet office. Death ok Talfouri>?The sudden death, by apoplexy, while charging the grand jury at Stafford, of Thomas Noon Talfourd, Justice, is reported in the latest English paper*, which ?upply cordial biographical notioes of the de ceased. Mr. Talfourd was widely known by his literary labors, and touch esteemod in pri ?ate life. He was in early life a reporter for i the daily press, having previously been ad mitted to the bar. His first tragedy, Ion, wrh brought out in 1836 He became also an in tiuential member of the liberal party, in the j House of Commons. He was 59 years old ? Travellers from the E*st, West, North, and South, who oome to this oity, all bring with J them one report in relation to the Adraini* tration?which is, that "it is dead / n What an awful sound is that word " dead *' And how it must humble the pride Of the Eceeutivo j to know that such is the popular verdiot every where against his Administration, in thii the first year of its advent.?N. Y. Nat. Democrat The Democrat attribute* this state of thing* to the President's coalition with the Free-Soil ers. Hie coalition with the Nebraska schemer* has perhaps had something to do with it! 1" ire at Cleveland.?Trinity Church wan burnt yesterday morning, together with a largo boarding house adjoining. The lots is said to be very heavy. Atlantic and Pacific Telewraph. The Legislature of Maine, yesterday parsed a bill incorporating the Atlantic and P*oific Tele graph Company. Hiram V. Alden, James Ed dy, and others, were the applioants. The char ter gives the oompany the power to proceed at once to the construction of the proposed sub terranean line to the Paciflo. Firks near Boston.?The steam planing mill of Messrs. Collins, at Milford, was destroyed by fire on Wednesday night. Appleton Ames, a fireman, was killed. The rope-walk of Jape* Acker man, at Cambridge, was burnt on the same night, with the dwelling adjoining. The losses are said to be heavy. * J. Haywood, a distinguished ohemist, at Shef field, kngland, lost his life reoently by break ing a demijohn of sulphuric acid, and inhaling its vapor. Each hair oomposing the human head is fur nished with a distinct gland, elaborately and beautifully oomplete. Underneath are innu merable nerves, immediately connected with the varioaa organs of the senses, ramifying in every direotion; and performing important functions This hair, when in full growth forms a natural protection to the nerves, and also hold, as it were, in suspension, a quantity of warm air, through whioh the cold air in breathing passes, and then beoomes rarefied and attempered, and fit to oome in contact with the lungs. Jonathan Harrington died at Lexington, Ma*, on Sonday last, aged 95 years. Mr. H. was the last survivor (if that gallant band of patrints?who opposed the progress of the Brit ish troops on the plains of Lexington, on the memorable loth of April, 1775. From the Philadelphia Daily Kogi*t?r. SELF-GOVERNKENT. It is amusing to see the pains taken by some Administration papers to impress the public mind with the idea that the Nebraska bill pro vide* for aelf-sovernioent bj the people in the Territories. It in still more amusing to t-oe the pains they take to avoid stating the true char acter of the bill. They present one-sided views of it, as ? portrait painter does of a squinting subject. No Northern Democratic paper, so far as we have seen, has dared to publish it as it left the Senate. " Every settler," thov say, " who is to be gov erned by the laws, should vote for the lawmakers.'7 If so, why exclude all settlers of foreign birth? Are they not to be governed by the laws like the others? " The "lawmakers so elected should have the power to pass lam finally " If so, how can you support the bill which makes the lawn inop erative unless sanctioned by a Federal official. " The inhabitants should not only make the laws, but elect their ownjudges to expound them." But the Nebraska bill provides that the inhab itants shall not eleot their own judges, and compels them to submit to those Gen. Pierce may send them. " The inhabitants should elect their own Gov ernor, to execute the-laws they have made." The Nebraska bill provides that they shall not, and compels them to submit to any Governor Mr. Pieroe may sand out, armed with the veto power and numerous facilities for overbearing or preventing the free expression of the popu. lar will. The bill is opposed in every clause to the dootrino of self-government. THE 8EBF8 OF BUSSIA. Among the strange peculiarities of Russia, which render her sui generis among nation?, is the faot, that, while the peasantry in other European countries have been rising from a condition of servitude to one of freedom, In Russia they have sunk from independence into slavery. , Up to the year 1601, the rural laborers were in all essential points independent; but in that year, on the pretcnoe that they wandered too much about, a ukase was published, prohibit ing them from going out of their particular district. In Eoglana, it will be reoolleoted, a somewhat analogoua law existed under the poor act, by Whioh laborer?, seeking work abroad, were liable to be returned to their na tive parish as vagrants. The establishment of this regulation in Russia gradually led to the peasants being considered serfs of the soil. No direct ukase was ever issued enslaving tbem, nor any indirect one, except that in 1601 ; but by the time of Peter the Great, a century later, they had become practically serfs. This unking of nearly five millions of peo ple into slavery is a significant faot. It shows that "revolutions do sometimes go baokward," in spite of the current assertion to the contrary. It is sheer absurdity for Rust-ia, with her fifty millions of slaves, to talk of it being bcr destiny to regenerate Europe. Bad as Europe may be, Russia is ten times worse. Whether we re gard her in the religious aspect, in the politi cal, or the social, the sinks immeasurably be low the standard of England. Germany, and France, or even Spain. For the Ccar claims to be the spiritual as well as the civil bead of the ohurcb, and allows no dissent, soNthat in point of religious freedom his empire-is below anything in Europe, except the Papal domin ions ; while both politically, as an autocratio Government, and socially, as a nation of slaves, Russia allows less to human rights than even centralis?d Franoe or tyrannical Austria. Wo to mankind, if ever she obtains the ascendant! But, nevertheless^ she may be the blind in strument in emancipating Europe. The pres ent war itself may lead to that result. Cer tainly, if hostilities become general, and are protracted beyond a single campaign, there will be such a fermentation over the whole continent as has not been witnessed for half a century. No man, in that event, oan tell where it will end. But though Russia may thus be come the instrument of redeeming Europe, it will npt be willingly, but against her will?not in consequence of, but in sprite of her institu tions.?Philad. Ev. Bulletin. South m. North.?The Louisiana State Superintendent of Schools has recently visited all the districts of the State, and has published a long report on the state of education. He says that, in several parts of the State, the local directors, or school committers, were found to be totally incapable of performing the duty assigned them. l'for the very potent rea son that they, themselves, do not know how, to read or write." A large proportion of the teachers' warrants oontained the marks, in stead of the signatures, of the school commit tees. Mors than two thirds of the members of the school oommittrcs in several districts could not sign their names. The above is one aspect of the fu'iiro which Douglas proposes for Kansas and Nebraska. He wishes to open those magnifioent territories up to Slavery; and Slavery, we all know, sig nifies the sooial and moral depression of man. as a laborer; neglect of the arts and s ienoes; the absence of industrial snterpris#; tli?> utter prostration of education, and the seculariza tion of religion. . Let the freemen of the North remember that Nebraska, at this moment, is Freedom's. It is now devoted to a future, in whioh learning will flourish, and liberty tmile?in whioh free schools and a free gospel will be sustained, by the intelligence and pietv of freemen Worcester (Mass ) Spy ITEMS. I Died at Quebec, March 13, Margaret Glee son Burke, aged 110 years. There are 700 miles of sidewalk in N. York city. A whole township in Germany, that of Eo zelhoum. it is said, is preparing to leave togeth or for America. i * C. J. Daniel, of Bath, England, has te.iured a patent for drying hay and grinding it into meal for feeding oattle. The export of tea from Shanghai is about three and a half millions lees than at the same time last year. One may travel from Philadelphia to Cin cinnati in twenty-seven hours. Spain has eleven hundred guns in the imme diate vicinity of Havana, and eighteen thou sand men. An extensive and valuable ooprer mine ban been discovered in the vioinity of We?t Fair lee, Vermont A series of lectures on Phreno-Mesnierism were being delivered, at the latest acoounts, in Singapore, to the great wtwdor of the inhaliit ants. A Western paper, speaking ef a man who died in the most abject poverty and neglect, s lid that * he died without the aid of a physi cian.'' The population of San Franoisco is estima ted now at 50,000. The mere apprehensiorvnf war has oost Eng land, already, it is said, -t25,000,000, at least John Wood was burned to death noar Mer cer, Pa., on Tuesday. Rom! To dflipond ?t difficulty, discovers want of stability; to despair at danger, want of oourage. An effort is making among ths influential citizens of Brooklyn to build a nnitersity in that city.